This statistic displays the distribution of electricity generation among OECD regions in 2015. With Statista, you get straight to the point: analyzing data, rather than searching for it.
Are you excited at the prospect that Coal’s Second Coming, largely driven by China over the past 20 years, has now come to a halt? That 19th century coal could make such a large comeback in the 21st century raises important questions about fossil fuel scarcity, and the economics of natural resource extraction.
First, technology has a habit of solving the problem of declining profitability in energy production. But if the world is indeed successful at cutting off oil’s normal growth path, will the world simply rediscover oil a decade or two from now, at cheaper prices, with its very handy, energy-dense versatility? US electricity generation has been slightly oscillating around a flatline, near 4000 TWh per year, for the last decade.
2016 will of course see substantial growth (once again) in new wind and solar in the United States.
I was very pleased to have an opportunity to share my current market views on the Transition Show Podcast, this past week. A natural gas adoption cycle is underway in the United States, as the country increasingly sources and consumes its own very cheap production. There is little doubt the continuing downward pressure on North American NG prices are due to the rate of production growth. It’s becoming exceedingly difficult, given the supply response already underway in North American oil production to low prices, to envision how the same supply response will not also get underway in NG production. I saw this for myself in Los Angeles, in the research I conducted for my case study of that city, published last year in Talking Points Memo. To understand coal’s unusual position in the global energy system today it is necessary to hold two seemingly incompatible views in the mind, at the same time. Which leads us to the second, difficult-to-accept notion: global coal growth on a net basis has now mostly halted.
Let’s briefly review the past decade, in which 19th Century coal rose once again to compete for the title of master commodity, against oil. One might reasonably conclude the global coal industry was in decent shape, based on the above chart.
The crucial question to ask: how far away precisely is the time when marginal additions to global power generation from renewables, combined with efficiency gains, will become so overwhelming that we actually start to eat away at existing coal capacity?
Remaking the Map of US Energy Production – Part II of a V Part Series, Gregor Macdonald, Talking Points Memo, April 2015. Since the late 1990’s, Andrew Revkin of the New York Times has been helming a column (now a blog, really), called Dot.Earth.
What is significant now, however, is that the world’s five most populous nations (previously mentioned) which represent nearly 50% of total global population, have a weighted average fertility rate that has fallen below 2.0.
Interestingly, however, some still make the case that high fertility rates in Africa—especially in countries like Nigeria —pose a continuing risk that global population will begin a new rate of advance. Accordingly, it is the position of TerraJoule.us, that the trajectory of global population growth to the year 2050 indicates a peak that never quite reaches 9 billion.
Petroleum & Other LiquidsCrude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural GasExploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. ElectricitySales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, demand & emissions.
Consumption & EfficiencyEnergy use in homes, commercial buildings, manufacturing, and transportation.
CoalReserves, production, prices, employ- ment and productivity, distribution, stocks, imports and exports.
Renewable &Alternative FuelsIncludes hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol.
Total EnergyComprehensive data summaries, comparisons, analysis, and projections integrated across all energy sources. Analysis & ProjectionsMonthly and yearly energy forecasts, analysis of energy topics, financial analysis, Congressional reports. Markets & FinanceFinancial market analysis and financial data for major energy companies. InternationalInternational energy information, including overviews, rankings, data, and analyses. I note that the analysis of energy in Israel in this site is not covered in details as other countries?
You are correct, not all countries, including in this case Israel, have detailed analysis briefs. Our maps and graphs are available for download, and are also easily embeddable for use on external websites, blogs, and newsletters. Dear Sirs, I have been using your data for almost 20 yrs, in particular the international Petroleum data. I am looking for bbl and bcf , not Btu , can you tell me where to look for country's oil bbl and gas in bcf? Where can I find the original spreadsheets with the country data for Crude + Condensate and the one for all liquids.
If you are looking to PDF other sections of the site (the country overview page, for example), you can use any number of free, open source packages to create a PDF. Feedback submissions that use profanity, offensive language, or fail to address the product undergoing beta testing will not be posted. Personally identifiable information, such as full names or email addresses, will be redacted from the published feedback.
Australia, rich in hydrocarbons and uranium, was the world's second-largest coal exporter in 2012 and the third-largest liquefied natural gas (LNG) exporter in 2013.
Except for crude oil and other liquids, Australia retains a surplus of all other energy commodities. Australia's stable political environment, relatively transparent regulatory structure, substantial hydrocarbon reserves, and proximity to Asian markets make it an attractive place for foreign investment. Both of these paths involve developing more energy infrastructure, attracting greater investment, creating efficient energy markets and pricing mechanisms for consumers, and delivering cleaner and more sustainable energy. Australia has experienced limited energy demand growth because of lower levels of energy intensity compared to a few decades ago. Australia implemented a fixed-price tax on carbon dioxide emissions to be paid by the top emitting companies in July 2012 as part of the country's goal to reduce emissions by 5% in 2020 from 2000 levels. Australia's dependence on oil imports has increased to fill the growing gap between domestic consumption and production. According to the Oil & Gas Journal (OGJ), Australia held more than 1.4 billion barrels of proved oil reserves as of January 1, 2014.
Although Australia is not producing oil shale (defined as sedimentary rock containing solid organic content, such as kerogen, and not equivalent to shale oil or tight oil) on a commercial basis, the country has resources of about 14 billion barrels of demonstrated or potential reserves (not economic or proved reserves), mostly located in Queensland, according to BREE. Australia's management of oil exploration and production is divided between the states and the federal (Commonwealth) governments. International oil companies dominate the oil and natural gas exploration and development of Australia. In attempts to secure investment from international oil companies to develop many offshore blocks, Australia typically holds regular licensing rounds to release acreage for exploration each year. Australia's overall oil production has declined since 2000, although additions through condensate production and smaller crude oil developments are expected to offset declines in mature fields over the next few years.
Australia's main frontier for oil exploration has moved in recent years to the deepwater area of the Timor Sea, although the nearby Carnarvon Basin and the Bonaparte Basin off the coast of Western Australia remain the busiest areas in terms of overall drilling activity.
A number of small offshore fields containing light and heavy sweet crude oil are under development and scheduled to come online by 2015. The Northwest Shelf Project (NWS), one of the world's largest liquefied natural gas projects, is a significant source of Australia's light oil, LPG, and condensate production.
Australia's consumption of petroleum and other liquids has exceeded domestic production for several decades.
Diesel fuel holds the largest market share of refined oil product consumption (41%), according to FGE, and is used mostly for transportation and industrial purposes. Australia has a well-developed domestic oil pipeline network, which is privately owned and operated. Australia is a net importer of both crude oil and oil products because its consumption of both energy sources exceeds overall production. Because the majority of Australia's oil production is located off its Northwest coast away from its refineries in the East, Australia exports the bulk of its crude oil and condensates to other Asian refineries or to countries using direct crude burning in electric power plants such as Japan. Australia's refining margins have tightened, and the major refiners are taking financial losses as a result of increasing refinery competition within Asia, Australia's escalating labor and operating costs, stricter environmental standards on fuels, and higher prices of imported crude oil.
Australian natural gas production has increased sharply over the past decade as a result of new projects. Australia produces enough natural gas to cover its consumption and to be considered a leading gas exporter. CBM proved and probable resources, primarily located in the northeastern Queensland Province in the Bowen Basin and the Surat Basin, have doubled in the past three years to 33 Tcf in 2012. In addition to CBM resources, Australia had an estimated 437 Tcf of technically recoverable shale gas reserves in 2012, according to an EIA study.
The natural gas industry is regulated by the Department of Resources, Energy, and Tourism (RET) and the Ministerial Council of Energy (MCE). Major domestic and foreign companies operating in Australia include Santos, Woodside, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil, Origin Energy, BG Group plc, Apache Corporation, INPEX Corporation, Total, Shell, and Statoil. Many of Australia's new gas field developments are tied to liquefaction projects that have several export contracts in place. The North West Shelf of Australia in the Carnarvon Basin holds some of the country's most mature and prolific fields that are the prime sources for the North West Shelf LNG terminal. The Greater Gorgon fields, located approximately 100 miles off the northwest coast of Australia in the North Carnarvon Basin near Barrow Island, are collectively the country's largest known gas resource, and the Gorgon Project could encompass total reserves of 40 Tcf. Another major project under development neighboring the Gorgon Project is the Wheatstone Project that began construction in late 2011.
The Browse Basin Development Program is another key area of gas discoveries in offshore northern Australia. The Bonaparte Basin in the Timor Sea straddles the waters of Australia and East Timor and holds some undeveloped gas resources.
Australia has sizeable, untapped natural gas resources in the form of coalbed methane (CBM), known as coal seam gas in Australia, and shale gas. Many CBM projects are still being explored, and production is not targeted for another few years. Even though Australia has experienced a steady rise in domestic natural gas consumption over the past decade, the market for domestic consumption of natural gas in Australia is somewhat limited. At the end of 2015, the United States had 71 waste-to-energy (WTE) plants that generated electricity in 20 U.S. As noted above, in 2015, Florida and four states in the Northeast accounted for 61% of the total WTE power plant capacity in the United States, and they produced 64% of total U.S.
WTE plants are primarily intended as a MSW management option, with electricity generation a secondary benefit.
The International District Energy Association (IDEA) is a nonprofit association founded in 1909.
This entry was posted in Industry News and tagged EIA, Energy Information Administration, Environmental Protection Agency, EPA, landfill, power, Waste to Energy, WtE. Recent Comments????? ????? on Award Winning CHP System Serves Texas Medical CenterSteven C. During this year, nuclear energy accounted for 18.3 percent of electricity generation in these regions. Two phenomenon that should be in the forefront of our thinking, in this regard, are worth citing. Energy transition is of course the primary focus of my publication, TerraJoule.us, and it appears that changes in how the world economy uses energy has finally caught up to oil.
That natural gas (NG) prices have remained weak in the face of so much supply is no surprise.
Too many users, from the US to Mexico to Asia have started to catch on to the value proposition of exceedingly cheap North American NG. Essentially, over the past decade, a long period of fossil fuel based economic growth has increasingly converted to fossil fuel demand stagnation.
It just so happens I know Los Angeles quite well, having lived there when the advent of LA Metro’s subway lines was just an idea, and a point of contention. This concept may also sound confusing until you are introduced to the facts: oil has lost market share to all other energy sources for 15 straight years, and will do so again this year.
For wonks who carefully inspect the future power capacity addition plans of Japan, Europe, and the US, the near future is pretty clear as well. However, in 2016 postings will appear again several times per month as addressable issues arise in our ongoing energy transition. The first is that coal is now fully resurrected as the equal of crude oil, in the energy content it provides to the industrial economy. No longer advancing, but as important, not declining much either, the world is now stuck with a newly embedded coal dependency. In the chart below, we record the production of coal and the production of crude oil using an energy content unit known as Mtoe (million tonnes oil equivalent). But alas, the great leap forward and now the sudden stop have been devastating for the industry.


Not for those concerned with climate; not for those involved in coal production, or coal combustion.
New production, like new capacity, is at the ready to counter production and capacity declines elsewhere. In this framing, the news is slightly better than one might have expected just 24-36 months ago.
The signals in global coal production from Australia and Indonesia are crystal clear as well, as are the bankruptcies and liquidations. We also know that GDP transforms over time, moving from capital intensive manufacturing to intellectual and digital goods.
If this is the case, the slow growth documented by TerraJoule.us will become entrenched for decades to come. Exactly what I needed to bring me up to speed for my research on Michigan and on the Midwest - thanks!
We are constantly adding new data series' to our database, data for current years will be added as it is available. To do this, select the country, or countries, and fuel source(s) you would like to see data for and click the download button. I am writing a book chapter and referenced your site, where I found terrific info on India and Japan several months ago.
Before the layout, I was able to find annual #s of net exports of petro for each country, and now I have no idea where it is. It is one of the few countries belonging to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) that is a significant net energy exporter, sending nearly 70% of its total energy production (excluding energy imports) overseas, according to data from Australia's Bureau of Resource and Energy Economics (BREE). Australia was the world's second-largest coal exporter based on weight in 2012 and the third-largest exporter of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in 2013. The previous Australian government published an Energy White Paper in 2012 that outlines an energy policy that attempts to balance securing domestic energy at affordable prices with increasing exports to help supply Asia's growing demand for fuel. More recently, Australia's expanding energy industry has encountered escalating project costs and a shortage of labor.
Energy efficiency measures in many end-use sectors, technological advances, and a shift from heavy industries to a more service-sector oriented economy have resulted in a decrease in Australia's energy intensity. In 2012, petroleum and other liquids accounted for an estimated 36% of the country's total energy used. Severe flooding in the state of Queensland in 2010 and 2011 affected coal production in the country, and the government has promoted policies to reduce coal consumption, particularly in the power sector, in favor of cleaner fuels. This tax was expected to lead to an increase in natural gas and renewable energy use, particularly in the electricity sector, and replace coal-fired power.
The majority of these reserves face technical and environmental challenges for commercial production.
Australia's states manage the applications for onshore exploration and production projects, while the Commonwealth shares jurisdiction over Australia's offshore projects with the adjacent state or territory. The offshore waters of Western Australia made up 69% of the total oil, condensate, and NGL production in 2012, according to APPEA. However, some of these fields are expected to have short lives of less than 10 years, signaling the need for greater offshore oil field development.
Production of condensate is expected to boost Australia's overall petroleum liquids production in the next few years.
Output at some of the fields is declining, and Woodside, the operator, is attempting to prolong the production life of the Northwest Shelf oil fields beyond 2020 by developing the remaining 88.2 million barrels of proved and probable reserves. Jet fuel consumption has also increased in the past several years as a result of rising air travel for commercial and tourism purposes.
Epic Energy operates a 400-mile pipeline that carries crude and natural gas liquids from Moomba to Stony Point.
Australia's refineries are small and dated compared to the larger and more complex refineries being built within Asia.
Several recent discoveries and growing regional demand for gas have spurred more investment activity in the country's reserves. Geoscience Australia anticipates the resource distribution of natural gas will shift from the offshore traditional gas production to CBM or other sources in the next two decades as key CBM developers are aggressively exploring and drilling in several areas. These resources are dispersed throughout the country in the inland Cooper Basin, the eastern Maryborough Basin, the offshore southwestern Perth Basin, and the northwestern Canning Basin. The MCE was created in 2001 to foster policy coordination between the Commonwealth and the state governments. Chevron holds the largest amount of natural gas resources in Australia, and the company has made 21 discoveries in the Carnarvon Basin since mid-2009, adding 10 Tcf to proved gas resources. Several major new LNG projects are under construction or in advanced planning stages to support Asia's increasing appetite for natural gas. The project, led by Chevron (50%), with Shell and ExxonMobil (25% each), is under construction and is on track to be completed in 2015.
Woodside Energy owns 90% of the venture supported by 15-year sales contracts with Kansai Electric and Tokyo Gas, which hold 5% equity each.
The largest field in the basin, Ichthys, holds 12.8 Tcf of gas and 530 million barrels of condensate reserves.
ConocoPhillips is currently drilling fields at the Bayu Undan natural gas and condensate field.
Australian officials estimate that economically recoverable CBM reserves in 2012 were 33 Tcf, mostly contained in the Surat Basin and Bowen Basin in Queensland. Investors face challenges with project delays based on greater public resistance to potential environmental impacts. As noted above, EIA estimates in a recent report that Australia has 437 Tcf of technically recoverable reserves, ranking the country sixth highest in the world, behind Russia, the United States, China, Argentina, and Libya. However, the government is interested in reducing carbon dioxide emissions through the use of cleaner fuels such as natural gas and renewables. However, rising LNG exports have created various supply-side cost pressures especially in the eastern states.
We are committed to maintaining a lively but civil forum for discussion, so we ask you to avoid personal attacks, and please keep your comments relevant and respectful. Energy Information Administration (EIA), in 2015 Florida and four states in the Northeast accounted for 61% of the total waste-to-energy (WTE) power plant capacity in the United States, and they produced 64% of total U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the United States produced about 254 million tons of MSW in 2013.
Membership includes district energy and CHP system managers, engineers, consultants and equipment suppliers from 25 countries.
There was a large increase in renewable generation and a small decrease in combustible fuel generation. Coal retirements in the United States have been aggressive, and China is increasingly meeting marginal growth for electricity through solar, wind, and hydropower. Moreover, there is every reason to be positive about the future electrification of transport, and even the willingness of countries like China and India to head off future oil-based transport growth, directing demand into trains, and electric vehicles.
Now that prices of all energy sources have travelled backwards to multi-decade lows, the global economy should derive some stimulus from these dramatic changes.
Rather, it’s the expansionary integration of natural gas into the US economy, and in particular the advent of LNG exports, that continues to amaze with an absence of any effect on price.
Some producing regions like the Marcellus have actually managed to grow production by an order of magnitude: output is up ten-fold, since 2009. And US demand, driven by cheap supply and fresh deployment of NG-fired power generation, is on track to have now advanced 14% over 2010 levels. The unusual equilibrium in supply and demand is precisely the kind of stability that will inevitably generate instability. No city more perfectly illustrates the dependency on oil-based transport that came to infect the West over the 20th century. Meanwhile, coal growth too has essentially gone quiet in the global powergrid as wind and solar storm into the gap, dominating marginal additions to new power supply. Now that oil-based growth has halted in the OECD, and given that renewables now dominate marginal additions, you really have to ask yourself: how will the trend of declining OECD emissions be reversed?
That this happened so quickly, and that it it was doubted so consistently, is itself astonishing. Per the latest data (and yes, the revisions you may have heard so much about) the global production of oil and coal have equalled each other several times in the past several years, each dancing around 3900 Mtoe. Much of the capacity in Asia, especially China, is quite young and will be steadily augmented, rather than supplanted, by deployment of wind and solar power. With the global coal complex now halted earlier, the prospect for outright declines has come into sharper focus in the period between 2020 and 2025.
This is why energy consumption can both instruct, but also mislead, when hunting for clues in the economy. For sure, global population will continue to grow form its present 7.4 billion in absolute terms. Whether or not the data you, or others, may choose shows slightly different rates for these top five countries, the fact remains that the trends in the two most populous countries—China and India—are clear. Africa’s population stands at 1.1 billion, and is characterized by very high fertility rates.
However, data is available with only 1 decimal place this year (through the beta interface) and comparing countries became a challenge because there are too many countries with the same values now.
It appears that if I am going to load the data into my spreadsheets, I will have to do one line at a time, each country individualy. Really appreciate you guys going the extra mile with your data tools, this makes my research so much more effective. Unfortunately it seems from the beta site, that I can only access the annual data and only download as a CSV file.
Energy exports accounted for 24% of Australia's total export revenues in 2012, according to BREE.
These factors, coupled with a bigger push for clean energy and stricter environmental regulations in some states, are challenges that domestic and international companies face in developing Australia's energy resources. The share of oil consumption has risen in the past few years as it supports the country's commodity production growth, mining, and petrochemical industry as well as the transportation sector.
Renewable sources, including hydroelectricity, wind, solar, and biomass accounted for more than 6% of total consumption.
In 2012, BREE projected that the shares of natural gas and renewables for primary energy consumption will increase to 34% and 14%, respectively, by 2050.
Most Australian crude oil is a light, sweet grade, typically low in sulfur and wax, and therefore higher in value than the heavier crudes.
In 2008, Queensland's government issued a 20-year moratorium on oil shale mining at the McFarlane deposit and suspended other oil shale projects until the state reviews various technologies and environmentally safe methods of production. The Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism (RET) and the Ministerial Council on Energy (MCE) function as regulatory bodies over Australia's oil sector. Other international oil companies actively investing in Australia's upstream hydrocarbon developments include Shell, ExxonMobil, ConocoPhillips, Inpex (Japan), Total, BHP Billiton, and Apache Energy.
The 2014 release offered 33 offshore blocks, including a second release of three blocks from the 2013 round, spanning four basins mostly in Western Australia and the Northern Territory.
The share of crude in the total oil stream has declined over the past decade and has been gradually replaced by condensates and liquids associated with natural gas production. After a spike in drilling activity in the past decade, particularly in condensate fields, several significant discoveries are beginning production in these basins. Several onshore and offshore LNG projects, some of which have condensate reserves, will support the country's natural gas exports by 2017. Woodside installed the Okha floating production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) facility in 2011 as part of an oil redevelopment project to replace the Cossack Pioneer FPSO. The transportation sector is the country's largest oil consuming sector, consuming nearly 70% of the market share in 2013, according to Australia's BREE. Santos operates two major domestic pipelines that are used for carrying oil and oil products, which include the Jackson to Brisbane line that spans 500 miles, and the Mereenie to Alice Springs line that covers 167 miles. The country's northern and northwestern regions rely on oil product imports resulting from the lack of sufficient regional refining capacity, while the eastern side imports crude oil for its refineries and domestic markets. Crude oil feedstock for these refineries comes from domestic oil produced in the Bass Strait offshore of southeastern Australia and from the country's crude oil imports.
These unfavorable economics have pressured operators to close several facilities and convert some of them to oil product import terminals. Australia's natural gas reserves vary by industry source and the category of commercial viability. The MCE functions as the national policy and governance body for Australia's energy market, and the group consists of ministers with responsibility for energy from the Australian government and all states and territories. The recent stream of CBM for LNG projects in Australia has also attracted Asian companies such as Sinopec, China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), Tokyo Gas, and China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) that are interested in purchasing both LNG for markets in China and Japan as well as the upstream assets slated to supply these projects. The Western Australia offshore region produced the largest share of total natural gas (58%) in 2012.
The Pluto project includes an offshore platform connecting five subsea wells and a 112-mile pipeline to an onshore LNG facility on the Burrup Peninsula.
The Greater Sunrise field is a new development that has estimated resources of more than 5 Tcf of gas and 230 million barrels of condensates.
Commercial production from CBM began in 1996 and totaled 246 Bcf in 2012, accounting for almost 13% of total natural gas production, according to BREE. Australia is attempting to balance its dual interests of increasing investment and exploitation of these resources as well as developing them in a sustainable and environmentally safe way. Most of the exploration activity has focused on the Cooper Basin in the interior of the country where the majority of the country's onshore traditional gas reserves are located. Australia consumed less than 1.3 Tcf of natural gas in 2013, steadily rising about 37% over the past decade.


As natural gas contracts expire, suppliers are raising prices to reflect the netback of global LNG markets. If you encounter a comment that is abusive, click the "X" in the upper right corner of the comment box to report spam or abuse. The remainder is ash from air pollutant emissions control systems, ash from the combusted material, and noncombustible materials. EIA estimates that WTE plants burned about 29 million tons of MSW in 2015, of which 26 million tons were used to generate electricity. But as of last year, those two energy sources alone provided 230 TWh, or 5.6%, out of a total 4100 TWh generated. At the current pace of growth, the twin renewable energy sources are starting to add a full percentage point per year. And in select cities, we’ve also seen the rollout of bikes, electric vehicles, and new behavior around cars. Yet, equally, Los Angeles also mirrors the new condition now guiding fossil-fuel based emissions in the OECD, because in effect the growth of LA’s auto complex has essentially been halted.
In domains like the US, however, the utter collapse of coal-fired generation is even more severe–and still underway. But just as with the Emily Dickinson poem, from which this post robs its title, the effects of coal’s return are indeed those of a sudden collision. Combined wind and solar deployment globally and cheap natural gas likely ensure the lump will not grow. At least as amazing, however, is that coal production nearly doubled from the start of the new millenium. Having now rapidly converted to zero growth, there’s absolutely no pricing pressure whatsoever. Indeed, it is now possible to be wildly bullish on the global growth of wind and solar power (and you should be) while still having to face up to the intractable problem of existing coal capacity. That said, global oil consumption in 2014 according to IEA Paris rose just 710 thousand barrels per day, or about 0.77%. And, the associated problems that will come with that expansion—everything from carbon output to the decline of available arable land and water—will worsen before a gentle improvement (in absolute terms) takes hold. You guys have been an utter joy to work with (not a typical experience for government bureaucracy), and this new beta is the icing on the cake. The country holds the world's largest recoverable reserves of uranium (about 32%, based on 2012 data) and is the third-largest producer and exporter of uranium for nuclear-powered electricity, according to the World Nuclear Association. Although the country is rich in uranium, Australia has no nuclear-powered electricity generation capacity and exports all of its uranium production. However, the current government, which was elected in mid-2013, repealed the carbon tax legislation in July 2014 to remove the financial burden on industries required to pay for releasing emissions.
The majority of reserves are located off the coasts of the states of Western Australia, Victoria, and the Northern Territory. Queensland lifted bans on all production projects outside of the McFarlane deposit, but the state still reviews each project, applying strict environmental standards. As a result of the 2009 Montara field oil spill, Australia created a new offshore regulator to consolidate oversight for activity in this area in 2011.
There are Australian companies, the largest being Woodside Petroleum and Santos that focus on upstream oil and gas developments. Western Australia held a separate licensing round in 2014 for five onshore blocks including those in the Canning Basin and in the Perth Basin, and the state of Queensland called for cash tenders for another six onshore areas. The Gippsland Basin in the southern Victoria state still remains a significant source of oil production, comprising 18% of oil production in 2012, although production has declined since the 1980s. Other key consumers are the manufacturing sector, the mining sector, the residential sector, and the agriculture sector. Singapore supplies about 47% of Australia's oil product imports, with the most of the remainder coming from refiners in Japan and South Korea.
According to OGJ, Australia's proved natural gas reserves were more than 43 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) as of January 2014. The Carnarvon Basin supplied almost a third of the domestic natural gas market and the vast majority of the export market, according to APPEA. One of the project's key features is injecting the fields' carbon dioxide (CO2) into deep formations beneath Barrow Island to reduce overall greenhouse gas emissions. NSW, Queensland, and the federal government have increased environmental regulations, particularly those related to water use and disposal and land rights in CBM and shale gas projects. The basin has attracted many international oil companies with the financing and technical capacities to develop the shale reserves as well as many mid sized companies.
Rising gas prices could place downward pressure on consumption growth, especially from the power and manufacturing sectors, as some companies seek alternative fuel sources or cost reductions. About 90% of WTE electricity generation capacity was added between 1980 and 1995, when landfilling MSW was relatively expensive. The trickier analytical problem this presents, however, is the lingering idea that coal consumption should have peaked already. Led by China, global coal consumption made such a large, new advance that as of 2014, it was challenging coal once again, for top energy source in the world’s energy mix. Indeed, TerraJoule.us is projecting that combined wind and solar will provide at least 11% of total US electricity by the year 2020.
Given the share gains in natural gas, now pushing towards a 29% share, it’s reasonable to foresee a time when NG, not oil, becomes the primary energy source of the US economy. Today, US oil consumption remains below levels seen in the year 2000 (in fact it’s barely above 1995 levels). However,  the new set of coal capacity additions slated for India, and sprinkled across the rest of the Non-OECD, equally ensure that even great coal-retirement waves, seen currently in the United States, will largely be negated. And none of the coming coal-fired capacity additions, or even the prospect of stabilization in the market, will lend much help to producers–many of which will be bankrupt by the time any (small) relief appears. Indeed, a core thesis of The Gates Foundation is that upgrading health and access to electricity is the trigger for high fertility rates to decline.
Thanks for the hard work you have put in to make this information clear and understandable! Australia is a net importer of crude oil and refined petroleum products, although the country exports some petroleum liquids.
This policy reversal is likely to allow coal to continue to hold a significant share of the energy consumption mix, particularly in the power sector. Onshore basins, mostly found in the Cooper Basin, account for only 5% of the oil resources. Australia also holds shale oil or tight oil reserves, estimated to be around 18 billion barrels of technically recoverable reserves, located in various areas of Australia, according to a 2013 U.S. This new body, the National Offshore Petroleum Safety and Environmental Management Authority (NOPSEMA) oversees safety and the environmental performance of all offshore petroleum facilities. Other smaller domestic players in both the upstream and downstream markets include Origin Energy and Beach Energy. The 2013 offshore petroleum exploration acreage release included 31 blocks covering 6 basins, mostly in the offshore of Western Australia, the Northern Territory, and Victoria. According to the Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association (APPEA), liquid fuels production will continue to decline over the long term unless more fields are discovered and Australia is able to tap into more deepwater plays. Other fields such as Gorgon, Wheatstone, and Ichthys are expected to augment condensate production by 2018.
In the past few years, the country's focus on developing its vast hydrocarbon reserves and exporting energy commodities has boosted petroleum consumption required to operate remote mines and extract resources.
Most crude oil imports are from Malaysia, United Arab Emirates, and Indonesia, which altogether produced about 48% of the total imports in 2013. As refining capacity diminishes in Australia, this share will also decline as petroleum product imports increase. Geoscience Australia estimated total proved plus probable commercial reserves at 132 Tcf (99 Tcf of traditional natural gas and 33 Tcf of coal bed methane-CBM) as of 2012. A 552-mile undersea pipeline will connect the fields to a new export LNG terminal to be built near Darwin.
Queensland established more austere water safety and management policies for CBM producers. Santos drilled the first successful commercial shale gas flow at its Moomba field in the Cooper basin at the end of 2012. Since 2009, the gap between supply and domestic demand began widening as LNG sales expanded. WTE power plants convert the combustible content of municipal solid waste (MSW) to energy.
In the early 1990s, as the mercury and dioxin emissions implications associated with combusting MSW began to be recognized, most existing facilities had to install air pollution control systems or be shut down, and the construction of new MSW-fired electric generation capacity came to a halt. In Japan and Europe, the classic cycle of economic growth begetting more oil consumption terminated even further back in time. But you won’t get very far before realizing that across Asia, and in India, capacity expansions are coming. Will the coming age of ample seaborne LNG, from Australia and the US, mean that future coal retirements in the Non-OECD will be supplanted by natural gas, combined wind+solar, or both? As the foundation correctly points out, it is a myth that saving lives leads to overpopulation. The reversal also may temper the expected pace of growth in renewable energy use as these sources are more expensive to develop than coal.
Western Australia (including the Bonaparte Basin straddling Western Australia and Northern Territory) has 72% of the country's proven crude oil reserves, as well as 92% of its condensate and 79% of its LPG reserves.
Energy Information Administration (EIA) study (Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources) on world shale oil and natural gas resources.
Production from new, smaller offshore fields has not been able to offset declines from mature basins in the past several years. Another 20% of crude oil imports comes from West Africa, as Nigeria, Congo, and Gabon have increasingly supplied crude oil to Australia in recent years. Most of the traditional gas resources (about 92%) are located in the North West Shelf (NWS) offshore in the Carnarvon, Browse, and Bonaparte basins. Queensland and New South Wales (NSW), Australia's main sources for coal bed methane, made up roughly 15% of natural gas production.
In 2012, NSW replaced the moratorium it imposed in 2011 on hydraulic fracturing with a Strategic Regional Land Use Policy that restricts CBM production near residential areas and small industries. In 2013, the South Australian regional government created regulatory guidelines of field development in order to provide transparency and recommendations for the industry to tap into the shale gas reserves. Australia's industries are the major consumers of natural gas, with a 32% market share in 2012, according to government data. MSW contains biomass (or biogenic) materials like paper, cardboard, food waste, grass clippings, leaves, wood, and leather products, as well as nonbiogenic materials such as plastics, metals, and petroleum-based synthetic materials. But as you fly into London or Paris, you will still see strong evidence of the terrible dependency on oil the West has never fully shaken off, as the great motorway circulars pulse with vehicle lights. India offers a uniquely grim equation for further carbon output from coal, and, the dire fortunes of coal exporters, because India’s current production upswing will not only increase domestic coal combustion, but will lower the call on the global seaborne market. If today’s changing energy mix in the US is a model, then combined wind+solar, working in tandem with natural gas, is the force that will begin to replace existing Non-OECD coal. Closer inspection reveals that US oil demand has never recovered—but has stabilized at lower levels—since the high consumption years of last decade. The two largest oil-producing basins are the Carnarvon Basin in northwestern Australia and the Gippsland Basin in southeastern Australia.
However, production additions from upcoming condensate and other smaller projects are expected to stem overall production declines over the next few years.
South Australia, which houses part of the Cooper Basin, was the first province to publish extensive guidelines for gas development. A new energy source, coming up from very low consumption levels, started to appear on the scene: oil. And as electricity, technology, mobile communications, and health care are more broadly distributed in Africa, the final remaining set of high fertility rates will fall. Carnarvon Basin production, accounting for 61% of total liquids production in 2013, is mostly exported, and Gippsland Basin oil production, representing a 19% share in 2013, is predominantly refined for domestic use.
Overall, these refinery closures represent about half of the capacity in operation a decade ago, and these closures will likely lead to increases in the country's petroleum product imports, particularly for diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel.
The partners developing Crux received a five-year retention lease in 2013 and continue to discuss gas processing options, such as constructing a designated stand-alone floating LNG terminal or supplying gas to other projects such as Shell's planned Prelude LNG floating terminal.
The guidelines intend to encourage investment and development of these projects while outlining environmentally safe extraction practices. It’s the position of TerraJoule.us that the best framework to understand this achievement is through the lens of energy transition. The US is using 1) less total energy, and 2) shifting to the powergrid, as part of a large and new pursuit of natural gas and wind and solar. And there’s at least some evidence that the US is being paid dividends for this transition.
While the US will once again not come anywhere close to achieving the FED’s inflation target of 2%, job gains run at a steady pace, and there’s some early indication the labor market is starting to tighten.



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