To demonstrate that a current is induced in a coil of wire when a magnet moves relative to the coil.
The graph may be small and it may be necessary to Zoom in, to see it.If required the trace can be smoothed to assist in easy analysis.
If constructing your own coil use a large number of turns and make sure the central hole is large enough for a magnet to easily pass through.
It wouldn’t be pretty, it could happen, and you can bet your bottom dollar a few rogue nations are working on it even as we speak.
For those interested in understanding the threat represented by electromagnetic pulse (EMP) weapons, William Forstchen’s book is an excellent read. One day, we came across a notice that there would be a community hearing on HAARP in the basement meeting room of the Ravalli County Courthouse. The people’s main concern was a HAARP tower the Air Force was planning to erect near Hamilton.
There were around 45 of us in the meeting that day, and opposition to the HAARP tower was pretty much unanimous (except, of course, for the two men at the front of the room, the Air Force Major and Senator Baucus, who were diligently attempting to sell us an EMP enema).
No, I’m not much into conspiracy theory these days…but by gum, them thar guvmint types do make it easy! This entry was posted in Survival and tagged electromagnetic pulse, emp, HAARP, nuclear weapon, survival by Ghost32.
Sadly, going off the grid is a partial solution that will not protect all the benefits of modern civilization, leaving the few survivors without modern communications, transportation, health, etc.
I do believe you’re right that the less developed countries, and OF COURSE the terrorist groups, would love to smear us back to the Stone Age, whether the vehicle for doing so was an EMP, cyber warfare, or whatever. Bottom line, I write a bit about what I’ve come across over the years and what I see out there simply by paying attention, but we wound up off grid because that was the only viable solution when we moved here in early 2009. The most cursory assessment of news and events around the globe during this first decade of the Twenty-First Century leads to the inescapable conclusion that we live in perilous times. Confidence remains high that the United States military can and will defend America from a missile attack originating outside the country.
Looking back to that fateful day in September 2001 and realizing the magnificent job local, state, and federal officials in New York did in managing the World Trade Center crisis makes one feel proud. The detonation of a nuclear device in or above the Earth’s atmosphere produces an intense, time-varying electromagnetic field (electromagnetic pulse or EMP). Obviously, the HEMP shield and all POE protective devices are hardness critical items (HCIs). Generally, HEMP facilities are specified as welded systems by the military to be installed during the initial building stage. Present shielding technology can be used to protect existing Regional Emergency Management Control Centers (REMCCs) or the combined regular and emergency communications facilities from the effects of EMP.
To protect the overall functioning of an emergency system, the vital equipment linking first responders to the command system must be shielded as well.
As standard operating procedure (SOP) as defined by the user, members of mobile units at the fire or police precinct could exchange the emergency walkie-talkie radios in their vehicles with freshly charged units at the fire house or police precinct every 24 hours, or as necessary. While the goal of achieving a cost-effective shielding solution may begin with a consideration of the attenuation characteristics of the shielding material, once a decision regarding all-welded steel vs. Once a material and construction type has been chosen, shielded doors become the most critical component in the system.
Accessories are needed to transmit power and signals, HVAC, liquids, or gases into or out of a shielded environment.
As a minimum at the time of acceptance, all shielding systems should be tested to confirm shielding performance in accordance with MIL-STD-188-125-1 and -2. One of the critical problems with the use of a shielding system is the lack of any clear-cut understanding of exactly who is responsible for maintaining the integrity of the system. Absolute performance and reliability of a shielding system is essential in times of emergency.
When emergency responders enter large structures (such as apartment and office buildings, sports stadiums, stores, malls, hotels, convention centers, warehouses), radio communication to other responders on the outside is often impaired.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is involved in a multi-year project to investigate wireless communications problems faced by emergency responders (firefighters, police, and medical personnel) in disaster situations involving large building structures. The work has involved collecting a large body of open-literature data of quantities used to assess wireless communication channels. Because lives may be at stake in emergency response scenarios, a higher standard for reliability of service must be applied compared to those that might be deemed adequate for commercial applications. A recent study reveals radiation from solar events is unlikely to affect earth & the dose of radiation emitted during the events isn’t enough to harm people.
The terahertz (1 THz = 1012 Hz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum covers the frequency range from roughly 0.1 to 50 THz. The point of generating THz waves is that there is very interesting physics in this large spectral region. The electric field and its power spectrum generated in a 1 mm thick ZnTe crystal are shown below. The primary use of PPLN crystals is high-efficiency generation of nonlinear phenomena in the optical region, e.g.
An ALNICO magnet is recommended but any capable of lifting 3 or 4 linked crocodile clips will be suitable. The nation has an extensive missile defense program, a legacy of the Cold War era; and the government has had many years to prepare for whatever the future may hold, as well as plenty of doctrines for guidance.
These facilities include electric power facilities, oil refineries, water treatment plants, banking systems, pipelines, transportation systems, emergency facilities, and communications facilities.
Imagine what might have occurred if the perpetrators of that vicious attack had included in their suicide mission the detonation of an electromagnetic pulse device that could disrupt communications of the police, fire, and medical teams responding to the emergency.
The EMP environment produced by an exo-atmospheric event is caused by the sudden entrance of energy (chiefly gamma rays) into the atmosphere. Specific areas within a facility containing critical high value hardware, software, or other equipment should be hardened to the effects of IEMI or other deleterious electromagnetic conditions. Vital communications equipment is, of necessity, deployed throughout the community when emergency strikes. Today’s shielding industry produces small copper enclosures fitted with shock mounts that can be installed in all mobile field units.


Similarly, ambulance crews could have an alternate exchange point at a local hospital or other appropriate location. These include maintenance, installation timing and cost, life cycle parameters, and the system’s adaptability vis-a-vis a number of physical requirements. While accessories have an important impact on total system performance, their performance can be controlled by following proven techniques and by applying the appropriate design principles. Shielding effectiveness testing is generally a field test at the highest frequency of usage.
At too many facilities, there is an ongoing power struggle to shift shield maintenance responsibility from the facilities to operations department and vice versa. The key to obtaining a good shielding system is an understanding that seams, doors, and other penetrations are the critical elements that must function as a whole to create an effective shielding system.
To protect a shielded system investment, look for a full service, turn-key designer, manufacturer, installer and tester of shielding systems with years of experience in the military and government arena and a strong background in the EMP field. Report of the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse Attack: Executive Report, 2004.
MIL-HDBK-423 Military Handbook – High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) Protection for Fixed and Transportable Ground-based C4I Facilities Vol. Wireless communication from within large buildings and other structures can be complicated by several factors, including the strong attenuation of radio signals caused by losses in the building materials, scattering from structural features (multipath), and the waveguiding effects of corridors and tunnels. The work, funded by the Justice Department’s Community Oriented Police Services (COPS) program through the NIST Office of Law Enforcement Standards, has grown out of communications problems such as those encountered during the September 11, 2001, collapse of the World Trade Center in New York. To provide statistics on signal level and variability in representative environments, NIST researchers measured the received signal strength outside the various structures while a transmitter was carried throughout the interior. In terms of more familiar regions, the THz regime lies between the microwave and infrared regimes. Research towards the development of electronic oscillators capable of reaching THz frequencies pushes out the limits of high-speed electronics.
With THz, it is possible to probe dynamics of such far-ranging systems as: intersubband transitions in semiconductors, vibrational levels in molecules, and phonon resonances in crystals, for example. The physics of the situation is similar to ZnTe, but the results are dramatically different.
Connect a 100mA current sensor to a datalogger and to a coil containing a large number of turns (e.g. This paper does not discuss the capabilities or readiness of the United States military or that of its allies, nor does it focus on developing effective standards for first-responder communications both inside and outside challenging environments such as skyscrapers and tunnels.
Most critical infrastructure facilities depend upon electrical and electronic systems to function. When such an event takes place above 30 km, it is defined as a HEMP (high altitude electromagnetic pulse) effect and can affect a vast area. Creating an electromagnetic barrier that will prevent or limit HEMP or localized EMP fields or conducted transients from entering the shielded area is primary. Smaller facilities, upgrades or retrofits may involve other forms of shielding, particularly modular shielded panels.
These modular systems can be installed within an existing facility to meet the dimension and operational needs of a particular entity.
The equipment of first-responders could be damaged or rendered totally inoperable during an initial surge. These shielded boxes will exceed the MIL-STD-188-125 performance requirement and will protect field radios from electromagnetic pulse (Figure 4). Those radios in need of recharging could be placed in a secure shielded enclosure with a battery charging system. As noted above, typical shielding system construction choices include welded steel rooms or buildings, modular systems made of galvanized steel or copper-clad panels, and modular pan form designed systems for retrofitting or for establishing shielding within an existing facility.
While fewer seams would logically mean less potential for degradation, it is seam quality that is absolutely vital.
To preserve the integrity of a shielded enclosure, doors must include a durable means for making repeatable seals around their entire perimeter. Necessary penetrations that do not compromise shielding effectiveness can be achieved by using a combination of power line filtering combined with ESA and MOV (metal oxide varistor) protection or with waveguide below cut off and fiber optic concepts (Figure 8). Unfortunately, without clearly defined responsibility for preventative maintenance, shield integrity will diminish rapidly.
It is the design of the shielding system and the quality of the installation that will determine its long-term reliability. Insist on seeing test reports from previous installations that document the vendor’s ability to provide a reliable shielding system. The researchers also collected data on the level of reflectivity (multipath) a signal encounters as it travels from within the structure to the outside. The experiments were carried out at emergency responder frequencies to gather germane and useful data for those developing and assessing new technologies and creating standardized test methods within the context of the unique needs of the emergency response environment.
From the other end, ultrafast optical research typically deals with oscillations on the order of 1015 Hz, three orders of magnitude too large. When measuring THz beams, we can measure both the amplitude and phase of the THz electric field directly.
Therefore, the detailed structure of the crystal domains is an important property to the people who make and use them.
These systems can be susceptible to a little known, yet significant and growing threat, the radio frequency weapons mentioned above. The sudden inability of the mayor and other city government officials to mobilize resources during such a chaotic event could be catastrophic.
Detonation of a weapon at lower altitudes will produce an electromagnetic pulse that may be less intense, but will still be strong enough to induce fields that can cause critical systems in a smaller more localized area to malfunction because of circuit damage (Figure 1).
The shield and all points of entry (POE) must be treated properly to maintain shield integrity.
Items such as shielded vestibules with interlocked doors, waveguide honeycomb vents, various pipe penetrations, power and signal line filters with surge protection (electronic surge arrestors or ESAs), and fiber optic penetrations are all HCIs—individually or as part of an assembly.
Industry standard modular shielding systems are available in single-shield copper or steel, double-layer steel cell type, or steel pan form enclosures and are easily installed in existing facilities needing HEMP or EMP protection. Fire houses, police precincts, hospitals, fire trucks, police cars, and ambulances are all vulnerable to electromagnetic pulse.


Since radios are a high cost item, the recharging stations should be in tamper-proof security containers (Figure 5). Pin-pointing any possible weak links during the design stage of a shielding system helps to assure reliable performance after procurement.
An analysis of shielding alternatives indicates that some seaming techniques require fewer seams per shielding surface area. Shielded door performance should provide a safety factor of up to 20 dB both initially and after a reasonable number of cycles for all requirements up to 100 dB at 10 GHz.
Signal line interfaces, penetrating the shield, should use a fiber optic system for optimum EMP security. Even when a problem is finally noticed, there is a tendency to resort to untested, “band-aid” or quick fix solutions. In many cases, single-shield, “Pan Form” modular steel, double-shield galvanized steel cell-type panels, or a lightweight 12 or 24 ounce copper system can provide a reliable, cost-effective solution for EMP applications. The bandwidth of a typical ultrafast laser pulse is on the order of 1012 Hz, a property which we can exploit to generate THz waves. This has permitted us to observe directly, for the first time, such phenomena as the Gouy phase shift, for a light beam passing through a focus, as you can see in the figure below. The laser pulse induces a second-order nonlinear polarization, proportional to the intensity envelope of the laser pulse. Stacking together many alternating domains produces a THz waveform consisting of many oscillations. An interesting offshoot of our terahertz work is the ability to test the domain structure in a nondestructive manner. Connect the datalogger to the computer and launch the Graph software, setting it to record currentin Fast mode.3.
RFWs have already been used to defeat security systems, to disable police communications, to induce fires, and to disrupt banking computers. At present, homeland security, some local law enforcement agencies, and border patrol resources have been stretched extremely thin. Another form of attack, intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI), has been defined as the “intentional malicious generation of electromagnetic energy introducing noise or signals into electric and electronic systems, thus disrupting, confusing, or damaging these systems for terrorist or criminal purposes.” Nature’s contribution, lightning EMP (LEMP), like HEMP and other forms of EMP, involves a brief but intense electromagnetic disturbance in the atmosphere and thus presents another potential threat to the operation of electronic systems.
Retesting should be an annual scheduled requirement—a fail-safe measure that will detect any problems before system failure occurs and thus assures ongoing EMP protection. These solutions may satisfy the primary objective of meeting shielding requirements temporarily, but may not provide an adequate factor of safety to assure long-term reliability. For ultrafast pulses (on the order of 100 femtoseconds or shorter), the generated polarization peaks around a few terahertz.
By changing the length of the ferroelectric domains, we can change frequency of the radiation. Set a trigger value so that recording only begins when a currentabove a certain threshold level is detected.4. Many of these devices are small, suitcase-sized or slightly larger devices that could be smuggled into the country the same way drugs and other contraband penetrate our borders and become available on the black market. Unfortunately, they are not credited for deterring potential attacks as much as they will be remembered for the one they did not. Still, to achieve the most reliable shielding system, it is always good policy to minimize penetrations and seams. In contrast, the standard “Double Electrically Isolated” (DEI) construction requires two seams per joint.
The industry standard RF door most suitable for modular cell or pan form enclosures is the Single Knife Edge (SKE) door (Figure 7). Generation of THz waves with PPLN crystals opens up new doors in high-resolution THz spectroscopy. In today’s world, weapons of mass destruction (WMD), so called “dirty bombs”, radio frequency weapons (RFW), and intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) devices can generate localized electromagnetic pulse surges to disrupt everyday services. These devices in the hands of a terrorist are capable of inflicting extreme damage and may be capable of generating a localized intentional EMI disturbance at any location. This premise underlies a useful management philosophy that can be applied throughout the shielding system selection process. Martin has continued to lend his expertise to the company’s RF shielding systems for government and commercial industries requiring protection from critical EMP and IEMI.
Becquet, “Attenuation of Radio Wave Signals Coupled Into Twelve Large Building Structures,” Natl.
In the figure below, we show several THz waveforms generated by PPLN crystals with different domain sizes.
The software generates a graphical representation of the pulse of current that was induced in the coil.
Consider these key factors affecting modular shielding system performance—material characteristics, quality of seams and penetrations, door performance, accessory performance, and the quantity of seams and penetrations. Generally, two layers of shielding are used simply because seam quality makes it difficult to achieve the shielding objective with just one layer of shielding.
The SKE door can be set up for semi-automatic operation with a door interlock system that prevents both doors from being opened at the same time.
As the Government Sales Manager and Facilities Security Officer, he also assists ETS-Lindgren’s sales, R&D, manufacturing, and installation departments in providing solutions to general EMI and RFI issues. Johnk, “Propagation and Detection of Radio Signals Before, During, and After the Implosion of a Large Convention Center,” Natl. Coder, “NIST Tests of the Wireless Environment in Automobile Manufacturing Facilities,” Natl. Tamura, “Propagation and Detection of Radio Signals Before, During, and After the Implosion of a 13-Story Apartment Building,” Natl.
Tamura, “Propagation and Detection of Radio Signals Before, During, and After the Implosion of a Large Sports Stadium (Veterans’ Stadium in Philadelphia),” Natl. Korsnes, “Measurements to Support Broadband Modulated-Signal Radio Transmissions for the Public-Safety Sector,” Natl.



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Rubric: Electromagnetic Pulse Shield



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