Hard X-rays can penetrate solid objects, and their largest use is to take images of the inside of objects in diagnostic radiography and crystallography. The roentgen (R) is an obsolete traditional unit of exposure, which represented the amount of radiation required to create one electrostatic unit of charge of each polarity in one cubic centimeter of dry air. The rad is the (obsolete) corresponding traditional unit, equal to 10 millijoules of energy deposited per kilogram. The sievert (Sv) is the SI unit of equivalent dose, which for X-rays is numerically equal to the gray (Gy). X-rays are generated by an X-ray tube, a vacuum tube that uses a high voltage to accelerate the electrons released by a hot cathode to a high velocity. In crystallography, a copper target is most common, with cobalt often being used when fluorescence from iron content in the sample might otherwise present a problem. X-ray fluorescence: If the electron has enough energy it can knock an orbital electron out of the inner electron shell of a metal atom, and as a result electrons from higher energy levels then fill up the vacancy and X-ray photons are emitted. So the resulting output of a tube consists of a continuous bremsstrahlung spectrum falling off to zero at the tube voltage, plus several spikes at the characteristic lines. In medical diagnostic applications, the low energy (soft) X-rays are unwanted, since they are totally absorbed by the body, increasing the dose.
To generate an image of the cardiovascular system, including the arteries and veins (angiography) an initial image is taken of the anatomical region of interest. A specialized source of X-rays which is becoming widely used in research is synchrotron radiation, which is generated by particle accelerators. The most commonly known methods are photographic plates, photographic film in cassettes, and rare earth screens. Before the advent of the digital computer and before invention of digital imaging, photographic plates were used to produce most radiographic images.
Since photographic plates are sensitive to X-rays, they provide a means of recording the image, but they also required much X-ray exposure (to the patient), hence intensifying screens were devised. Areas where the X-rays strike darken when developed, causing bones to appear lighter than the surrounding soft tissue. Contrast compounds containing barium or iodine, which are radiopaque, can be ingested in the gastrointestinal tract (barium) or injected in the artery or veins to highlight these vessels.
An increasingly common method is the use of photostimulated luminescence (PSL), pioneered by Fuji in the 1980s.
The PSP plate can be reused, and existing X-ray equipment requires no modification to use them.
For many applications, counters are not sealed but are constantly fed with purified gas, thus reducing problems of contamination or gas aging. Some materials such as sodium iodide (NaI) can "convert" an X-ray photon to a visible photon; an electronic detector can be built by adding a photomultiplier. This project is to demonstrate the amount of electricity exerted from four lemons that can power LEDs. Using a piezoelectric element can make a piezoelectric generator.- piezoelectric- wire- LED- Sticker A, B Wires connected to the piezoelectric.
Introduction This set of instructions explains how to measure the number of chloroplasts in a given amount of solution. Growing salt crystals on objects to make interesting art forms or for a simple science experiment is easy and fun! In this instuctable, you will be able to learn how to find the area under the curve using integrals.


Make invisible gravitational waves, radio waves, sound waves, etc., graspable and more comprehensible with AR (Augmented Reality) robotics using a simple device I invented at the age of 12, in 1974. Sometimes to the detriment of the hedge fund managers and penthouse denizens on on the top floors, a skyscraper can wobble and sway due to wind and earthquakes.
Solar eclipses are rare astronomical events which are exciting to watch, but require some form of equipment for safe viewing. In February of 2014, a small team of employees from Planet Labs came to Autodesk's Pier 9 to tour our workshop and offices. Need some space and quiet?If you're trying to change your surroundings, maybe you should think about traveling vertically. SIMPLE BUT PROFESSIONAL TELESCOPE FOR BEGINNER ASTRONOMERSHere is a really good, and very cheap DIY-telescope for beginner astronomers. Don't panic.As intimidating as it might sound to build your own miniature Tesla coil, Id like to assure you it really is not all that hard.
As far as I know, there have only been two instructables articles on cellular automata which can be found here and here. This instructable helps you to create CoRncrete at home in less then 10 minutes!For more information about the material read the added description document.
DNA origami is a method of using DNA as a construction material to create two- and three-dimensional structures at the nanoscale. Hola amigos, hoy voy a enseñarles a crear algo llamado ferrofluido, es algo realmente entretenido y facil de hacer, como su nombre lo indica es un fluido ferroso que reacciona a los campos magneticos creando formas y movimientos de lo mas divertidas. This is an inexpensive, DIY, Arduino-powered oneironautics device that allows users to alert themselves when they are in a deep dreamstate, without waking up. IntroMost of us have two of the three major components of fundus camera in out pockets at all times, a CCD camera and a LED light. This process produces an emission spectrum of X-ray frequencies, sometimes referred to as the spectral lines.
The intensity of the X-rays increases linearly with decreasing frequency, from zero at the energy of the incident electrons, the voltage on the X-ray tube. A second image is then taken of the same region after iodinated contrast material has been injected into the blood vessels within this area.
The contrast compounds have high atomic numbered elements in them that (like bone) essentially block the X-rays and hence the once hollow organ or vessel can be more readily seen.
In modern hospitals a photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP plate) is used in place of the photographic plate. Balancing a chemical equation is important because there must be the same number of atoms on the initial side of the equation as well as on the final side of the equation. Our goal is to democratize the Hyperloop project through open-source collaborative design and development.
It's basically a jar filled with salt water with aluminum foil around the outside of the jar.
Neither article explains what cellular automata are, why they are interesting, or how one can implement them in code. In short, a Schlieren system leverages the principal of refraction, and some clever optics to allow for the visualization of differences in density of transparent media. It has many uses and a lot of them are descibed on the Internet, some of them also on Instructables.
Stand out from the crowd at your next get together with these 3 super simple science tricks to make water glow!For all of the following you will need a UV black light.


The spectral lines generated depend on the target (anode) element used and thus are called characteristic lines. These two images are then digitally subtracted, leaving an image of only the iodinated contrast outlining the blood vessels.
Photographic film largely replaced these plates, and it was used in X-ray laboratories to produce medical images. In the pursuit of a non-toxic contrast material, many types of high atomic number elements were evaluated. After the plate is X-rayed, excited electrons in the phosphor material remain "trapped" in "colour centres" in the crystal lattice until stimulated by a laser beam passed over the plate surface. Electrons accelerate toward the anode, in the process causing further ionization along their trajectory. And if you thought tests were hard when you were younger, try when you're several million years old! While glowsticks and other chemoluminescence patents were orginally for the US Navy (probably to party, okay maaaybe for emergency response), they have since sprung up everywhere.
What would happen if we found a way to add the third piece of this equation to our phone, the right lens. The radiologist or surgeon then compares the image obtained to normal anatomical images to determine if there is any damage or blockage of the vessel. In more recent years, computerized and digital radiography has been replacing photographic film in medical and dental applications, though film technology remains in widespread use in industrial radiography processes (e.g.
For example, the first time the forefathers used contrast it was chalk, and was used on a cadaver's vessels. This process, known as a Townsend avalanche, is detected as a sudden current, called a "count" or "event". Sound needs something to move through, and if you take away the air, then you take away sound's pressure wave.
A heart dissection is a fascinating experience that is at the core of our circulatory system, and our body as a whole. This is a set of rock tests to bring Earth Science to life for the budding young geologist to the expert explorer. With a fan in the front and a sail in the back, you'd think it would be the perfect self-contained contraption. When the film is developed, the parts of the image corresponding to higher X-ray exposure are dark, leaving a white shadow of bones on the film.
Photographic plates are mostly things of history, and their replacement, the "intensifying screen", is also fading into history.
The metal silver (formerly necessary to the radiographic & photographic industries) is a non-renewable resource. Thus it is beneficial that this is now being replaced by digital (DR) and computed (CR) technology. Where photographic films required wet processing facilities, these new technologies do not.



Emf meter for cell phones 80s
Survival kits for 21st birthday jewellery

Rubric: Emergency Preparedness Survival



Comments

  1. Ameno
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  2. Admin_088
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