Although Maxwell predicted the existence of induced magnetic field by changing electric field but the results were experimentally verified later. Move the loop closer and closer to the plates, we will get same value of B until the loop enters the space between the plates. There is no current flowing between the plates (enclosed current is zero), therefore as per Ampere's law, the magnetic field should disappear. We have observed that Ampere's law alone, does not explain the magnetic field around the plates of the charging capacitor. The term on right hand side has the dimensions of current and is also called displacement current .
The figure shows graphs of the electric field magnitude E versus time t for four uniform electric fields, all contained within identical circular regions of a capacitor.
Let us consider a neutral sheet of charges in yz-plane with equal number of positive and negative charges. Now what will happen when the magnetic field change from  zero to a finite value? These induced magnetic and electric fields will not reach at each point of space, instantaneously. These fields will make their way forward like a tidal wave, with a front moving at a uniform velocity v.
Let us view the field from one side and draw a loop with half of its part in the space where the fields are uniform and half of its part in where the fields have not reached yet.
Similarly the line integral on loop gets contribution only from the side which is inside the field as on the outside segment, field has not yet reached. Now let us view the figure from the top and draw a loop again with half of its part in the space where the fields are uniform and half of its part in where the fields have not reached yet.
Similarly the line integral of magnetic field on loop gets contribution only from the side which is inside the field as on the outside segment, field has not yet reached. We can say that electromagnetic influence (electromagnetic fields) propagates with speed of light in free space.
Let us assume that suddenly after a short interval T of starting the motion of negative charges along negative y direction, the positive charges also start moving in negative y direction.
This will also induce the moving (with speed v=c) electric and magnetic fields of same magnitude as before but now in opposite direction (Figure b).
At any position along the x axis if the fields generated by first current reaches at time t, the field generated by the opposite current will reach at time (t - T) as shown in figure (b). In Maxwell's time (the mid 1800s), the only electromagnetic waves known were visible, infrared, and ultraviolet forms of light.
Later Heinrich Hertz discovered what radio waves also move with same speed as visible light. Green color is at the peak of Visible spectrum, or we can say human eye response is maximum for green color. If we couple this oscillating current to an antenna (called electric dipole antenna) with the help of a transformer, the charges in the antenna will also start oscillating with same frequency. The oscillating charges will in turn produce oscillating electric and magnetic fields, which then propagate through space as ElectroMagnetic (EM) waves. A sinusoidally oscillating charge with angular frequency ω, will induce sinusoidally oscillating and traveling magnetic field wave B.
Oscillating and traveling magnetic Magnetic field wave B will induce electric field wave E.
You could be heading toward a light beam at the speed of light, but you would still measure c as the speed of the beam! Although light waves spread as they move from a source, often we can approximate its travel as being a straight line.
When we make such assumptions about light to study its properties, we call this branch of optics, geometrical optics. Why reflection and refraction takes place when a narrow beam of light encounters a glass surface?
The ratio of speed v of light in a medium to its speed c in vacuum is called refractive index n. Consider a light beam entering from one medium of refractive index (say air) to another medium of refractive index (say glass). The orientation angle of the beam is measured with respect to a line normal to the interface surface of two mediums.
Refractive index n (index of refraction) of any medium except vacuum depends on the wavelength of the light. What we saw that at a certain value of , the refracted beam (also known as transmitted beam) disappears and only reflected beam is there.


This phenomenon is called total internal reflection, the incidence beam gets totally reflected at the interface.
The incidence angle at which total internal reflection takes place is called critical angle . You can see in the simulation, when angle of incidence is equal to critical angle, angle of refraction . From the above equation we can get the value of critical angle in terms of refractive index , and . Transportation of light using a fiber-optic cable is the best example of total internal reflection.
The range of angles for the exiting ray will depend on the color of the ray (water refractive index is different for different wavelengths). Formation of this rainbows involves one reflection of light inside each drop, they are often called primary rainbows. A secondary rainbow is wider and dimmer than a primary rainbow and thus is more difficult to see.
Also, the order of colors in a secondary rainbow is reversed from the order in a primary rainbow. They consist of an electric field E and magnetic field B component which undergo time variations in planes at right angles to each other and the direction of propagation.
Sound waves are transfer of energy by oscillations of pockets of air molecules about their mean locations.
The audible range of frequencies is usually said to be 20 Hz (cycles per second) to 20 kHz (20,000 Hz), though there is variation between individuals. Plane polarized light will be produced when light travels through a polarizing material like polaroid. As shown in the given diagram the field pattern of electromagnetic waves is such that electric field is perpendicular to the magnetic field and both the fields are perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Looking towards the magnetic field of the diagram, it is very clear that the behavior of the magnetic field is exactly the same as for the electric field. If we consider the direction of propagation, we can come to know that while keeping themselves perpendicular to each other, the electric and magnetic fields are also perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Rank the fields according to the magnitudes of the magnetic fields they induce at the edge of the region, greatest first.
Light does not leaks out of the optical fiber due to total internal reflection on its side walls. They differ greatly in their wavelengths and in their effects, but they have certain fundamental properties in common.
3 of electromagnetic field pattern for the dipole antenna, it is indicated that if the dipole antenna is mounted horizontally its electric field will also be horizontally polarized. Looking towards the field when it is propagated from the source it follows the pattern of the positive half cycle. It means that the electric field keeps on increasing from the reference point and after its maximum amplitude it comes back to its reference point again for the next half cycle. THESE VERY SAME ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES, WHO HAVE SWORN TO PROTECT AND SERVE, OUR COUNTRY, AND CITIZENS ,ARE BUT SOME, OF THE CORRUPT,GREEDY TRAITORS .ENGAGED IN THE TYRANNY AND TORTURE. The school district has moved to a biometric identification program, saying students will no longer have to use an ID card to buy lunch.A  BIOMETRICS TO TRACK YOUR KIDS!!!!!i»?i»?A TARGETED INDIVIDUALS, THE GREEDY CRIMINALS ARE NOW CONDONING THEIR TECH! Paul Weindling, history of medicine professor at Oxford Brookes University, describes his search for the lost victims of Nazi experiments. The chairman of the board at ESL a€” then proprietor of the desert wasteland in Nevada known as a€?Area 51a€? a€” was William Perry, who would be appointed secretary of defense several years later. EUCACH.ORG PanelIn a 2-hour wide-ranging Panel with Alfred Lambremont Webre on the Transhumanist Agenda, Magnus Olsson, Dr.
Henning Witte, and Melanie Vritschan, three experts from the European Coalition Against Covert Harassment, revealed recent technological advances in human robotization and nano implant technologies, and an acceleration of what Melanie Vritschan characterized as a a€?global enslavement programa€?.Shift from electromagnetic to scalar wavesThese technologies have now shifted from electromagnetic wave to scalar waves and use super quantum computers in the quantum cloud to control a€?pipesa€? a reference to the brains of humans that have been taken over via DNA, via implants that can be breathed can breach the blood-brain barrier and then controlled via scalar waved on a super-grid. Eventually, such 'subvocal speech' systems could be used in spacesuits, in noisy places like airport towers to capture air-traffic controller commands, or even in traditional voice-recognition programs to increase accuracy, according to NASA scientists."What is analyzed is silent, or sub auditory, speech, such as when a person silently reads or talks to himself," said Chuck Jorgensen, a scientist whose team is developing silent, subvocal speech recognition at NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley. We numbered the columns and rows, and we could identify each letter with a pair of single-digit numbers," Jorgensen said.
People in noisy conditions could use the system when privacy is needed, such as during telephone conversations on buses or trains, according to scientists."An expanded muscle-control system could help injured astronauts control machines. If an astronaut is suffering from muscle weakness due to a long stint in microgravity, the astronaut could send signals to software that would assist with landings on Mars or the Earth, for example," Jorgensen explained. These are processed to remove noise, and then we process them to see useful parts of the signals to show one word from another," Jorgensen said.After the signals are amplified, computer software 'reads' the signals to recognize each word and sound.
Our Research and Development Division has been in contact with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the California Department of Corrections, the Texas Department of Public Safety, and the Massachusetts Department of Correction to run limited trials of the 2020 neural chip implant.


We have established representatives of our interests in both management and institutional level positions within these departments. Federal regulations do not yet permit testing of implants on prisoners, but we have entered nto contractual agreements with privatized health care professionals and specified correctional personnel to do limited testing of our products. We need, however, to expand our testing to research how effective the 2020 neural chip implant performs in those identified as the most aggressive in our society. In California, several prisoners were identified as members of the security threat group, EME, or Mexican Mafia. They were brought to the health services unit at Pelican Bay and tranquilized with advanced sedatives developed by our Cambridge,Massachussetts laboratories.
The results of implants on 8 prisoners yielded the following results: a€?Implants served as surveillance monitoring device for threat group activity.
However, during that period substantial data was gathered by our research and development team which suggests that the implants exceed expected results. One of the major concerns of Security and the R & D team was that the test subject would discover the chemial imbalance during the initial adjustment period and the test would have to be scurbbed. However, due to advanced technological developments in the sedatives administered, the 48 hour adjustment period can be attributed t prescription medication given to the test subjects after the implant procedure. One of the concerns raised by R & D was the cause of the bleeding and how to eliminate that problem. Unexplained bleeding might cause the subject to inquire further about his "routine" visit to the infirmary or health care facility. Security officials now know several strategies employed by the EME that facilitate the transmission of illegal drugs and weapons into their correctional facilities.
One intelligence officier remarked that while they cannot use the informaiton that have in a court of law that they now know who to watch and what outside "connections" they have. The prison at Soledad is now considering transferring three subjects to Vacaville wher we have ongoing implant reserach. Our technicians have promised that they can do three 2020 neural chip implants in less than an hour. Soledad officials hope to collect information from the trio to bring a 14 month investigation into drug trafficking by correctional officers to a close. Essentially, the implants make the unsuspecting prisoner a walking-talking recorder of every event he comes into contact with.
There are only five intelligence officers and the Commisoner of Corrections who actually know the full scope of the implant testing.
In Massachusetts, the Department of Corrections has already entered into high level discussion about releasing certain offenders to the community with the 2020 neural chip implants. Our people are not altogether against the idea, however, attorneys for Intelli-Connection have advised against implant technology outside strick control settings. While we have a strong lobby in the Congress and various state legislatures favoring our product, we must proceed with the utmost caution on uncontrolled use of the 2020 neural chip. If the chip were discovered in use not authorized by law and the procedure traced to us we could not endure for long the resulting publicity and liability payments. Massachusetts officials have developed an intelligence branch from their Fugitive Task Force Squad that would do limited test runs under tight controls with the pre-release subjects. Correctons officials have dubbed these poetnetial test subjects "the insurance group." (the name derives from the concept that the 2020 implant insures compliance with the law and allows officials to detect misconduct or violations without question) A retired police detective from Charlestown, Massachusetts, now with the intelligence unit has asked us to consider using the 2020 neural chip on hard core felons suspected of bank and armored car robbery. He stated, "Charlestown would never be the same, we'd finally know what was happening before they knew what was happening." We will continue to explore community uses of the 2020 chip, but our company rep will be attached to all law enforcement operations with an extraction crrew that can be on-site in 2 hours from anywhere at anytime. We have an Intelli-Connection discussion group who is meeting with the Director of Security at Florence, Colorado's federal super maximum security unit.
The initial discussions with the Director have been promising and we hope to have an R & D unit at this important facilitly within the next six months.
Napolitano insisted that the department was not planning on engaging in any form of ideological profiling. I will tell him face-to-face that we honor veterans at DHS and employ thousands across the department, up to and including the Deputy Secretary," Ms. Steve Buyer of Indiana, the ranking Republican on the House Committee on Veterans' Affairs, called it "inconceivable" that the Obama administration would categorize veterans as a potential threat.



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