Every product in the Online Catalog is connected to TechXchange, Digi-Keya€™s community technology forum. Over the next five to 10 years, 5G and other technologies will take the electronics instrumentation market to higher frequencies spelling significant growth opportunities for test manufacturers, a report said. The move towards a more connected, zero-latency, and autonomous world will certainly provide room for growth for the electronic instrumentation market, according to market insights about the future of the electronic industry published by Frost & Sullivan, a growth partnership company. While wireless communications and aerospace and defence will remain significant end-user segments for electronic test and measurement equipment, demand is likely to increase in smaller end-user segments such as automotive and industrial electronics due to the greater integration of wireless technology in various devices. The world is also on the path to become more autonomous with mobile robots, drones, and autonomous cars, according to Frost & Sullivan.
While all of these technologies will translate into demand for electronic instrumentation, some, such as the autonomous car, will generate significant opportunities for test manufacturers due to the onus put on safety. The hyper connectivity of customers will also call for a greater focus from test manufacturers on their go-to-market channels.
Anna University offers part time admission in B.tech Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering after completion of diploma in Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering . Applicants should have passed the diploma examination in the relevant branch of specialisation.
The following errors occurred with your submission Okay Your Username: Click here to log in Message: Options Quote message in reply? Manometer is also called a liquid column manometer and is used for low differential pressure measurement.
There are also variations of the above said basic types called Enlarged-Leg Type Manometer, and Inclined Tube Manometer. An enhanced version of a manometer is shown below with a seal liquid over the manometer liquid to separate the process fluid from the manometer fluid for any probable source of trouble like absorption, mixing or explosion and so on. The main difference between a U-tube manometer and a well type manometer is that the U-tube is substituted by a large well such that the variation in the level in the well will be negligible and instead of measuring a differential height, a single height in the remaining column is measured. The inclined tube manometer is an enlarged leg manometer with its measuring leg inclined to the vertical axis by an angle b. The micromanometer is another variation of liquid column manometers that is based on the principle of inclined tube manometer and is used for the measurement of extremely small differences of pressure.
Of the various manometric fluids used, mercury has many advantages like low vapour pressure, non-sticky nature, and wide temperature range from -20 degree Celsius to 350 degree Celsius. Bourdon Tubes are known for its very high range of differential pressure measurement in the range of almost 100,000 psi (700 MPa). As seen in the figure, the pressure input is given to a socket which is soldered to the tube at the base.
As the fluid pressure enters the bourdon tube, it tries to be reformed and because of a free tip available, this action causes the tip to travel in free space and the tube unwinds. Other than C-type, bourdon gauges can also be constructed in the form of a helix or a spiral. In the case of forming processes, empirical relations are known to choose the tube size, shape and thickness and the radius of the C-tube. Like all elastic elements a bourdon tube also has some hysteresis in a given pressure cycle.
A pressure transducer is used to convert a certain value of pressure into its corresponding mechanical or electrical output. Pressure is known to be the force that is exerted due to the weights of different gases and liquids.
Pressure is not an independent variable as it is derived from force and area and it is not ideal as it depends on other factors like elevation, fluid density, temperature, flow velocity, and so on.
In instrumentation analysis, pressure is commonly expressed in pounds per square inch (psi).
Specific Gravity is basically a non-dimensional value as it is the ratio of two measurements in the same unit.
Dynamic Pressure is the gas or fluid pressure that is obtained when it impacts with a surface or an object due to its motion or flow. Impact Pressure is the total pressure or the addition of both the static and dynamic pressures. Atmospheric Pressure is the surface pressure of earth and is available due to the weight if the gases in the earth’s atmosphere. Another important aspect of pressure measurement is the measurement of very low pressure or what is known as vacuum. Selection of pressure instrument for a particular application must be done carefully, taking into consideration various aspects such as process conditions, turn down requirements, accuracy, installation requirements, and so on. The bell gauge is a type of pressure transducer that measures differential pressure between 0.06 Pa and 4 KPa. The movement of the bell is taken out by link and lever mechanism or by some electrical methods. Filled system temperature measurement systems have been mostly replaced in new facilities with electronic measurements based on thermocouples or RTD’s.
An enclosed liquid will create a definite vapor pressure in proportion to its temperature if the liquid only partially occupies the enclosed space.
The bulb volume varies over a range of 100 to 1 depending on the fill fluid, the temperature span, and the capillary length.  Long bulbs give an average temperature and are sometimes used in stretched-out form for gas ducts. Of the many mounting styles available for installing a bulb, the one generally recommended has a bulb with an adjustable union and bendable extension.  The bendable extension is usually of smaller diameter than the bulb, thus reducing conduction error.
Thermowells are used for almost all applications except for some specific applications (that is, for very-low-pressure air systems, for ventilating systems, bearing temperature measurement, lube oil drain in compressor and so on) where faster response required or space limitation such as casing drain in compressor. The primary element has the necessary static and dynamic mechanical strength for the application.
Either a failure of the element may be tolerated until the process can conveniently be shut down, or operation can continue without the use of the element. In case if test Thermowells are required, then devices with suitable plugs shall be provided. Standard Thermowells should be stamped with the ASTM material designation, “U” (insertion length) dimension, Rating and the tag number.
Thermowells installation shall be per Piping & Instrumentation Interface Diagram or as specified in the piping specification.
In-case if Thermowells are installed in pipe lines which are less than 4”, then a section of this pipe line shall be expanded to 4”.
Thermowells can be installed in Tee at a 90-degree pipe elbow in case of smaller pipe sizes.
Thermowell insertion length should be sufficient to measure the bulk temperature of the fluid without conduction effect. If the Thermowell is installed at an angle or in an elbow, the tip should point toward the flow in the process line. Thermowells installed in lines through which fluid flows at a high velocity may be subject to vibration, which can rupture the well below the mounting.
On Equipment or Vessels minimum immersion length should be between 300 to 500mm based on requirement.
While deciding insertion length, nozzle stand out, insulation thickness, pipe thickness etc shall be taken in account. Special applications such as agitated vessels, separation columns, etc., with internals, may require shorter Thermowell lengths and should be checked for interference. Pipe insulation or lagging extension is the extra length provided between the Thermowell piping connection and the temperature element connection.
Thermowell Flange Material Different than Pipe Material: In case, if material of construction (MOC) of Thermowell is different than the pipe class material, the flange rating of Thermowell shall be suitable and withstand pipe line design condition that is, pressure temperature.
Incase if the flange rating of Thermowell is different than the pipe rating, it should be communicated to Piping and Process to take necessary action at their end (provide nozzle with same rating as Thermowell rating). Requirement of Insulating Gasket shall be communicated to Mechanical & Process in case material of construction for Thermowell is different than piping material.

In case if Thermowells are with collar to protect them from failure due to high vibration, the nozzle ID shall be checked with respective to collar diameter. Care shall be taken when Thermowells are selected with collars for lined vessels & cladded vessels. Requirement of Thermowell connections (Flanged, Threaded or Welded) shall be checked as per specific project requirement. Multipoint temperature elements (RTDs or Thermocouples) are used for tank gauging system & process reactors. In the tank gauging system, the requirement is to measure fluid temperature at different level, which can be obtained by installing multipoint temperature elements assembly, which consist of number of elements of different length in one Thermowell. In case of process reactors, the device made from pipe is used to installed 3 or 4 temperature element of different length (to measure temperature at different location on reactor diameter) to measure temperature of chemical bed at specific location. In some reactors requirement is to measure temperature of chemical bed at different location and different levels. A resistance temperature detector (RTD) can also be called a resistance thermometer as the temperature measurement will be a measure of the output resistance.
The main principle of operation of an RTD is that when the temperature of an object increases or decreases, the resistance also increases or decreases proportionally.
Copper lead wires are satisfactory for all the arrangements.  For a given RTD, all the lead-wires should be of the same gauge and the same length, and should be run in the same conduit.
The four wire system is little affected by temperature induced resistance changes in lead-wires, and, of all the arrangements, it is affected least by stray currents.  It, therefore, is used to measure temperature differences and is used generally for making very accurate measurements. The head shall be explosion proof where and as needed to conform to a hazardous area rating.  However, explosion proofing will not be required if the system is intrinsically safe. As discussed earlier, an Optical Pyrometer can be not only be used for temperature measurement, but also can be used to see the heat that is measured. The wavelengths measured by the device are known to be pure radiation wavelengths, that is, the common range for radioactive heat.
The main theory behind a radiation pyrometer is that the temperature is measured through the naturally emitted heat radiation by the body. Total Radiation Pyrometer – In this method, the total heat emitted from the hot source is measured at all wavelengths.
Selective Radiation Pyrometer – In this method, the heat radiated from the hot source is measured at a given wavelength. As shown in the figure below, the radiation pyrometer has an optical system, including a lens, a mirror and an adjustable eye piece.
The device can be used to measure very high temperatures without direct contact with the hot source (Molten metal). The sight path of the device is maintained by the construction of the instrument components, such as the lens and curved mirrors.
So as to increase the temperature range which is to be measured, an absorption screen is fitted between the optical lens and the reference bulb. A red filter placed between the eye piece and the reference bulb helps in narrowing the band of wavelength.
As long as the size of the object, whose temperature is to measured fits with the size of the optical pyrometer, the distance between both of them is not at all a problem. As the measurement is based on the light intensity, the device can be used only in applications with a minimum temperature of 700 degree Celsius. The device is not useful for obtaining continuous values of temperatures at small intervals. A thermocouple is a temperature sensor that has a pair of dissimilar metals joined together at one end and terminated at the other end. The soft touch, colored, instrumentation knobs have a soft, outer surface, giving them a luxurious feel.
While low latency will not be provided for all applications and devices in the short term due to costs, the desire for low or no latency for a number of devices and applications is here and will provide opportunities to test manufacturers. Leading automotive OEMs are currently embracing automated driving translating into significant R&D opportunities for test manufacturers. While online channels have grown in importance for mid and low-end test equipment, this trend is also relevant to more high-end expensive test equipment from a digital marketing perspective. Their research entitled ASIC DESIGN OF SUDDEN CARDIAC ARREST MONITORING has secured RM100,000 of research grant from RMC, UTM. Will you please provide the Anna University B.tech Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering Admission Details ? The meniscus of the inclined tube is at a reference level as shown in the figure below, viewing through a magnifier provided with cross hair line. The basic idea behind the device is that, cross-sectional tubing when deformed in any way will tend to regain its circular form under the action of pressure.
The simultaneous actions of bending and tension due to the internal pressure make a non-linear movement of the free tip. The types are varied for specific uses and space accommodations, for better linearity and larger sensitivity. Because of the internal pressure, the near elliptic or rather the flattened section of the tube tries to expand as shown by the dotted line in the figure below (a). Some common examples are atmospheric pressure and the pressure implied by liquids inside the walls and underside of a container.
It can be the ratio between the density of a material and the density of water or even the ratio between the specific weight of a material to the specific weight of water.
With the advancement of scientific research and industrial application of the results, pressure is as low as 10-6 mm of mercury is often required to be measured in some systems. When the bell moves maximum up or down it closes the inlets of pressure p2 or p1, whereby protection to overrange and reversal of pressure are afforded. However when used with a Thermowell, standard material such as copper, bronze, or stainless steel can be used.
Armor should always be specified not to provide only mechanical strength but also distinguish with other tubing.
The extension with adjustable union permits sliding the bulb against the bottom of its well to make solid contact and give improved thermal performance.
Case compensation is usually achieved by installing a bimetallic strip into the instrument case and attaching it to the pressure sensing element. The location for a Thermowell should also be checked with respect to accessibility.  In particular, there should be sufficient space to allow removal of the Thermowell assembly. A Thermowell installed perpendicular or at a 45-degree angle to the pipe wall should have a minimum immersion length of 2” and a maximum distance of 5” from the wall of the pipe. Tapered stems and U lengths established by means of stress analysis are recommended for high velocity. For better accuracy in temperature measurement, Thermowells must have a smooth, shiny surface with no pitting and corrosion. This extra length is provided to ensure the temperature element connection is located outside the insulation and for ease of temperature element installation or removal. For example, if pipe class is Carbon Steel (CS) and MOC for Thermowell is SS316, then Instrument Engineer should check the rating required for Thermowell based on line design pressure & temperature. This information should be communicated to Mechanical to avoid any mismatch during installation.
In these cases nozzle ID shall be checked with equipment drawings to avoid mismatch of Thermowell during installation. The purpose of these elements is to measure the temperature at different location or different levels.
The main difference between a RTD and a Thermistor is that the sensing element used in a RTD is a metal and a thermistor uses ceramic or polymer material. Platinum, Nickel and Copper are the most commonly used sensing elements.  Platinum is considered the best as it has the widest temperature range. The three-wire system is generally satisfactory for industrial measurement using a secondary instrument that is remote, say, more than 3 meters distant from the RTD.  Although the error caused by temperature change in the leads is virtually eliminated in a 3-wire arrangement, a slight non-linearity in the resistance change is introduced with this scheme.

A transmitter may be mounted either on an enclosed rack or locally.  A local transmitter may be mounted on a Thermowell and supplied with it as a complete assembly. The observer is actually able to calculate the infrared wavelength of the heat produced and also see the heat patterns by the object. This device is used in places where physical contact temperature sensors like Thermocouple, RTD, and Thermistors would fail because of the high temperature of the source.
The heat energy emitted from the hot body is passed on to the optical lens, which collects it and is focused on to the detector with the help of the mirror and eye piece arrangement. The device actually tracks and measures the amount of heat that is radiated from an object. As a measure of the reference temperature, a color change with the growth in temperature is taken. Thus, optical pyrometers can be used to measure and view wavelengths less than or equal to 0.65 microns. The joined end is called the sensing junction or hot junction and the terminated end is called the reference junction or cold junction. Knob colors are available in vibrant red or yellow for quick identification and subdued gray or black. This device is used for most cases as it is very simple in construction and highly accurate of all the types.
This tube is bent into in to the form of a ring and is supported at the centre by a suitable pivot. The bourdon pressure gauges used today have a slight elliptical cross-section and the tube is generally bent into a C-shape or arc length of about 27 degrees. If the tip travel is considerably small, the stresses can be considered to produce a linear motion that is parallel to the axis of the link. For thorough repeatability, the bourdon tubes materials must have good elastic or spring characteristics. Primary sensors are mostly, mechanical which through secondary sensing means provide electrical outputs. These protection tubes are usually fabricated of ceramic materials and they are installed in high temperature flue gas and duct applications.  Protection tubes are also available made of Inconel and with their ends open in order to improve speed of response and heat transfer.
This extra lagging extension length shall be taken into account while deciding Thermowell insertion length.
As platinum is the most commonly used metal for making RTD’s, the device can also be called Platinum Resistance Thermometers (PRT’s). The thermal heat radiates from the object to the optical system present inside the pyrometer. The device compares the brightness produced by the radiation of the object whose temperature is to be measured, with that of a reference temperature. The observer watches the process through the eye piece and corrects it in such a manner that the reference lamp filament has a sharp focus and the filament is super-imposed on the temperature source image. But, a Radiation Pyrometer can be used for high heat applications and can measure wavelengths between 0.70 microns to 20 microns.
The temperature at the reference junction is called reference temperature and is always maintained constant.  When the sensing junction and the reference junction are at different temperatures, a potential difference is obtained and this causes a flow of current in the circuit. The tubular chamber is divided in to two parts by spilling, sealing, and filling with a suitable light liquid like kerosene or paraffin oil for isolating the two pressures.
But the main requirement of the device is that whenever the same pressure is applied, the movement of the tip should be the same and on withdrawal of the pressure the tip should return to the initial point.
The surrounding in which the process is carried out is also important as corrosive atmosphere or fluid would require a material which is corrosion proof. The arrangement of the tube, however forces an expansion on the outer surface and a compression on the inner surface, thus allowing the tube to unwind.
The force exerted by the fluid per unit area of the wall of the container is called the absolute pressure, whereas the gauge pressure is the difference between the absolute and local atmospheric pressure, and when gauge pressure is negative, it is known as vacuum.
Manometers and elastic element sensors are used as primary pressure sensors while secondary sensing, often called transducing here, involves resistive, inductive and capacitive changes for deriving electrical outputs.
A meter is placed outside the piston and spring arrangement, which indicates the amount of pressure exerted.
Factors to be reviewed while choosing Thermowells are resistance to corrosion, flow induced vibrations, erosion, ease of installation, preferred installation point of Thermowell, insertion length, material, velocity considerations, lagging extension etc. This is why the radiation pyrometer is more useful, as it can be used to measure all temperatures of wavelengths between 0.70 microns and 20 microns.
Though the latter is known for faster detection of fast moving objects, the former may be used for small scale applications. The optical system makes the thermal radiation into a better focus and passes it to the detector. The reference temperature is produced by a lamp whose brightness can be adjusted till its intensity becomes equal to the brightness of the source object. The observer starts changing the rheostat values and the current in the reference lamp changes. At this time, the current that flows in the reference lamp is measured, as its value is a measure of the temperature of the radiated light in the temperature source, when calibrated.
The thermoelectric voltage produced is due to the different binding energies of the electrons to the metal ions.
For the condition p1 not equal to p2, the shift in the meniscus position is restored to zero by raising or lowering the well as before and the difference between these two readings gives the pressure difference in terms of height.
The segmental lever is suitably pivoted and the spindle holds the pointer as shown in the figure.
This is known as multiplication, which can be adjusted by adjusting the length of the lever. The commonly used materials are phosphor-bronze, silicon-bronze, beryllium-copper, inconel, and other C-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys, and so on. As the device has the ability to withstand shock, sudden pressure changes, and vibrations, it is commonly used in hydraulic applications.
The length of capillary shall be carefully selected and specified so that instrument can be installed as per requirement, since it cannot be stretched or spliced. Thus, the heat energy is converted to its corresponding electrical signal by the detector and is sent to the output temperature display device.
For an object, its light intensity always depends on the temperature of the object, whatever may be its wavelength. Pressures p1 and p2 act against the sealed walls as shown in the figure below, and rotate the ring which is balanced by the counter weight w.
A hair spring is sometimes used to fasten the spindle of the frame of the instrument to provide necessary tension for proper meshing of the gear teeth and thereby freeing the system from the backlash. Mostly, the output of the piston and spring arrangement is given to a secondary device to convert movement into an electrical signal.
PRT’s can also be used in unsuitable environments where it can reduce atmospheric metallic vapours and also catalizable vapours if the element is bare.  It can also be used in radioactive environments. The biggest advantage of this device is that, unlike a Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) and Thermocouple, there is no direct contact between the pyrometer and the object whose temperature is to be found out.
After adjusting the temperature, the current passing through it is measured using a multimeter, as its value will be proportional to the temperature of the source when calibrated. The approximately linear motion of the tip when converted to a circular motion with the link-lever and pinion attachment, a one-to-one correspondence between them may not occur and distortion results. In industrial applications, a PRT is known to measure temperatures as high as 1500 degree Fahrenheit while copper and Nickel can measure only to a maximum of 400 degree Fahrenheit. If we consider a cross-section of the tube, its outer edge will have a larger surface than the inner portion.

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