The technical section presents a brief description of the survey techniques used in the benthic habitat mapping process of seafloor characterisation and classification of habitats.
Electro-optical methods are used to characterise relatively large areas (that is, on the order of hundreds to many thousands of square meters).
Underwatrer video, underwater still pictures and physical samples of sediments can provide detailed descriptions of sediment quality and life within the seafloor. The Electro Optical Systems (EOS) Laboratory was established in 1998 to develop technologies and imaging sensors in the infrared spectrum to perform target acquisition and identification in the night or during degraded visibility conditions. This Center works very closer with GEM elettronica Photonics Research & Applied Navigation Sciences (PRANS) Laboratory that provides research in areas including laser, quantum electro-optical, fiber optic sensor.
In the area of surveillance EOS researcher team investigate and developed LIDAR, image processing, night vision technology and video tracking.
EOS specializes in integrating photodiodes and detector components with preamplifiers, creating Receiver Modules that are supported by excellent and reliable electronics. This product line consists of photodiodes and photoconductors of a variety of different starting materials, giving the broadest selection from one source in the industry. The Senior Year Electro-optical Reconnaissance System (SYERS), an Itek sensor installed in the U-2, is the only operational American dual-band, real-time reconnaissance system. SYERS grew out of the 1991 decision that DOD and NASA were to jointly develop the Landsat 7 (LS 7) program. SYERS, which will downlink to ETRAC by 4QFY97, currently has a 137 Mbps data-rate, though future upgrades are expected to increase the downlink to 274 Mbps and processed imagery to 650 Mbps.


The Multi-Spectral Electro-Optical Reconnaissance Sensor [formerly the Advanced Electro-Optical Recon Capability] SYERS upgrade would improve SYERS capability at night or in fog or haze by adding Multi-Spectral capability. The SYERS upgrade program provides for improved resolution, range, and geolocation accuracy, and improved performance in darkness, haze, and inclement weather.
There is a further technical section relating to fine-scale underwater measurements for ecological species analysis and modeling of seagrass, fishes etc. These are referenced to the case studies containing the research developments and results of the work done by the Coastal CRC. Satellite images and aerial photographs can be used to identify different habitats along the shore and in shallow water where water clarity is not an issue. The biological community can be determined along with a variety of sediment characteristics including concentration of pollutants, sediment texture, and organic content.
They include Preamplifiers, Power Supplies, TE Controllers, Lock-In Amplifiers and a variety of data acquisition systems. The U-2 SYERS imagery satisfies a large percentage of theater commanders' imagery requirements.
In November 1993 NASA elected not to fund a portion of the LS 7 ground station, causing DoD to withdraw all funding from the LS7 program.
Additionally, resolution, geolocational accuracy, and broad area coverage would be increased by improving sensor stability. This type of broad-scale data collection rapidly provides general information throughout an area of interest.


Since marine organisms are adapted to live in particular habitats, knowledge of these sediment characteristics can provide insight into the physiology and ecology of the organisms sampled. Due to lowering of classifiction of the U-2 program, all future aquistion will be done in accordance with DoD 5000 series regulations.
The research work done by the CWHM Group does not cover the airborne techniques but focuses mainly on hydroacoustic and underwater video systems, in conjunction with the physical sampling techniques. The long focal length sensor provides deep look, high resolution, near-real-time (NRT) imagery to the warfitghter. For more on the electro-optical sensors a Remote Sensing toolkit is available that shows managers, scientists and technicians working in coastal marine environments how images collected from satellites and aircraft (remote sensing) can be used to map and monitor changes to indicators of coastal ecosystem health. The U-2 also carries the Hughes Radar and Communications Systems' Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar System (ASARS-2), an imaging radar system, as well as the 30-inch Optical Bar Camera (OBC) and a 24-inch IRIS camera.
The multi-spectral capabilities of the SYERS P3I upgrade will provide war fighters with the ability to locate, identify, and analyze military equipment through haze day or night.



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