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A supermassive black hole sits inside the galaxy Centaurus A, as seen in a composite picture. Like part of a cosmic Russian doll, our universe may be nested inside a black hole that is itself part of a larger universe. In turn, all the black holes found so far in our universea€”from the microscopic to the supermassivea€”may be doorways into alternate realities.
According to a mind-bending new theory, a black hole is actually a tunnel between universesa€”a type of wormhole. In a recent paper published in the journal Physics Letters B, Indiana University physicist Nikodem Poplawski presents new mathematical models of the spiraling motion of matter falling into a black hole. According to Einstein's equations for general relativity, singularities are created whenever matter in a given region gets too dense, as would happen at the ultradense heart of a black hole.


Einstein's theory suggests singularities take up no space, are infinitely dense, and are infinitely hota€”a concept supported by numerous lines of indirect evidence but still so outlandish that many scientists find it hard to accept.
According to the new equations, the matter black holes absorb and seemingly destroy is actually expelled and becomes the building blocks for galaxies, stars, and planets in another reality. The notion of black holes as wormholes could explain certain mysteries in modern cosmology, Poplawski said. Wormholes might also explain gamma ray bursts, the second most powerful explosions in the universe after the big bang. There is at least one way to test Poplawski's theory: Some of our universe's black holes rotate, and if our universe was born inside a similarly revolving black hole, then our universe should have inherited the parent object's rotation.
If future experiments reveal that our universe appears to rotate in a preferred direction, it would be indirect evidence supporting his wormhole theory, Poplawski said.
The wormhole theory may also help explain why certain features of our universe deviate from what theory predicts, according to physicists.
Based on the standard model of physics, after the big bang the curvature of the universe should have increased over time so that nowa€”13.7 billion years latera€”we should seem to be sitting on the surface of a closed, spherical universe. What's more, data on light from the very early universe show that everything just after the big bang was a fairly uniform temperature.
That would mean that the farthest objects we see on opposite horizons of the universe were once close enough to interact and come to equilibrium, like molecules of gas in a sealed chamber. Again, observations don't match predictions, because the objects farthest from each other in the known universe are so far apart that the time it would take to travel between them at the speed of light exceeds the age of the universe.
Inflation states that shortly after the universe was created, it experienced a rapid growth spurt during which space itself expanded at faster-than-light speeds. The universe therefore appears flat, because the sphere we're sitting on is extremely large from our viewpointa€”just as the sphere of Earth seems flat to someone standing in a field.
Inflation also explains how objects so far away from each other might have once been close enough to interact. Buta€”assuming inflation is reala€”astronomers have always been at pains to explain what caused it.
Based on his equations, Poplawski thinks such exotic matter might have been created when some of the first massive stars collapsed and became wormholes.


Future work in quantum gravitya€”the study of gravity at the subatomic levela€”could refine the equations and potentially support or disprove Poplawski's theory, Easson said.
Overall, the wormhole theory is interesting, but not a breakthrough in explaining the origins of our universe, said Andreas Albrecht, a physicist at the University of California, Davis, who was also not involved in the new study. By saying our universe was created by a gush of matter from a parent universe, the theory simply shifts the original creation event into an alternate reality. In other words, it doesn't explain how the parent universe came to be or why it has the properties it hasa€”properties our universe presumably inherited.
Still, Albrecht doesn't find the idea of universe-bridging wormholes any stranger than the idea of black hole singularities, and he cautions against dismissing the new theory just because it sounds a little out there.
Packaging should be the same as what is found in a retail store, unless the item is handmade or was packaged by the manufacturer in non-retail packaging, such as an unprinted box or plastic bag.
You have read and agree to the Global Shipping Program terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab. Import charges previously quoted are subject to change if you increase you maximum bid amount. But scientists have no satisfying explanation for how such a singularity might have formed in the first place. They appear to be associated with supernovae, or star explosions, in faraway galaxies, but their exact sources are a mystery. The matter, he says, might be escaping into our universe through supermassive black holesa€”wormholesa€”at the hearts of those galaxies, though it's not clear how that would be possible. The expansion stretched the universe from a size smaller than an atom to astronomical proportions in a fraction of a second.
Damien Easson, a theoretical physicist at Arizona State University, has made the speculation in previous studies. If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable.



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