Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) members from Palm Beach County participate in a regional disaster exercise in Boca Raton. Executive Policy Group members convene to discuss the Palm Beach County EOC incident action plan during the Palm Beach County Statewide Hurricane Exercise. The Division of Emergency Management teamed up with the Palm Beach Outlets to provide disaster preparedness information to the public. Emergency Operations Center personnel practice their skills during the 2014 Palm Beach County Statewide Hurricane Exercise. The people of Ontario have faced all kinds of emergencies, from ice storms and power outages to tornadoes and industrial accidents. Emergencies can strike at any time so being prepared is critical since it can take time for help to arrive. That’s why everyone should have an emergency plan and kit to take care of themselves for at least three days. In an emergency, you may not have access to everyday conveniences and you may be asked to evacuate your home.
Teach others about any special needs, such as how to use medical equipment or administer medicine. Practice your plans with those who have agreed to be part of your personal support network. Contact your local municipal office to find out what phone number to use to get more information during an emergency (211, 311 or other). Your emergency survival kit should have everything you need to be safe and take care of yourself and your family for at least three days. List the people who already assist you and others who could help you in an emergency: doctors, pharmacists, personal support workers, in-home health-care workers (including back-up providers), as well as family, friends, and neighbours. For each person in your household, note any medical conditions and special needs, as well as medications and devices. Make a note of where your kit is stored, so others can find it easily if they are assisting you. As part of its commitment to effective and efficient emergency management, the Government of Ontario continues to move decisively to implement reforms consistent with internationally recommended practices. At the heart of these reforms is the movement toward the adoption of emergency management programs based on a risk management approach and including activities in the five core components of emergency management: prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. The implementation of emergency management programs will ultimately save lives and money, protect property, public health and the environment, maintain economic stability, and help assure the continuance of critical infrastructure. As part of the reforms, Ontario requires provincial ministries and municipalities2 to develop, implement, and maintain emergency management programs and adopt standards for these programs through regulation.
The emergency management concept, as set out in this doctrine, is embedded in the hierarchy of documents necessary to implement the concept, including legislation, regulations, directives, policies, requirements, guidelines, plans and procedures (see Figure 1). The main purpose of the Doctrine is to set out the overall framework for emergency management in the Province of Ontario in order to develop a common understanding of the concept.
This document was prepared by EMO with review and input from the Emergency Management Doctrine and Standards Committee (EMDSC) of Ontario. Emergencies are caused by hazards – conditions or processes that have the potential to cause harm or loss to people and property.
Currently, the Province of Ontario has identified 37 types of hazards in its Provincial Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Report, in which hazards are classified according to their general source: natural, technological, or human-caused. Emergency management is defined as organized and comprehensive programs and activities taken to deal with actual or potential emergencies or disasters.
Prevention refers to the actions taken to prevent the emergency itself and mitigation refers to actions taken to reduce or eliminate the effects of an emergency. Preparedness refers to those measures taken prior to the emergency or disaster to ensure an effective response. Preparedness measures include plans, training, exercises, public education, alerting and notification systems, procedures, organization, infrastructure, standards, etc. A comprehensive emergency management program is one that incorporates a risk management approach and integrates activities in each of the five components of emergency management. As all emergencies are essentially local in nature, the implementation of emergency management programs in Ontario (through prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery activities) begins at the municipal level.
In recent years, there has been a major conceptual shift in how people seek to cope with disasters from natural to human induced hazards.
The adoption of a risk management approach shifts the focus to include the causes of risk rather than only the emergencies that may result from risk. Ontario requires municipalities and provincial ministries to develop and implement emergency management programs. Encourages a systems-based approach where the focus is on the causes of risk rather than the resulting emergency.
Focuses on the reduction of risk through the implementation of emergency management programs, resulting in improved public safety and public constituents. The doctrine recognizes that different governments and organizations may, quite appropriately, use slightly different processes and terminology to achieve the same aims. A risk management approach provides a recognized, flexible and effective means to reduce risk. The implementation of emergency management programs, based upon risk management principles, will ultimately save lives and money, protect property and the environment, maintain economic stability and enhance public confidence in the government’s ability to uphold safety and security.
If each community is made safer through the implementation of an emergency management program, the province as a whole is also made safer. This key principle underlines the fact that the reduction of risks to public safety in the Ontario context depends on the participation of many partners fulfilling specific emergency management responsibilities. The implementation of a full range of effective emergency management program measures to reduce a particular risk will often involve the participation of a wide range of partners. The measures put in place to reduce the risk to public safety posed by nuclear facilities in Ontario are a good example of the intricate system of partners involved in the process. As the above example makes clear, a reduction in risk depends on a system of partners at all levels, implementing a range of measures in concert with one another, according to their particular roles and responsibilities. With the proclamation of the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act, Ontario experienced a fundamental shift in its concept for dealing with emergencies.
Emergency management program standards for both communities and provincial ministries are contained in regulations issued under the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act. Critical infrastructure (CI) is defined as interdependent, interactive, interconnected networks of institutions, services, systems and processes that meet vital human needs, sustain the economy, protect public safety and security, and maintain continuity of and confidence in government. The OCIAP recognizes that critical infrastructures are highly connected and interdependent, provincially, nationally and internationally.
The province’s critical infrastructure assurance program uses a systems approach to identify vulnerabilities and to provide recommended practices for prevention and mitigation. The basis for the critical infrastructure assurance program is the application of risk management principles. Through the collaborative effort of government and the private sector, Ontario’s critical infrastructure will be more disaster resilient and citizens can be assured that services will be more durable during an adverse event. The following chart defines the available channels for the general flow of information during an emergency or planned event. Figure 4 on the next page illustrates the generic Ontario Provincial IMS organizational structure. Unified Command is a command model of IMS that may be used on occasions when incident decision-making is complex, and interdependent, and a single incident command cannot be established. The Incident Commander (IC), or the Unified Command team is the entity or individual responsible for all incident activities, including the development of strategies and tactics and the ordering and the release of resources.
Incident Command is not automatically restricted to any particular level of emergency management. With the exception of the IC position, the organizational structure is usually built from the bottom up, with supervisory positions inserted when span of control threatens to exceed established norms. Federal and provincial laws, and their associated Orders in Council and regulations, are the legal basis for all Emergency Management and Civil Protection Activities undertaken in the province of Ontario.
In Ontario, the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act establishes the province’s legal basis and framework for managing those emergencies falling within the public order and public welfare spheres. The requirement that communities and provincial ministries develop and implement an emergency management program.
The authority for the head of council of a municipality to declare that an emergency exists in the municipality, to take any necessary action not contrary to law, and to implement the emergency response plan of the municipality. The authority for the Premier of Ontario to declare that an emergency exists in any part of Ontario, to take any necessary action not contrary to law, and to implement any of the province’s emergency response plans. The authority of the Lieutenant Governor in Council to declare emergencies and make broader emergency orders and the authority to delegate order-making authority to a Minister of the Crown or the Commissioner of Emergency Management. The appointment of a Chief, Emergency Management Ontario to be responsible for monitoring, coordinating and assisting in the promotion, development, implementation and maintenance of emergency management programs throughout Ontario. The requirement that the Lieutenant Governor in Council formulate emergency plans for nuclear facilities. The authority for the Minister, Community Safety and Correctional Services, to make regulations setting standards for the development and implementation of emergency management programs. Under the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act, the Minister of Community Safety and Correctional Services has been granted authority to make regulations setting standards for the development, implementation and maintenance of emergency management programs required by communities and provincial ministries.
Guidelines and Recommended Practices refer to documents issued by Emergency Management Ontario which further develop the emergency management concept in accordance with recognized international practices, or which provide specific guidance in the development and implementation of emergency management programs.
Examples of these documents include the Community Emergency Management Program Handbook and the Guidelines for Provincial Ministry Emergency Management Programs in Ontario. Plans and procedures are documents that translate more general emergency management direction and guidance into specific methodologies to implement prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery measures.
In general, plans lay out aims, policies, basic concepts, organizational structures, roles and responsibilities.
Procedures, which are more detailed, outline the steps and specific information required to implement various operations such as notification, public alerting, traffic control, and emergency operations centre activation. Under the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act, the provincial and municipal governments have been given mutually supporting roles in emergency management, each level developing emergency management programs that address priority risks falling within their respective areas of jurisdiction. Partners such as municipalities and the federal government that are essential to reducing risk in the responsibility area must be identified and included in the development of an effective ministry emergency management program. Municipalities, as the lowest tier of government, must have in place emergency management programs that address all of their priority risks. Under the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act, Emergency Management Ontario, as the overall provincial emergency management organization is responsible for the promotion, development, implementation and maintenance of effective emergency management programs throughout Ontario, and for the coordination of these programs with the federal government. The Provincial Emergency Response Plan is a plan that is used to coordinate overall provincial emergency response and outlines how EMO and the ministries respond to widespread or large-scale emergencies. The Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan is a plan that is used to coordinate the overall provincial response to a nuclear emergency and outlines how individual ministries as well as designated municipalities will respond.
EMO provides advice and assistance to municipalities and ministries during the emergency response phase, and may coordinate the overall provincial response under one of the provincial-level plans. Officials or employees of any other level of government who are involved in emergency management. Representatives of organizations outside government who are involved in emergency management.
Designate one employee of one of the ministries as emergency management program co-ordinator for the ministries and one employee of one of the ministries as an alternate.
Officials or employees of any level of government who are involved in emergency management. 3 For details on IMS please consult the IMS for Ontario Doctrine, available on EMO’s website. Holders of the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan Implementing Plan for the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station are responsible for keeping it updated by incorporating amendments, which may be issued from time to time. This public document is administered by the Minister of Community Safety and Correctional Services of Ontario. The Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act (EMCPA) requires and authorizes the formulation of the plan.
Procedures : Based on all of the above plans, procedures are developed for the various emergency centres to be set up and for the various operational functions required.
It is necessary that everyone involved in the preparation and implementation of the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan employ common terminology. An accident in which the effects, both actual and potential, are expected to be confined within the boundaries of the nuclear facility. An accident in which the effects are so localized that their impact can be satisfactorily dealt with by local emergency response personnel (police, fire, etc.) with possibly some outside technical assistance. A declaration of a provincial emergency may also be made by the Premier if the urgency of the situation requires that it be made immediately. The emergency requires immediate action to prevent, reduce or mitigate the dangers posed by the emergency.
The Legislative Assembly may by resolution extend the length of an emergency for additional periods of no more than 28 days, for as many times as required.
An emergency declaration made by the Premier lapses after 72 hours, unless confirmed by the LGIC. The PNERP Master Plan sets out the principles, concepts, organization, responsibilities, policies, functions and interrelationships, which will govern all nuclear and radiological emergency management in Ontario.

The PNERP Implementing Plans apply the principles, concepts and policies contained in the Master Plan, in order to provide detailed guidance and direction for dealing with a specific nuclear or radiological emergency. Separate response plans have been developed to deal with accidents at the Pickering, Darlington and Bruce Power nuclear generating stations as well as for the Chalk River Laboratories and the Fermi 2 installation in Monroe, Michigan. This Plan provides generic guidance on dealing with radiological emergencies caused by sources not covered by the other Implementing Plans. Provincial ministries, agencies, boards and commissions shall develop their own plans and procedures to fulfil the responsibilities as outlined in the appendices to Annex I.
The emergency plans and procedures of nuclear installations deal with their onsite responsibilities.
This is a plan jointly developed and adopted by the federal governments of Canada and the United States for early notification, coordination of activities and provision of mutual assistance between the two countries in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency in North America with transboundary implications.
Health Canada administers the Federal Nuclear Emergency Plan (FNEP), which can be activated to manage and coordinate federal response activities for a nuclear emergency requiring a multi-jurisdictional or multi-departmental off-site response. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), an independent agency of the Government of Canada, is the national regulator for the nuclear industry in Canada which includes any actions taken in response to the radiological or nuclear aspects of an emergency. In the event of a nuclear emergency, the federal government will liaise with the provinces and territories as well as with neighbouring countries and the international community as outlined in Appendix 19 to Annex I. The regulation of nuclear energy has been deemed to be a matter of national concern that goes beyond local or provincial interests.
The province has exclusive jurisdiction for matters of property and civil rights in the province and for all matters that affect the public health, safety and environment of the province. Pursuant to section 6, the federal Governor in Council can declare a public welfare emergency, which includes an emergency caused by a real or imminent accident, pollution resulting in danger to life or property, social disruption or breakdown in the flow of essential goods and services, so serious as to be a national emergency.
Pursuant to section 14, the Governor in Council must consult the provinces that are affected by the emergency before issuing a declaration of public welfare emergency.
Pursuant to section 8, while a declaration of a public welfare emergency is in effect, the Governor in Council may make necessary orders or regulations that are necessary to deal with the emergency.
This act assigns responsibility to the Minister of Public Safety for the coordination of emergency management activities including the development and implementation of federal civil emergency plans in cooperation with other levels of government and the private sector.
The Commission is given exceptional powers including the power to make any order in an emergency that it considers necessary to protect the environment or the health and safety of persons or to maintain national security and compliance with Canada’s international obligations. Compensation to third parties for injury or damage caused by a nuclear incident, as defined in the Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act, would be assessed and paid under the provisions of this Act. This legislation governs the transportation of dangerous goods (including radioactive goods) and the accidental release of ionizing radiation exceeding limits established by the Nuclear Safety and Control Act.
The provincial government has jurisdiction over public health and safety, property and the environment within its borders. The legislative authority for emergency management, planning and response for Ontario is the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act (EMCPA). The PNERP is formulated by the Lieutenant Governor in Council (LGIC) under section 8 of the EMCPA. The LGIC assigns responsibilities for formulating emergency plans in respect of specific types of emergencies to ministers (section 6 of the EMCPA).
Pursuant to section 3 (4) of the EMCPA, the designated municipalities shall formulate plans to deal with the off-site consequences of nuclear emergencies caused by the corresponding nuclear installation (Annex A).
These plans should also contain, where applicable, arrangements for the provision of services and assistance by county departments, local police services, fire services, EMS, hospitals and local boards. As required by section 8 of the EMCPA, municipal nuclear emergency response plans shall conform to the PNERP and be subject to the approval of the Solicitor General (this function is fulfilled by the Minister of Community Safety and Correctional Services). As required by section 5 of the EMCPA, plans of lower-tier municipalities shall conform to the plans of their upper tier municipality. Pursuant to sections 2(3) and 3(4) of the EMCPA, every municipality, in developing their emergency management program, must identify and assess the various hazards and risks to public safety that could give rise to emergencies. Where the upper tier municipality is not the designated municipality under this PNERP it may, with the consent of its designated municipalities, coordinate the nuclear emergency plans for those municipalities. In the event of a declared emergency, the LGIC or the Premier may order a municipality to provide support or assistance to designated municipalities or to affected municipalities.
Support and assistance may include, but shall not be limited to, personnel, equipment, services and material.
The responsibilities of provincial ministries, municipalities, federal departments and organizations, nuclear installations and their operators for nuclear emergency response and for the purposes of implementing this plan, are given in Annex I. The Province shall support and coordinate the response to the off-site consequences of a nuclear emergency and may, where warranted and appropriate, issue operational directives and, emergency orders (in the event of a declared emergency) under the EMCPA.
Even though nuclear facilities are designed and operated according to stringent safety standards, emergency preparedness and response must operate on the basis that mechanical failure, human error, extreme natural events or hostile action can lead to nuclear or radiological emergencies. All plans should be so devised as to be able to deal effectively with a broad range of possible emergencies.
An appropriate balance should be struck between risk and cost when assessing the level of emergency preparedness required. Exposure to radiation should be kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) within the context of the risks and costs of such avoidance. As much preparedness as is practicable should be done in advance to enable a rapid, effective and efficient response to a nuclear or radiological emergency.
Preparedness should include a program of public education for people who might be affected, to inform them of plans, and to help them cope with a nuclear emergency. As far as is practicable, operational measures (especially alerting and notification systems) and protective measures should be devised and implemented to avoid significant radiation exposure. A policy of truth and openness should be followed in providing information to the public and media during a nuclear or radiological emergency.
Remaining indoors with doors and windows closed and external ventilation turned off or reduced.
Measures which protect against external contamination and radiation exposure (as a result of a radioactive cloud or plume or deposited contamination). Measures which protect the food chain from radioactive contamination, and prevent the ingestion of contaminated food and water. Banning consumption and export of locally produced milk, meat, produce, and milk-and meat-producing animals. The main challenge that Ontario faces in this area would arise from an emergency at a nuclear installation4. Taking the above into consideration, as well as the various types of nuclear accidents that could potentially occur in Ontario, a basic offsite effect has been selected to serve as the main basis for nuclear emergency management. Detailed planning and preparedness shall be carried out in Ontario for dealing effectively with the basic offsite effect of a nuclear installation accident. An accident or event could occur which could result in a more severe offsite effect, though the probability of such an occurrence is very low.
Detailed planning and preparedness will establish an effective basis to deal with an emergency caused by any type of nuclear installation accident. The zone around the nuclear installation within which detailed planning and preparedness shall be carried out for measures against exposure to a radioactive plume. A larger zone within which it is necessary to plan and prepare measures to prevent ingestion of radioactive material. If someone in your home gets routine treatment outside the home or support services at home, work with the service provider on a back-up plan. Consider giving an extra set of keys to someone you trust and let them know where you keep your emergency kit.
Use 911 only when someone needs help right away to protect their health, safety or property. This checklist outlines all the essentials, items to meet your unique needs, and items to have ready in case you have to leave your home.
List two locations you would go to, one close, the other one farther away (outside your neighbourhood). The aim of these reforms is to ensure that a proactive and coordinated approach to managing emergencies is in place to reduce the significant risks faced by Ontario. This will be accomplished by preventing some emergencies before they occur, lessening the frequency and potential impact of others, and by speeding the recovery process following an event.
This requirement ensures that a consistent, accountable, and robust system of emergency management is established throughout the province.
Taken together, these documents provide a strategic, coherent and integrated approach to emergency management in Ontario and assist in developing federal, provincial and municipal strategies to reduce risk and enhance resilience within Ontario. This, in turn, is meant to assist in the ongoing development and implementation of emergency management programs at the provincial and municipal levels, and in the establishment of linkages with other partners and stakeholders. The Doctrine will be reviewed annually by EMO and the EMDSC to ensure it remains accurate, relevant, and continues to reflect the evolution of emergency management in Ontario and in other jurisdictions. Such emergencies may arise as a result of inadequate prevention, mitigation or preparedness measures, or new factors that could not have been known or incorporated during the hazard identification and risk assessment process (HIRA).
It is based on a risk management approach and includes activities in five components: prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Prevention and mitigation measures can greatly diminish the need for response and recovery activities required for certain emergencies and may result in long-term, cost-effective reduction of risk. The aim of these measures is to ensure that a controlled, coordinated, and effective response is quickly undertaken at the outset of the emergency to minimize its impact on public safety.
The aim of these measures is to assist individuals, businesses and communities to return to a state of normalcy. While humanitarian response capacities are vital and need continued attention, the focus on addressing risk underlines the recognition that human intervention designed to reduce the vulnerability of people and assets can reduce the impact of disasters. This allows resources to be allocated more effectively in order to prevent or minimize losses.
This requirement ensures that a consistent, accountable, and robust system of emergency management is established and maintained throughout the province. It has direct application to emergency management and results in a tailored emergency management program to reduce high-priority risks.
Individuals are responsible for the safety, preparedness, and well being of themselves and their family.
In order to protect the lives and property of their citizens, each municipality, along with its private sector and volunteer organization partners, develops and implements an emergency management program tailored to local needs. The federal government provides assistance to the provincial government when requested, and may take the lead during emergencies that clearly impact on federal jurisdiction, such as war or international crises.
Emergency Management Ontario, on behalf of the Province created a Supply Chain and Logistics Coordination Alliance in partnership with private sector corporations. Those involved in reducing the public safety risks of a single municipality might include, for example: individual citizens, families, businesses, neighbouring municipalities, provincial organizations such as conservation authorities, and various federal government organizations (in addition to the municipality itself). At the federal level, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), as the regulator of nuclear activities, ensures that preventive safety measures are implemented by the nuclear facility. All ministries are responsible for ensuring the continuity of their operations regardless of the type of emergency that occurs. For example, because infrastructure is dependent on energy sources and common information technologies, problems can cascade through the infrastructure, thereby causing unexpected and increasingly serious failures of essential services. It is a collaborative approach, which includes all levels of government and the private sector. The program is based upon assessing the likelihood and the consequence of events from both natural and human-caused threats that have the potential to seriously disrupt or destroy essential elements or functions of critical infrastructure. IMS is based on the understanding that in any and every incident, there are certain management functions (Command, Operations, Planning, Logistics, and Finance & Administration) that must be carried out regardless of the number of persons who are available or involved, or the size and scope of the descriptors for an incident. Ontario’s IMS is also consistent with international recommended practices contained in the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) Emergency Management and Business Continuity Program Standard (CSA Z1600), the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 1561, Standard on Emergency Services Incident Management System, and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 1600, Standard on Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs.
The IMS organizational structure is replicated, at the appropriate scale, at each level of emergency management. Organizations work together through their designated members of the Unified Command team, to establish a common set of objectives and strategies and a single Incident Action Plan (IAP). The IC has overall authority and responsibility for conducting incident operations and is responsible for the management of all incident operations. However, when expansion is planned or envisaged, supervisory positions may be established first and sub-components added subsequently. Under the constitutional division of powers, the management of public order and public welfare emergencies (the bulk of actual emergencies) is led by the provinces, with support from the federal government, while the reverse is true for war and international emergencies.
It does this by defining the authority, responsibilities, and safeguards accorded to provincial ministries, communities, and to specific individual appointments (such as the Chief of Emergency Management Ontario). The Premier also has the authority to terminate both provincial and municipal emergency declarations.
The Chief is also responsible for ensuring that these programs are coordinated with the programs of the Government of Canada. The assignment of a special area of (emergency) responsibility to a Minister is done through an Order in Council (See Appendix A for the current Order in Council).
In short, they are meant to provide guidance to communities and provincial ministries on proven, effective means to develop and implement emergency management programs.
War Emergencies and other Peacetime Emergencies not specifically assigned to another minister are the responsibility of the Minister of Community Safety and Correctional Services.
Ministries assigned specific types of emergencies, therefore, are responsible as much for providing overall strategic direction as for the commitment of resources within their control.

Where a provincial ministry has been assigned a special responsibility area that coincides with a priority risk at the municipal level, ministries will be involved, in varying degrees depending upon their mandate, in developing an emergency management program and plans to address that risk. For more current amendment information, see the Table of Regulations – Legislative History Overview. The Major Organization Plans (as per Figure I on page ii) should be consistent with the requirements under these implementing plans. These plans are based on, and should be consistent with the PNERP and with the Provincial Implementing Plans.
The terminology contained in the Glossary, Annex K, should be used for this purpose by all concerned. In a nuclear emergency, therefore, the Province will take the leading role in managing the off-site response. The Province may issue operational directives1 and emergency orders (in the event of a declared emergency), where warranted and appropriate, as further detailed in this Plan. Such a hazard will usually be caused by an accident, malfunction, or loss of control involving radioactive material.
It is not possible, without the risk of serious delay, to ascertain whether the resources normally available can be relied upon. This declaration can be renewed for one further period of 14 days, as long as it meets the test of the declared emergency. These are combined in one document since many of the features will be the same for all such potential emergencies. It would be applicable to accidents at nuclear establishments, transportation (of radioactive goods) accidents, satellite (containing radioactive material) re-entry, radiological dispersal devices (RDD), radiological devices (RD) and nuclear weapon detonation.
Pursuant to sections 3 and 8 of the EMCPA, municipal nuclear emergency response plans prepared by the designated municipalities in respect of nuclear installation emergencies (Annex A) shall conform to this PNERP and, shall address the agreed-to responsibilities outlined in Appendices 15 and 16 to Annex I. Municipalities in close proximity to, or with nuclear establishments within their boundaries should include, in their emergency response plans, the measures they may need to take to deal with a radiological accident.
Other municipalities which have a radiological incident identified as one of their potential risks within their Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment should include, within their municipal emergency response plans, the measures they may be required to undertake to deal with such an emergency (see PNERP Implementing Plan for Other Radiological Emergencies).
All municipal emergency response plans should provide for the development of plans and procedures involving local boards (defined pursuant to the Municipal Act, 2001, S.O.
They should also include the measures required to discharge offsite responsibilities in accordance with the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and Regulations and with the responsibilities outlined in Appendix 13 to Annex I. This plan contains an Ontario Annex, which provides for liaison with Ontario, the provision of federal assistance, and provisions for obtaining international assistance, should any be requested by Ontario.
In the event of a radiological or nuclear emergency, the CNSC will monitor and evaluate the on-site response of the licensee, or in the case of an event with no identified licensee, the CNSC will oversee and regulate the response activities of the responding organizations to ensure compliance with the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and Regulations, and ensure the health, safety and security of the response staff, the public and the environment, as well as maintain compliance with Canada’s international obligations. The federal government will also manage nuclear liability issues and coordinate Canada’s response, should Canadians be affected by a nuclear emergency in a foreign country. Therefore, the federal government maintains exclusive jurisdiction over the regulation of nuclear energy in Canada.
However, where the emergency is confined to one province, the Governor in Council may only issue a declaration of public welfare emergency or take other steps when the Lieutenant Governor of the province has indicated to the federal Governor in Council that the emergency exceeds the capacity of the province to deal with it. The orders or regulations made by the Governor in Council should not unduly impair the ability of the province to take measures, under provincial legislation, for dealing with the emergency. Federal authorities also coordinate or support the provision of assistance to a province during or after a provincial emergency.
Once a provincial declaration of emergency has been made (see section 1.3 above), the LGIC has the power to make emergency orders and may delegate these powers to a Minister or to the Commissioner of Emergency Management (CEM)2. Emergency orders are made only if they are necessary and essential, and they would alleviate harm and damage and are a reasonable alternative to other measures. Emergency orders must only apply to those areas where they are necessary and should be in effect only for as long as necessary.
During an emergency, the Premier or a minister (delegated) is required to regularly report to the public with respect to the emergency. The Premier is required to submit a report in respect of the emergency to the Assembly within 120 days following the termination of the emergency. Pursuant to section 11(1) of the EMCPA, Ministers of the Crown, Crown employees, members of municipal councils and municipal employees are protected from personal liability for doing any act done in good faith under the Act or pursuant to an Order made under the Act. Emergency plans authorize crown and municipal employees to take action under those plans where an emergency exists but has not yet been declared to exist (section 9 of the EMCPA).
In the case of those assigned to a position, implementation should also be the responsibility of any substitute, alternate or the person next in line of authority if the permanent incumbent of that position is absent or otherwise unable to take the necessary action. In addition to the obligation of Cabinet to formulate this plan, nuclear and radiological emergencies are assigned to the Minister of Community Safety & Correctional Services. Pursuant to section 3(4) of the EMCPA, municipalities have been designated to prepare plans in respect of nuclear emergencies.
Appendices 15 & 16 to Annex I address the main responsibilities of the designated municipalities. Municipalities in close proximity to, or with nuclear establishments within their boundaries, should include in their emergency response plans the measures they may need to take to deal with the off-site consequences of a radiological accident.
Other municipalities which have a radiological incident identified as one of their potential risks, within their Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment (pursuant to Section 2 (3) of the EMCPA), should include, within their municipal emergency response plans, the measures they may need to undertake to deal with such an emergency (see PNERP Implementing Plan for Other Radiological Emergencies). The Solicitor General may make such alterations as considered necessary for the purpose of coordinating the plan with the Province’s plan. Where a municipality identifies radiological risks (as per PNERP Implementing Plan for Other Radiological Emergencies), the emergency plan for that municipality must include provisions to deal with such an emergency. Once radioactive material enters the body, internal contamination decreases in accordance with the radioactive decay and biological elimination of such material. If there is a risk of radioiodine entering the body, the thyroid’s capacity to absorb it can be reduced or eliminated by taking a compound of stable iodine before, or even shortly after, the radioiodine enters the body. However, because resources are not available to make full preparations for dealing with all possible events, a judicious choice must be made to select the optimum basis for emergency management. Formal risk analysis of nuclear reactor accidents shows that there is generally an inverse relationship between the probability of occurrence of an accident and the severity of its likely consequences. The main hazard to people would be from external exposure to, and inhalation of radionuclides. The aim of this is to ensure, to the extent possible, that no person offsite will be exposed to intolerable levels5 of radiation as a result of such an accident. Radiation doses could be high (greater than 250 mSv [25 rem] for the most exposed person at the facility boundary).
Environmental contamination could be quantitatively significant in both extent and duration.
This requires planning and preparedness to enable detection and assessment of environmental contamination, protection of the food chain from contamination, and prevention of the ingestion of contaminated food and water.
Priority evacuations, if necessary, shall be undertaken within this area because of its proximity to the source of the potential hazard. Identify one or two out-of-town contacts you and loved-ones can call to connect and share information. Consider including family members, neighbours, and health-care and personal support workers.
In short, the end result will be a Province comprised of safe, secure, and disaster resilient communities1.
In basic terms, the hazard (risk that is a threat) produces adverse consequences and the possibility of an emergency. Prevention and mitigation measures are broadly classified as either structural or non-structural and include capital improvements, regulations, building codes and public education programs. Recovery measures include environmental clean-up, return of evacuees, emergency financial assistance, critical incident stress counseling, etc.
Moreover, the measures to be implemented may be part of a long-term strategy extending over many years and involving many steps and many constituents. Organizations using risk management processes are able to identify and exploit opportunities, make good decisions quickly, respond to and adapt to unexpected events and are better equipped to meet their objectives. At a minimum, everyone should possess an awareness of the hazards that might affect him or her and be sufficiently prepared to deal with them. During emergency response, a provincial ministry may implement its emergency response plan in support of the emergency. The purpose of the Alliance is to ensure the provision of strategic resources when and where they are required during large-scale emergencies. These partners would be involved in a full range of measures such as providing emergency response assistance, implementing mitigation measures, conducting public education, implementing personal and home preparedness, etc. The CNSC is also involved in emergency preparedness and response measures along with other federal organizations such as Public Safety Canada and Health Canada (with Health Canada taking the lead in the federal emergency response).
As the threats are ever changing and increasing in their scope and magnitude - from climate change to human-caused threats - so too are the vulnerabilities. It is a voluntary program, focusing on raising the resiliency of the province’s critical infrastructure and assuring continuance of services. It is not prescriptive or linear but depicts the various players that may be involved in any incident. However, each level will determine the staffing requirements, based on the nature and complexity of the incident.
The Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act was proclaimed and came into full force and effect on June 30, 2006.
They will also be of interest to partners and stakeholders as they develop complementary emergency management programs.
This can mean supporting the emergency management program of a municipality (by assisting in emergency response if asked, for example) or it can mean leading the entire emergency management program (in the case of forest fires, for example). Such action will be taken in order to protect public health and safety and the environment.
In either case, the CNSC will implement the CNSC Emergency Response Plan CAN2-1 November 2001. Assistance could include financial assistance where the emergency has been declared to be of concern to the federal government and the province has requested assistance.
If the Assembly is not in session at that time, the Premier is required to submit a report within 7 days of the Assembly reconvening. The planning basis selected must strike an appropriate balance in considering these two factors.
This should include being prepared to take care of themselves and their families for up to three days in the event of an emergency.
Emergency Management Ontario, as the overall provincial emergency management coordinator, is responsible for the promotion, development, implementation and maintenance of effective emergency management programs throughout Ontario, and for the coordination of these programs with the federal government. The Alliance involves members from all three levels of public sector government and the private sector representing all of the strategic sectors, including food and water, fuel, transportation and telecommunications. However, certain ministries, in addition to meeting their obligations for continuity of operations, have also been assigned special areas of responsibility (for specific types of emergencies or emergency services).
Clearly, these interdependencies make Ontario’s infrastructure more vulnerable to disruption or destruction.
The program improves the resiliency of critical infrastructure by allowing the continuance of functions through the effects of a threat. In developing their emergency management programs, therefore, ministries and municipalities need to consider and build on the complementary roles and mandates of one another.
25) and police services operating in the area to provide necessary support and assistance required by such plans, or that which may be needed in an emergency. Be familiar with evacuation plans, and talk to your building manager or neighbours to make special arrangements, if necessary.
The Provincial Emergency Operations Centre (PEOC) is the location where the coordination of all of the Alliance’s resources occurs during emergencies. EMO is responsible for coordinating the provincial response to an off-site nuclear emergency, with the assistance of provincial ministries as required. The current edition of this plan supersedes and replaces all older versions which should be destroyed. During emergencies where government services are affected, ministries are required to report any disruptions of critical government services to the Provincial Emergency Operations Centre Duty Officer (PEOC).
Representatives from across the Alliance membership staff a Supply Chain and Logistics Coordination team in the PEOC.
Similarly, at the municipal level, a number of directly affected and supporting municipalities, as well as their organizations such as police, fire and emergency medical services have roles. Strategic requirements are sent to the team from end-users and identified suppliers are linked to the requirements through the efforts of the team. And finally, schools, businesses, families, volunteer groups and individuals all have specific roles and responsibilities as part of an effort to reduce risk.
The fulfilling of the requirement is dealt with directly between the end-user and the identified supplier. For a nuclear emergency that does not extend beyond the site of a nuclear generating station, responsibility for a response rests with the nuclear operator.

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Rubric: Emergency Preparedness Survival


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