RF meters and detectors EMF detectos and meters to detect and measure high frequency power density. Amy O’Hair measures the radiation emitted by a cell phone, a microwave oven and two ‘Smart’ Meters in use.
Electro Magnetic Fields (EMFs) are comprised of electric fields that are generated by charged particles or charged particles that are in motion, and radiated fields emitted from items such as televisions, radios and microwaves. We also do not know the role that such electrical events as power spikes and transients, etc., may play.
As well, since higher magnetic fields indicate higher relative electric fields, by measuring the magnetic field you are also getting an indication of the relative size of the electric field.] I have also not referred to radio frequency or cellular telephone fields because I am not as familiar with that area which is very complicated with research just being begun in that area. Yesterday’s hearing in Bigfork was not well attended, but despite the poor turnout, those who did show up had a lot to say and asked many good questions.
There is more in Appendix I, so here it is — but note that it only relates to electric fields — is there more info somewhere?
Sally Sedgwick was concerned about the scenic wilderness southeast of Effie, and noted that even if the line creates a benefit for one area, is it acceptable to burden another with this line?  She requested that the line be co-located with pre-existing transmission )PUC pay attention, because that’s the requirement of PEER too).
Line losses?  Answered with information about comparative voltages for transmitting electricity, and that this was best (includes all of eastern interconnect!). He also had concerns about the change of rates through using a time of day supply, and the variability of those rates. Mattfield agreed, that these places will be closing down, the supply is limited, 30 years or so, and that’s about up. Maximum ampacity is defined for the Project as the expected capacity of the line, in this case 2,000 Amps.
The RF limits established by the FCC are actually quite complicated because they allow different power densities for each bandwidth. People get their own EMF meters and don’t immediately understand what the numbers on the screen mean. Also, in the conversion tables, you will find some numbers abbreviated with an exponential notation. I described the equation for calculating the magnitude of magnetic fields, but the equation should still hold true for RF radiations, as well. RF meters typically combine all axis values automatically, so please do look to your RF meter’s instruction manual to find how enable the option.
From what you described, it seems that you have a triaxial gaussmeter that only reads each axis individually. Since magnetic fields are frequently variable, it is difficult to take the three independent axis measurements simultaneously manually, so most higher priced triaxial gaussmeters perform this calculation automatically for the user. There is more to take into account for in generating a consistent magnetic field than just the wattage (current) that is running through the copper wire. The earth’s magnetic field is a static DC (direct current) magnetic field, like a bar magnet.
You could create a weak bar magnet by taking a battery, an iron rod (even a 10penny nail will work), a wire and a small light bulb.
Typically when people are concerned about magnetic fields in regards to health concerns, they are concerned with AC (alternating current) magnetic fields. If it was, Building Biologists generally measure RF using a tri-axis meter so as to get an accurate representation of ambient EMR conditions. However, if you’re looking for a source you can also look axis-by-axis and see where the predominant source of RF is coming from for a particular space. A special thanks to Dustin Mapel, Antioch College Co-Op student extraordinaire, who helped pull together these EMF resources!
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Or click the button below, tell us a little about your project and let our environmental consultants help you create a healthier building. The inverse square law states that the magnitude of one's exposure drops dramatically, proportionally to the square of one's distance from the source. The following tables tell you the approximate distances required to reach the Salzburg Precautionary Limit of 2001 and 2002. The purpose of the calculations below is to demonstrate that the inverse square law (defined at right) is not as helpful as you may think, when the level at which health effects occur is far below the transmit power of the devices (and international standards).
After performing the calculations, one realizes that having a cordless phone station using DECT non-stop radiation, or a Wi-Fi router in the same room provides similar (or greater) power densities to living near a cell tower. The following presentation by Graham Philips shows that a Wi-Fi enabled laptop at 50 cm can provide more radiation than a mobile phone mast (cell tower) at 100 meters (See slide 13).
The following table shows the minimal distances required to satisfy the Salzburg 2001 Limit and 2002 Outdoor Limit based upon the assumption of an isotropic antenna. Note that very early cordless phones were by comparison only ~1mW, but now the FCC allows a higher transmitter power of 1W. While the average output power is ~10mW, it is in the form of 100 bursts per second of 250 mW power, each for ~0.4 ms, according to HPA on Cordless Phones. To reduce the duration of exposure, turn off or increase auto-sync intervals, turn off internet wi-fi modes, and avoid use where signal reception is weak. Although speaker mode or a wired headset at 1 meter's distance greatly reduces the power density, it may not be enough to achieve the precautionary limit. By adaptive power control, a cell phone may adjust to a lower power level based on proximity to the nearest base station.
In practice, the cell tower radiation is not usually isotropic but is directional with main lobe and side lobes.
Note that a directional antenna focuses the power in certain directions, resulting in higher required distances. If we assume a directional antenna with gain of 17 dB = 50, then the distances required in certain directions could require a multiplication factor of sqrt(50)=7.
Weaker cell tower1 W31.6 m316 mPower levels can be adjusted based upon time of day, in order to conserve energy.
Strong Cell Tower50 W446m4.46 km Many surveys find cancer or other health effects within 300-400 meters.
Note that power line (AC) magnetic fields drop much more quickly down to levels thought to be safe.
Method of Calculation: Taking the CRT monitor as an example, I measured the approximate magnetic field at 1 foot using the TriField Meter, and then extrapolated based on that measurement using the inverse square law.
EMFs are strongest near the source of the emission, but can affect particles even at great distances, as in how a radio tower can emit a radiated signal that is received by antennas up to varying distances, depending upon the strength of the transmission. There have been a fair number of epidemiological studies in the area of childhood brain cancer and leukemia all of which indicate an association with EMFs - two to three times the number of cases - at magnetic field levels above 2-3 milliGauss (mG).
EMF Inspection Safe Levels Safe EMF The fact is none of the studies compared exposed subjects to unexposed subjects but only compared relative levels of exposure - because there are no unexposed people in our wired world. We do know however that for power line fields most people that are exposed, even to relatively high levels, do not seem to be affected.
Most appliances have high levels of EMFs that drop off very quickly and we are not exposed to them for long periods of time.
Many experts and public officials, as well as the few governments that have made an effort to offer public protection, have adopted the 3 mG cutoff point. The projected peak loading of the line – 1,024 Amps – was derived from power system modeling of the Project under system normal conditions in a 2020 summer off-peak case with high Manitoba – United States transfers. What we do know, and what is clearly presented in the BioInitiative Report, is that there is cause for concern with current levels of exposure in the US. Now you can translate the numbers from your meter into similar units as used by these existing guidelines.
By wrapping the wire around the iron rod in a spiral fashion and connecting the wire to a light and finishing the circuit back to the battery.

For directional antennae, we must factor in gain to calculate the maximum required distance.
While we have enjoyed the benefits of technology that utilizes EMFs for decades, there is still significant controversy surround the possible dangers of EMFs and the effects on the human body. But there are some exceptions where we can take avoidance measures such as not using electric blankets or keeping electric clocks right beside our beds or placing our children's beds in the bedrooms with the lowest EMF levels. Per IEEE Standard 644-1994 (R2008), IEEE Standard Procedures for Measurement of Power Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields From AC Power Lines, values were calculated at minimum conductor-to-ground clearance (mid-span) at a height of one meter above ground. If our government (FCC, OSHA) followed the precautionary principle we would have much more stringent guidelines for EMF (specifically magnetic fields) and RF (radio frequency) radiation. Personally, I lean toward the precautionary principle and like using the Building Biology thresholds whenever possible.
Various studies have shown that EMFs may have a detrimental effect on the iron content in our bodies, as well as the cell membranes that comprise many parts of our body, include our skin, organs and nerves, and even our DNA. We also do not know for certain whether long term chronic exposure is a key factor - although it certainly appears to be.
In fact many, myself included, suspect that EMFs may not be a cause of cancer, but a promoter that acts when other factors such as exposure to other environmental pollutants, or a genetic disposition are present. We can also check our homes for hot spots - in some cases improper grounding systems can cause high EMF levels that can easily be corrected.
While there is an established safety limit for the emission of EMFs, many common household items do emit far more than the accepted limit of 2.5 mG. And we can be cautious when buying a home - including a satisfactory EMF inspection requirement in the offer to purchase and avoiding homes with levels above the 2-3 mG magnetic field level. Many government and utility documents report the usual ambient level of 60-Hz magnetic field to be 0.5 mG.
At one distance you might measure 0.5mG, but measure 1 inch off in nearly any direction, and the number will be much higher or much lower.
These products include items we may use nearly every day, such as vacuum cleaners and hair dryers. If the scientific andpolitical community would accept the obvious facts - that there is indeed< an association between EMFs and higher levels of cancer and other diseases and disabilities then we could get on with the important research in finding what the key factors are.
I have not referred to electric field readings simply because most of the studies have looked at magnetic fields and most of the meters available to the general public at reasonable cost measure magnetic fields. Robert Becker, an MD who has been studying the effects of EMFs for 20 years, states a lmG safety limit in his book Cross Currents.
Some scientific studies claim that continued exposure to elevated levels of EMFs may result in significant health problems. When electricians try to solve a magnetic field problem they do their best to drop the level to 1 mG or below. For better detection and protection against EMFs in the home or in the workplace, an EMF inspection is recommended. EMF inspections will also help you to determine what an acceptable distance is to stand away from items that emit EMFs, such as microwaves or computers, and how to rearrange your furnishings so that you sit or sleep comfortably away from EMF emitting devices. Additionally, turning off electrical appliances that don’t currently need use, and using low power settings on items such as computer monitors that must remain on but are used constantly will also serve to reduce the amount of EMF emissions in the home or office. The BioElectric Body believes that there are several stages of health between "optimum wellness", "degenerative disease" and "Cancer". Government and utility documents report the usual ambient level of 60-Hz magnetic field to be 0.5 mG.

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