While governments and the Pentagon are increasingly talking up the need to protect the sensitive powergrid and brace for the impact of a potential electromagnetic pulse (EMP) incident, which could come naturally from a solar flare or via an attack by a foreign entity, the Air Force is ready to embrace EMP as the status quo of future warfare. The Air Force Research Laboratory has been working with Boeing for several years on the perfection, miniaturization and deployment of its Counter-electronics High-powered Advanced Missile Project (CHAMP), which has already been in the arsenal, but which will become increasingly central to the armed forces.
In their test, the electromagnetic attack took out all the computers and other electronic equipment in the office without creating any structural damage, which would have rendered most populations and many enemies helpless in a real world conflict scenario. Though there are ways to guard against an EMP attack, it essentially amounts to an instant checkmate for anyone who is not prepared. Lights out may largely translate to game over in future scenarios… bringing the masses to their knees. That is what the Air Force is eyeing, and why it is (pardon the unfortunate pun) championing CHAMP in itspublic relations efforts. CHAMP is “an operational system already in our tactical air force, and that is really what will make us more operationally relevant. United States EMP Commission statement about the domino effect an EMP attack would have on the United States. But are its devastating effects against civil populations – even in declared wars – fair game? Given that our brains run on electrical impulses via our nerves, how long until they can make this a weapon to wipe out our memories on a mass scale? One of the most common initialisms (or acronyms that do not form actual words) to be confused with EMP is EMMP. An EMP (or electromagnetic pulse) is a burst of electromagnetic radiation strong enough to damage electronic systems and corrupt data stored on hard disks.
EarthIntegrateEarthintegrate is a leading provider of marketing technology with their relationship marketing platform, Pando. Which are the types of technologies and systems TK-Global Technotelecom offers to our global clients?
A mobile network operator or MNO is a provider of wireless communications services that owns or controls all the elements necessary to sell and deliver services to an end user including radio spectrum allocation, wireless network infrastructure, back haul infrastructure, billing, customer care and provisioning computer systems and marketing, customer care, provisioning and repair organizations. A key defining characteristic of a mobile network operator is that an MNO must own or control access to a radio spectrum license from a regulatory or government entity.
A mobile network operator typically also has the necessary provisioning, billing and customer care computer systems and the marketing, customer care and engineering organizations needed to sell, deliver and bill for services, however, an MNO can outsource any of these systems or functions and still be considered a mobile network operator. Wireless communication is the transfer of information between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor. The most common wireless technologies use electromagnetic wireless telecommunications, such as radio.
With radio waves distances can be short, such as a few meters for television or as far as thousands or even millions of kilometers for deep-space radio communications.
It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable applications, including two-way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless networking.
Other examples of applications of radio wireless technology include GPS units, garage door openers, wireless computer mice, keyboard sand headsets, headphones, radio receivers, satellite television, broadcast television and cordless telephones.
Radio spectrum refers to the part of the electromagnetic spectrum corresponding to radio frequencies – that is, frequencies lower than around 300 GHz (or, equivalently, wavelengths longer than about 1 mm).
In contracts pertaining to such networks, backhaul is the obligation to carry packets to and from that global network. In both the technical and commercial definitions, backhaul generally refers to the side of the network that communicates with the global Internet, paid for at wholesale commercial access rates to or at an Ethernet Exchange or other core network access location.
Cell phones communicating with a single cell tower constitute a local sub network, the connection between the cell tower and the rest of the world begins with a backhaul link to the core of the Internet service provider's network.
Visualizing the entire hierarchical network as a human skeleton, the core network would represent the spine, the backhaul links would be the limbs, the edge networks would be the hands and feet, and the individual links within those edge networks would be the fingers and toes. Connecting a submarine communications cable system landing point (which is usually in a remote location) with the main terrestrial telecommunications network of the country that the cable serves.
The choice of backhaul technology must take account of such parameters as capacity, cost, reach, and the need for such resources as frequency spectrum, optical fiber, wiring, or rights of way.
Backhaul capacity can also be leased from another network operator, in which case that other network operator generally selects the technology. As data rates increase, the range of wireless network coverage is reduced, raising investment costs for building infrastructure with access points to cover service areas. Many common wireless mesh network hotspots solutions are supported in open source router firmware including DD-WRT, Open WRT and derivatives. The use of the term backhaul to describe this type of connectivity may be controversial technically.
This focus has resulted in a unique range of small cell technologies, and it has made it much easier to interoperate with gateway vendors, using open standard interfaces. Group behavior – increasingly, mall cells are deployed in groups as self-organizing networks (SON).
Applications – there is a great opportunity to serve and process content at the edge of the network, from inside small cells, where content is closer to mobile users. Automatic power-setting, tracking systems to optimize coverage, whilst ensuring interference does not exceed levels that are pre-determined by operator policies. Automatically adjusts downlink power to that most suitable for the services being used, to minimize interference to nearby macro users. Mobile operators face increasing customer demand to provide mobile coverage in rural and remote locations.
In the majority of countries as in Africa, South America, coverage is still far from universal, even those that have well-developed networks.
The challenge for all emerging nations telecommunications systems and long distance rural coverage is cost-effectiveness, and in particular the costs of site acquisition, backhaul, power and equipment. TK-Global Technotelecom technologies and systems including macro-cell coverage tend to be deployed to give as large a coverage area as possible, and a high proportion of users find themselves with relatively viable-operative signal levels but in many cases can find themselves out or range of these a coverage signal areas and thus not having a top level telecommunications system all the time and in all areas or regions. Provide a high-capacity solution close to the point of use, to match local concentrations of demand. Lifecycle management – providing operators complete control of the supply chain, assuring in-service reliability, preserving infrastructure independence and providing a platform for delivering new services. TK-Global Technotelecom has developed unique radio, frequencies, resource algorithms, which mean that the unit(s) explore the radio environment to optimize the service provided to the user, while at the same time minimizing any possible disruption to the external macro network.
The system and technology can also be configured to treat voice coverage or data performance preferentially. Technotelecom has developed a highly flexible and comprehensive performance management reporting capability as a result of numerous commercial deployments.
Based on the Global System for Mobile ( GSM ) communication standard, UMTS, endorsed by major standards bodies and manufacturers, is the planned standard for mobile users around the world by 2010.
Users will have access through a combination of terrestrial wireless and satellite transmissions.
Today's cellular telephone systems are mainly circuit-switched , with connections always dependent on circuit availability.
It will also make it possible to provide new services, such as alternative billing methods (pay-per-bit, pay-per-session, flat rate, asymmetric bandwidth, and others). The electromagnetic radiation spectrum for UMTS has been identified as frequency bands 1885-2025 MHz for future IMT-2000 systems, and 1980-2010 MHz and 2170-2200 MHz for the satellite portion of UMTS systems.
Since 2006, UMTS networks in many countries have been or are in the process of being upgraded with High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA), sometimes known as 3.5G. The first national consumer UMTS networks launched in 2002 with a heavy emphasis on Telco-provided mobile applications such as mobile TV and video calling. UMTS also specifies the Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN), which is composed of multiple base stations, possibly using different terrestrial air interface standards and frequency bands.

The UE (User Equipment) interface of the RAN (Radio Access Network) primarily consists of RRC (Radio Resource Control), RLC (Radio Link Control) and MAC (Media Access Control) protocols. The CN can be connected to various backbone networks, such as the Internet or an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) telephone network. Over 130 licenses have already been awarded to operators worldwide (as of December 2004), specifying W-CDMA radio access technology that builds on GSM. In Europe, the license process occurred at the tail end of the technology bubble, and the auction mechanisms for allocation set up in some countries resulted in some extremely high prices being paid for the original 2100 MHz licenses, notably in the UK and Germany. It has been suggested that these huge license fees have the character of a very large tax paid on future income expected many years down the road. The 2100 MHz band (downlink around 2100 MHz and uplink around 1900 MHz) allocated for UMTS in Europe and most of Asia is already used in North America.
AT&T Wireless launched UMTS services in the United States by the end of 2004 strictly using the existing 1900 MHz spectrum allocated for 2G PCS services. In Canada, UMTS coverage is being provided on the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands on the Rogers and Bell-Telus networks. In 2008, Australian Telco Telstra replaced its existing CDMA network with a national UMTS-based 3G network, branded as NextG, operating in the 850 MHz band. UMTS phones (and data cards) are highly portable—they have been designed to roam easily onto other UMTS networks (if the providers have roaming agreements in place).
UMTS phones can use a Universal Subscriber Identity Module, USIM (based on GSM's SIM) and also work (including UMTS services) with GSM SIM cards. Roaming agreements between networks allow for calls to a customer to be redirected to them while roaming and determine the services (and prices) available to the user. Handsets can store their data on their own memory or on the (U) SIM card (which is usually more limited in its phone book contact information). All of the major 2G phone manufacturers (that are still in business) are now manufacturers of 3G phones.
Using a cellular router, PCMCIA or USB card, customers are able to access 3G broadband services, regardless of their choice of computer (such as a tablet PC or a PDA). Technokontrol has designed via its R&D programme our unique Anti-EMPS technologies which can work in many different sectors for the protection and safety of the military, national security, strategic infrastructures and law enforcement sectors including strategic databases, cyber warfare and information technology bases including satellites, telecommunications, radars,financial services, government databanks and military installations. Once the EMPS Bomb has been activated which could also include in any mode of transport for example and especially fuel transports systems whom rely on GPS,GMS,satellite technologies as rail, shipping, aircraft and even trucking causing accidents, explosions and full technical failures.
A cuboctahedron has 12 identical vertices, with 2 triangles and 2 squares meeting at each, and 24 identical edges, each separating a triangle from a square. While commonly thought of as a weapon, this can also happen naturally as the earth’s magnetosphere is shifted by cosmic radiation bursts such as large solar flares. An EMMP (or Enterprise Marketing Management Platform) is a new ideology that unifies existing approaches to enterprise management with cutting edge technological advances that allow for the flow of information to be directly focused on producing results and ROI (return on investment). Building on what already works and adding conservation and innovation to the process is an excellent way to gather the kind of information you’ll need to succeed. Not many, but they both get really big jobs done quickly and effectively and are both disruptive technologies. A second key defining characteristic of an MNO is that an MNO must own or control the elements of the network infrastructure that are necessary to provide services to subscribers over the licensed spectrum. A non-technical business definition of backhaul is the commercial wholesale bandwidth provider who offers Quality of service (QOS) guarantees to the retailer. The term backhaul may be used to describe the entire wired part of a network, although some networks have wireless instead of wired backhaul, in whole or in part, for example using microwave bands and mesh network and edge network topologies that may use a high-capacity wireless channel to get packets to the microwave or fiber links.
Mesh networks are unique enablers that can reduce this cost due to their flexible architecture. Since a mesh requires no costly cable constructions for its backhaul network, it reduces total investment cost.
Sputnik Agent, Hotspot System, Chillispot and the ad-supported Anchor Free are four examples that work even with lower end routers like the WRT54G. They invert the business definition, as it is the customer who is providing the connectivity to the open Internet while the vendor is providing authentication and management services. In order to achieve this, not only do the cells need to understand their relationship to the macro network on initialization, but they need to be able to adapt to changes as and when they occur. For developing, emerging and developed regions, nations, continents the challenge is to provide national-extensive and even rural, long distance, un-populated based network coverage at an affordable cost, but which makes business sense to deploy. In more mature markets, in addition to basic voice coverage, there is now an expectation of mobile data to serve the growing population of smart phones and tablets. They can be used to extend the overall coverage, either for pockets of population or along highways and railways; or they could be used to provide localized data capacity in locations where it would otherwise not be cost-effective.
For backhaul, we use commodity broadband such as DSL, or even low-cost satellites operators anywhere over the globe for maximum coverage backup and coverage at all times and as extensive as possible. In order to ensure that a hotspot cell is attracting the right level of load, or if the load increases and additional capacity is not yet available, the cell can tune its coverage to maintain optimal throughput in the cell. Equally of importance, all of these capabilities are already used in live commercial networks and, in the process, have been through rigorous testing and optimization cycles. Mobile operators can specify from their management system the priority of the handover type, and who gets the service. For example, the management system has full control over which counters are included in the report and the frequency at which the metrics are collected, and when the reports are started, stopped, and uploaded. Once UMTS is fully implemented, computer and phone users can be constantly attached to the Internet as they travel and, as they roaming service , have the same set of capabilities no matter where they travel to. Until UMTS is fully implemented, users can have multi-mode devices that switch to the currently available technology (such as GSM 900 and 1800). Packet-switched connection, using the Internet Protocol (IP), means that a virtual connection is always available to any other end point in the network.
UMTS promises to realize the Virtual Home Environment (VHE) in which a roaming user can have the same services to which the user is accustomed when at home or in the office, through a combination of transparent terrestrial and satellite connections.
RRC protocol handles connection establishment, measurements, radio bearer services, security and handover decisions. This set of properties decides the maximum allowed data in a TTI (Transmission Time Interval). In any event, the high prices paid put some European telecom operators close to bankruptcy (most notably KPN). Between 2007 and 2009 all three Finnish carriers begun to use 900 MHz UMTS in a shared arrangement with its surrounding 2G GSM base stations for rural area coverage, a trend that is expected to expand over Europe in the next 1–3 years.
The 1900 MHz range is used for 2G (PCS) services, and 2100 MHz range is used for satellite communications. Cingular acquired AT&T Wireless in 2004 and has since then launched UMTS in select US cities.
Telstra currently provides UMTS service on this network, and also on the 2100 MHz UMTS network, through a co-ownership of the owning and administrating company 3GIS. To enable a high degree of interoperability, UMTS phones usually support several different frequencies in addition to their GSM fallback. Because of the frequencies used, early models of UMTS phones designated for the United States will likely not be operable elsewhere and vice versa. This is a global standard of identification, and enables a network to identify and authenticate the (U) SIM in the phone. In addition to user subscriber information and authentication information, the (U) SIM provides storage space for phone book contact.
A (U)SIM can be moved to another UMTS or GSM phone, and the phone will take on the user details of the (U) SIM, meaning it is the (U)SIM (not the phone) which determines the phone number of the phone and the billing for calls made from the phone. The early 3G handsets and modems were specific to the frequencies required in their country, which meant they could only roam to other countries on the same 3G frequency (though they can fall back to the older GSM standard).

Some software installs itself from the modem, so that in some cases absolutely no knowledge of technology is required to get online in moments.
Nokia has recently released a range of phones that have Pentaband 3G coverage, including the N8 and E7. Thus causing the downfall of the nations society, commerce, industry,government and all types of institutions as we understand it in todayA?s world. These new types of technological warfare wonA?t stop terrorism or sabotage attacks against important national infrastructures as pipelines, refineries, factories, jumbo tanks, rail freight transports, police stations, military bases,etc. Thus being paramount that as many as possible basic infrastructures operations centres must be protected at all costs in the event of the worst possible scenarios, especially power grids, water resources, telecommunications centres, civil protection, armed forces, government institutions,strategic fuel deposits, fuel delivery services and most importantly food and medical services to the general population.
The contra-effect is then the use of IEDA?s to continue a never ending battle of will but the pyscological drama of all parties doesnA?t stop once back home but only begins with the traumatic psychological battlefield stresses of all parties and for the rest of their lives, especially worse for the modern nations where living standards and human lives are more valuable socially. The most common way to create a large scale EMP effect is to explode a nuclear warhead high in the atmosphere (400km or about 250 miles up). In any operation it’s difficult to know what you don’t know, but getting an EMMP for a large campaign or operation can be like turning the lights on for your enterprise. So much like the EMP in Japan’s 2003 killer sequel Battle Royal II: Requiem, an EMMP can get you out of a tough situation. Get to the root of relationship marketing through improved sales enablement and enhanced marketing automation with Pando.
Mesh technology’s capabilities can boost extending coverage of service areas easily and flexibly. These values are then dynamically altered according to the actual levels reported by the end user device through measurement reports.
Work is also progressing on improving the uplink transfer speed with the High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA). RLC protocol primarily divides into three Modes—Transparent Mode (TM), Unacknowledged Mode (UM), Acknowledge Mode (AM).
However, the migration path to UMTS is still costly: while much of the core infrastructure is shared with GSM, the cost of obtaining new spectrum licenses and overlaying UMTS at existing towers is high. The network layer (OSI 3) includes the Radio Resource Management protocol (RRM) that manages the bearer channels between the mobile terminals and the fixed network, including the handovers. Regulators have, however, freed up some of the 2100 MHz range for 3G services, together with a different range around 1700 MHz for the uplink. Recently, new providers Wind Mobile, Mobili city and Videotron have begun operations in the 1700 MHz band.
Different countries support different UMTS frequency bands – Europe initially used 2100 MHz while the most carriers in the USA use 850 MHz and 1900 MHz. There are now 11 different frequency combinations used around the world—including frequencies formerly used solely for 2G services.
Using a phone that supports 3G and Bluetooth 2.0, multiple Bluetooth-capable laptops can be connected to the Internet. This will only increase the spectrum of terror or piracy armament portfolio against normal stable nations, governments or corporations for whatever reason, from economical blackmail to political power control, simple eco-politcial-terrorism or to pure international criminal activities.
There are tons of differences, and almost no existing similarities between the two other than having a similar initialism. This has been known since the very first nuclear tests back in 1945, however the idea of it being used as a weapon was not seriously considered until much later. A single high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (or HEMP) can disrupt an area almost as large as the entire United States. The Pando tree is actually one of the oldest and largest organisms on the planet, but you wouldn’t be able to tell that just from looking at it. The functionality of AM entity resembles TCP operation whereas UM operation resembles UDP operation. Both integrity and ciphering are applied for SRBs whereas only ciphering is applied for data RBs.
At the time, the psychological impact of the actual nuclear bomb on the war was a much greater focus and technology was not as sophisticated and therefore less prone to failure from an EMP. A HEMP explosion could even damage satellites in low orbit (think GPS, Cable TV, Hubble Telescope), leaving us completely in the dark. In the Matrix trilogy the ships the protagonists used to get around in the real world were equipped with non-nuclear EMP devices to neutralize the machines.
On the surface it actually looks like a small forest of individual trees, but beneath is a unified and efficient structure of roots that connects all of them into one big organism. Some businesses are content to just keep taking stabs in the dark until something sticks, but isn’t it better to just know where to aim and what you’re hitting?
And like the EMP powered ships in The Matrix, an EMMP can protect you from some of the pitfalls and dangers of the real world. In TM mode, data will be sent to lower layers without adding any header to SDU of higher layers. Signaling messages are sent on Signaling Radio Bearers (SRBs) and data packets (either CS or PS) are sent on data RBs.
The Soviet MIG fighter jets for example are made with old style vacuum tubes instead of transistors, making them nearly immune to EMP blasts. When the United States first tested the effects of the HEMP out in the pacific during operation Starfish Prime (1962), Hawaii was unintentionally affected almost 900 miles away. On the hit Fox show “24”, the topic of EMP weapons comes up more often than the topic of Jack Bauer’s conscience.
Likewise an EMMP may look to the user as a set of beautifully separate and individual services, but beneath those services runs a vast network of informational routes that enable the EMMP to digest information from one service and provide it for another in an efficient and intelligent way. MAC handles the scheduling of data on air interface depending on higher layer (RRC) configured parameters.
Even if an EMP were to take out all of the newer systems in the aircraft, the basic flight controls, engines and all other core functionality would remain intact.
About 300 streetlights were blown out, a microwave link was damaged and numerous burglar alarms set off. 2001’s version of Ocean’s Eleven used an EMP (non-nuclear) to shut down the electrical grid in Vegas in order to set up their casino heist. This leads the user to have a much more cohesive experience with less frustrations and repetition, leading to better ROIs and a more loyal client base. In recent times, the MIG has even been equipped with its own EMP devices on the wings, making it a formidable air to air fighter against the most cutting edge jets in the world. This may not seem very significant, but there are a lot of factors that affect the size and magnitude of HEMPs such as the global location of the explosion and the magnetosphere configuration in that region. Even this year’s remake of Red Dawn has North Korea using an EMP device to disable much of the United States defensive infrastructure. Having this kind of informational flexibility also allows for technological innovations to arise organically from the ground up, transforming the process to better suit you and your clients. Ghost Recon Future Soldier video game features on hand EMP grenades that allow you to disable enemy electronics (including radar) without doing any physical damage to the enemy (can be useful for setting up a data hack).
While the extent of said damage is still not well documented (or the documents are more likely still classified), it is known that a resulting current surge in an underground power line actually caused a major fire to break out at the Karaganda power plant. Some even speculate that the Mayan 2012 end of the world prediction revolves around a solar flare caused EMP that will irreversibly destroy most of the world’s electronic infrastructure and leave us in a state of panic and starvation from which we will not be able to fully recover.
It’s a scary thought, but most ‘end of the world’ scenarios and things having to do with nuclear weapons typically are.

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