Just to spook you here is some history about an event that has come to be called the Carrington Event. Telegraph systems all over Europe and North America failed, in some cases giving telegraph operators electric shocks. On Saturday, September 3, 1859, the Baltimore American and Commercial Advertiser reported, “Those who happened to be out late on Thursday night had an opportunity of witnessing another magnificent display of the auroral lights. Ice cores contain thin nitrate-rich layers that can be analyzed to reconstruct a history of past events before reliable observations; the data from Greenland ice cores was gathered by Kenneth G. Electromagnetic pulse is commonly abbreviated as EMP and pronounced by saying the three letters separately (E-M-P).
In military terminology, a nuclear warhead detonated hundreds of kilometers above the Earth’s surface is known as a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) device.
A high-altitude nuclear detonation produces an immediate flux of gamma rays from the nuclear reactions within the device. The pulse can easily span continent-sized areas, and this radiation can affect systems on land, sea, and air. The altitude indicated above is greater than that of the International Space Station and many low Earth orbit satellites. Typical nuclear weapon yields used during Cold War planning for EMP attacks were in the range of 1 to 10 megatons (4.2 to 42 PJ) This is roughly 50 to 500 times the sizes of the weapons the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs. The EMP at a fixed distance from an explosion increases at most as the square root of the yield (see the illustration to the right). In nuclear EMP all of the components of the electromagnetic pulse are generated outside of the weapon. For high-altitude nuclear explosions, much of the EMP is generated far from the detonation (where the gamma radiation from the explosion hits the upper atmosphere). In other words, the electric field strength in the entire area that is affected by the EMP will be fairly uniform for weapons with a large gamma ray output.
The Faraday cage is named after Michael Faraday, the scientist who discovered its properties for shielding against electromagnetic waves, including electricity. A Faraday cage protects its contents by preventing electromagnetic energy from getting inside.
There are lots of places on the Internet claiming that all you need to do is put your gear into a microwave oven or Mylar bag and it will be protected from EMP. This is important to know because you will see videos online where people put their cell phones into a microwave, Mylar bag or some other type of “Faraday” protection and demonstrate the effectiveness by showing how the cell phone loses the WiFi and cell tower signals. There needs to be a minimum of 3 layers of aluminum foil completely surrounding the device. Use a minimum of 5 layers if you’re not going to be using a second layer of shielding, e.g. In order for the Faraday cage to be effective, the metal needs to completely surround the device being protected. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.
Carrying a phone in your pocket all day may seem harmless, but there's a growing body of evidence linking devices to impotence, infertility and low sperm count. The cotton in Wireless Armour underwear, pictured, is woven with a mesh of silver that shields wearers from electromagnetic radiation.
WHAT IS A FARADAY CAGE?Faraday cages, named after inventor Michael Faraday, are used to protect electronics from interference. Faraday cages, named after inventor Michael Faraday, are used to protect electronics from interference by blocking the current. For example, systems in parliament, banks and stock market servers are protected by the technology. In the Wireless Armour range, thin threads of silver are woven in with the cotton during the production stage. Wireless Armour underpants are available in two styles - tight-fitting Boxer Briefs or loose Trunks. MOBILE PHONES AND FERTILITYMen who use mobile phones could be risking their fertility, according to two separate studies from Cleveland and Egypt. The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. She suffers from electromagnetic hypersensitivity intolerance syndrome (EHS) which means she cannot stand to be near pulsed electromagnetic fields.Velmaa€™s condition emerged with the arrival of 3G mobile phones, although she says a previous electric shock as a teenager may have made her more susceptible. Velma, who has been unable to work since suffering from RSI and a compressed nerve on her spine, suffers agonising head and nerve pain, memory loss, tinnitus, ectopic heart beats, vertigo and aching joints if she goes near mobile phones, WIFI and satnav.She is forced to spend much of each day in a makeshift Faraday cage in her flat in London. WHAT IS SENSITIVITY TO ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES?Up to five per cent of the population believe they are affected by electrosensitivity and experience flu-like symptoms, headaches, lethargy and nausea when exposed to various appliances.Electromagnetic waves are everywhere and we are constantly bombarded by them from space. WiFi waves are higher in frequency than mobile phones and are intense due to the amount of info they carry.Electrosensitivity is not recognised as a disability or a medical condition in the UK.
A Faraday cage works by three mechanisms: (1) the conductive layer reflects incoming fields, (2) the conductor absorbs incoming energy, and (3) the cage acts to create opposing fields. Field cancelation occurs when the free carriers in the conductive material rapidly realign to oppose the incident electric field.
Yes, as long as the holes are small with respect to the wavelength of the incident electromagnetic wave. Yes, there are many conductive enclosures that can be used, including ammo cans, metal garbage cans, anti-static bags, and even old microwave ovens.
Anti-static bags are readily available to protect electronic components against electrostatic discharge. The Prepared Prepper's Cookbook: Over 170 Pages of Food Storage Tips, and Recipes From Preppers All Over America!
Does anyone know if you can use packing peanuts to insulate and keep the contents of the cage from contact with the exterior walls? Question about gaps: If I use an ammo can with a rubber gasket to make the ammo can (and radio equipment) waterproof, having to repeatedly re-seal the can with conductive tape seems like a real pain. I read on another blog that an old microwave oven (old plugged of course) could be used for small items.
I have several 30 gallon metal trashcans setup in a similar manner, except I don’t use any coffin locks, or anything else on the lid since its already tight fitting. An EMP is not a continuous event, it is a burst of energy that is released, the damage is done, and then it’s gone, unless it is caused by a solar storm which could last for several hours or even days. As stated in the article, a solar storm is not likely to produce effects that will hurt small electronic items, unless they are connected to an external long wiring system, which could include the electrical grid, your landline telephone, your local cable TV provider, all of which contain long enough antennas to induce large voltages onto the system, and into connected devices. The Carrington Event of 1859 cause problems with telegraph offices because the telegraph wires between the offices acted as a large antenna system, which collected the energy and delivered it to the devices connected to it. If vulnerable equipment is not in the protected enclosure during the event, then it could be subject to damage.
The truth is that no one knows for sure what will work without knowing the exact characteristics of electromagnetic pulse and that is impossible to know in advance.


I know that lightning isn’t RF or an EMP but it is a huge energy source and I predict EMP will be just as unpredictable. As a EE I think that this article was spot on; although perhaps a little more complex in the description of the physics than it would have to be . I dont think you all got my point, You have explained what an EMP does and how long it lasts, but you, me and everyone here does NOT know when one will happen.
What you keep in your Faraday cage always are the spare electronic parts for your car or truck, your spare ham radio, your extra laptop computer, etc. If you have a set of 2 way radios that work ok in your area, and you are happy with them, then buy a second set and put them in the cage.
I keep hand held wallis talkies for communication on the farm and with my neighbors Ina faraday box.
But go ahead and use the garbage cans, the ammo cans, the aluminum foil packets, the coffee cans, etc. It’s good that you do such important work with things for a living because if you had to interact with people you would be out of a job. As somebody else in the radio field, I am going to have chime in to state that your information is not correct, either here or your improved explanation below. Some articles I’ve read refer to super EMP devices, nuclear devices designed for maximum magnetic yield. If it does happen, I figure it at least gives me a fighting chance, and if I do have a break-in, chances are that the burglars will overlook that antique.
You’re absolutely right about the multiple layer effects working better than a thick conductor. I have a lead lined ammo box , that was originally used to transport radioactive pharmaceuticals in for small stuff . Instead of thinking of a faraday cage like you would an umbrella in a rainstorm, think of it instead like a sponge you are standing under.
That is perhaps the best analogy I can come up with for how a faraday cage is supposed to work.
I’ve had to harden communications sites, some of the most vulnerable equipment to emp, to survive direct lightning strikes. Just before noon on September 1, the English amateur astronomers Richard Carrington and Richard Hodgson independently made the first observations of a solar flare. Worldwide reports on the effects of the geomagnetic storm of 1859 were compiled and published by Elias Loomis which support the observations of Carrington and Stewart.
Aurorae were seen around the world, even as far south as the Caribbean; those over the Rocky Mountains were so bright that their glow awoke gold miners, who began preparing breakfast because they thought it was morning.
The phenomenon was very similar to the display on Sunday night, though at times the light was, if possible, more brilliant, and the prismatic hues more varied and gorgeous. Nuclear explosions create a characteristic pulse of electromagnetic radiation called a Nuclear EMP or NEMP. The specific characteristics of any particular nuclear EMP event vary according to a number of factors.
Effects of a HEMP device depend on factors including the altitude of the detonation, energy yield, gamma ray output, interactions with the Earth’s magnetic field and electromagnetic shielding of targets.
These photons in turn produce high energy free electrons by Compton scattering at altitudes between (roughly) 20 and 40 km. Large weapons could have a dramatic impact on satellite operations and communications such as occurred during Operation Fishbowl. Within the range of gamma ray deposition, simple laws no longer hold as the air is ionised and there are other EMP effects, such as a radial electric field due to the separation of Compton electrons from air molecules, together with other complex phenomena.
Physicists have testified at United States Congressional hearings that weapons with yields of 10 kilotons (42 TJ) or less can produce a large EMP. In the thermonuclear Starfish Prime the fission yield was less than 100% and the thicker outer casing absorbed about 95% of the prompt gamma rays from the pusher around the fusion stage.
The geomagnetic storm-like E3 component of nuclear EMP is more closely proportional to the total energy yield of the weapon. You can build simple Faraday cages at home at a very low cost that will work just as well as the expensive ones that the government uses.
Put it into the Faraday cage you’re testing and listen to see if the radio station is still being picked up by the radio. Concerned about the health of his 'little swimmers', a physician from London created a range of underwear fitted with silver 'cages' to protect them from radiation.The mesh of silver is woven into the fabric of the pants and shields the wearer from electromagnetic rays from phones, tablets and other devices - creating a so-called Faraday cage. It creates what's called a Faraday cage that uses conductive materials to block electromagnetic energy. Wirelessa€™ Armoura€™s Faraday cage fabric has been independently tested and was found to shield 99.97 per cent of Wi-Fi radiation. There are then two versions of each - a 360 model which protects from radiation in the front and back, or an 180 model that only provides protection on the front of the body. However, in the summer she takes the opportunity to escape to a park as she says this helps to earth her system.Velma made the Faraday cage herself from off-cut material costing A?300. The Health Protection Agency say there is no scientific evidence linking ill health with electrical equipment, although it recognises people do report real and distressing symptoms.Many medics are sceptical about electromagnetic hypersensitivity syndrome as a result, although some like Dr Mallery-Blythe think it is a real condition.
A better precaution against solar events is to unplug electronics and use quality surge suppressors. If the cage is made from something non-conductive, the free carriers are not mobile enough to realign and cancel the incident field. The conductivity of nearly any metal is good enough to allow the carriers to easily realign to cancel external fields. Each has its own level of effectiveness as covered in my book, Disaster Preparedness for EMP Attacks and Solar Storms. They can be purchased in many different sizes, including some large enough to hold radio equipment.
Engineers who work in electromagnetics often use “shield rooms” to conduct experiments because they do an excellent job of filtering out interfering signals, providing in excess of 100 dB of shielding.
There can be no conductive penetrations into the room, or it will seriously degrade the shielding. A steel trash can with a very tight fitting lid does a pretty good job of acting as a Faraday cage.
I tested ammo cans for my book, and they didn’t do great because of the less than perfect seam going around them.
Yes, your cell phone may get fried — but, as you said, the rest of the network may get fried, too. A ground provides a safe place to direct excess current from lightning strikes, power line surges or static discharge to protect your more delicate electronics. A high altitude nuke EMP will generate upwards of 25,000 volts per meter within a close distance and 5000 volts per meter out to around 1500 miles from zero.
Some where around 200,000 volts per meter of wire at zero and 100,000 volts at the horizon.


I don’t expect to have a serious auto accident, but that doesn’t mean I don’t buy coverage for it.
I didn’t have time to talk about that in this article, but it is discussed in a youtube video that I did. It caused a major coronal mass ejection (CME) to travel directly toward Earth, taking 17.6 hours. People who happened to be awake in the northeastern US could read a newspaper by the aurora’s light. Some telegraph systems continued to send and receive messages despite having been disconnected from their power supplies. The light appeared to cover the whole firmament, apparently like a luminous cloud, through which the stars of the larger magnitude indistinctly shone.
These show evidence that events of this magnitude—as measured by high-energy proton radiation, not geomagnetic effect—occur approximately once per 500 years, with events at least one-fifth as large occurring several times per century. These electrons are then trapped in the Earth’s magnetic field, giving rise to an oscillating electric current.
For a surface burst, absorption of gamma rays by air would limit the range of gamma ray deposition to approximately 10 miles, while for a burst in the lower-density air at high altitudes, the range of deposition would be far greater.
Thermonuclear weapons are also less efficient at producing EMP because the first stage can pre-ionize the air[33] which becomes conductive and hence rapidly shorts out the Compton currents generated by the fusion stage.
A food grade Mylar bag won’t even stop 11 watts of WiFi signal (a 2.4 GHZ frequency) from reaching my iPhone when it’s right next to the wireless router.
These block external static and non-static electric fields.For example, systems in parliament, banks and stock market servers are protected by the technology. The charity ElectroSensitivity UK is a support group for those who believe they suffer from it. As long as the conducting layer is greater than the skin depth, it will provide excellent shielding because the absorption loss will be large. For example, if silver (the best conductor) is used in place of aluminum, the skin depth at 200 MHz is reduced to about 4.5 microns. A poor-man’s shield room can be made by lining a small closet with heavy-duty aluminum foil, covering all four walls, the floor, the ceiling, and the inside of the door.
I tested this as part of my book, and found that it varies greatly depending on the fit of the lid. It would be fine sitting inside a Faraday cage as long as you’re not scrubbing your bare electronics against it.
An EMP is a high frequency radiated event (not conducted like a bolt of lightning), so the goal is to simply shield the sensitive electronics from the high electromagnetic fields.
EMP is a high energy radio wave, but radio waves are not current flow, otherwise they couldn’t go through air which is an insulator. I only have a couple walkie-talkies, a transistor radio and a couple flashlights in it, with no batteries in them. Check out disasterprepper videos (or my name) and you’ll find one on Faraday Cage testing. The light was greater than that of the moon at its full, but had an indescribable softness and delicacy that seemed to envelop everything upon which it rested. These similar but much more extreme cosmic ray events however may originate outside the solar system and even outside the galaxy. This current is asymmetric in general and gives rise to a rapidly rising radiated electromagnetic field called an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). In the Starfish Prime nuclear test, most damage was to the satellites’ solar panels while passing through radiation belts created by the explosion.
Hence, small pure fission weapons with thin cases are far more efficient at causing EMP than most megaton bombs. By the way, Faraday shielding doesn’t actually have to be a cage, it’s simply anything that blocks electromagnetic radiation. Anything that can block strong AM and FM radio signals would probably make a good Faraday cage. Arthur Bradley, author of Disaster Preparedness for EMP Attacks and Solar Storms, answers a few basic questions and perhaps debunks a few myths. The enclosure itself can be conductive, or it can be made of a non-conductive material (such as cardboard or wood) and then wrapped in a conductive material (such as aluminum foil).
The bottom line is that an ungrounded cage protects the contents from harmful electromagnetic fields as well as a grounded one. It resides in my basement and the electronic items in it don’t seem to care if it looks dated. I am not sure of your experience, but I say this as a NARTE certified EMC engineer who has worked in electromagnetics for 20 years.
This second CME moved so quickly because the first one had cleared the way of the ambient solar wind plasma. Less severe storms have occurred in 1921 and 1960, when widespread radio disruption was reported.
Because the electrons are trapped essentially simultaneously, a very large electromagnetic source radiates coherently. Keep in mind, though, that the power of these signals in your home are relatively weak (unless you happen to live under a radio tower).
As an example, consider that for a frequency of 200 MHz, the skin depth of aluminum is only about 21 microns. The results from testing three different types of bags are provided in Disaster Preparedness for EMP Attacks and Solar Storms.
When selecting an ESD bag, consider not only the shielding effectiveness but also the physical ruggedness of the bag. Also, lay a piece of plywood or cardboard on the floor so that it can be walked on without damaging the aluminum foil. The author directs you to his book to find the effective shielding of the various recommended containers, but this is at pretty much the lower end of shielding effectiveness. I want to think I can get around when TSHTF happens without the dependence of a cellular device,Who are you going to call? Therefore, wrapping a box in a couple of layers of heavy duty aluminum foil (typically about 24 microns thick) provides the necessary conductor thickness to protect against high-frequency radiated fields. Rooms built in this way have been shown to offer more than 50 dB of shielding up to several hundred MHz.




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