Electromagnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force across a conductor exposed to time varying magnetic fields.
In Faraday's first experimental demonstration (August 29, 1831), he wrapped two wires around opposite sides of an iron ring or "torus" (an arrangement similar to a modern toroidal transformer). Heinrich Lenz formulated the law named after him in 1834 to describe the "flux through the circuit". Following the understanding brought by these laws, many kinds of device employing magnetic induction have been invented.
Faraday's experiment showing induction between coils of wire: The liquid battery (right) provides a current that flows through the small coil (A), creating a magnetic field.
Faraday's law of induction makes use of the magnetic flux ?B through a hypothetical surface ? whose boundary is a wire loop. When the flux changes—because B changes, or because the wire loop is moved or deformed, or both—Faraday's law of induction says that the wire loop acquires an EMF, , defined as the energy available from a unit charge that has travelled once around the wire loop.[15][18][19][20] Equivalently, it is the voltage that would be measured by cutting the wire to create an open circuit, and attaching a voltmeter to the leads.
An illustration of Kelvin-Stokes theorem with surface ? its boundary ?? and orientation n set by the right-hand rule. The Maxwell–Faraday equation is a generalisation of Faraday's law that states that a time-varying magnetic field is always accompanied by a spatially-varying, non-conservative electric field, and vice versa. The Maxwell–Faraday equation is one of the four Maxwell's equations, and therefore plays a fundamental role in the theory of classical electromagnetism.
Both d? and dA have a sign ambiguity; to get the correct sign, the right-hand rule is used, as explained in the article Kelvin-Stokes theorem. Rectangular wire loop rotating at angular velocity ? in radially outward pointing magnetic field B of fixed magnitude. The EMF generated by Faraday's law of induction due to relative movement of a circuit and a magnetic field is the phenomenon underlying electrical generators. In the Faraday's disc example, the disc is rotated in a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the disc, causing a current to flow in the radial arm due to the Lorentz force. When the electric current in a loop of wire changes, the changing current creates a changing magnetic field. Faraday's law is used for measuring the flow of electrically conductive liquids and slurries.
Conductors (of finite dimensions) moving through a uniform magnetic field, or stationary within a changing magnetic field, will have currents induced within them. Electromagnets in electric motors, generators, and transformers do not use solid metal, but instead use thin sheets of metal plate, called laminations. Inductive coils in electronics typically use magnetic cores to minimize parasitic current flow. Eddy currents occur when a solid metallic mass is rotated in a magnetic field, because the outer portion of the metal cuts more lines of force than the inner portion, hence the induced electromotive force not being uniform, tends to set up currents between the points of greatest and least potential. Only five laminations or plates are shown in this example, so as to show the subdivision of the eddy currents. In this illustration, a solid copper bar inductor on a rotating armature is just passing under the tip of the pole piece N of the field magnet.
High current power-frequency devices, such as electric motors, generators and transformers, use multiple small conductors in parallel to break up the eddy flows that can form within large solid conductors.
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Renewable Energy Discussion on various alternative energy, renewable energy, & free energy technologies. Wow very true UFO politics , Sory i can not much time to go to the forums , busy with the next generator , I 've had success with mygenerator next , I 'm buying a camera for making video more clearly, before I released the next video , you can follow ufo politics , it is very true what drew , I have to get how the magnetic flux runs without any effect of lenz law , it turns out lenz law provides positive efec , maybe tomorrow I will be releasing a video how the magnetic flux occurs in stator. The other aspect is the round geometry as compared to the flat geometry in the US5191258 patent.


Syairchairun's device must be optimizing several various characteristics of magnetic inertia in order to function as claimed.
Induction works from inside the very center of cores to the outer coils, an inside out process in the Generating Fields.
Normally a 4 pole generator has 4 magnetic circuits constantly flowing around the stator and through the exciters.
If you are wondering where I see 8 poles, just set one of the iron rotor shoes half way between two exciter poles.
I know it's a crude drawing, but it shows a possible method of reducing the 'cogging' effect by reducing the amount of flux going in and out of the iron core during rotation.
I'm curious as to whether this generator requires large gaps between the four poles, or if it will run fine without. For me, the question becomes, with the 40 small neos connected NSNS to make the larger generator magnet, does that mean the NS orientation of the magnet is radial like a normal generator? Oh, and he did mention that all his stator coils were connected in parallel in his first build. We have seen that we can induce an EMF by changing the amount of magnetic field in a circuit. This means that if we double the speed of the wire, the flux in the circuit increases at twice the rate. We can increase the total flux linking a circuit by using a coil rather than a single piece of wire. Michael Faraday, who mathematically described Faraday's law of induction, is generally credited with its discovery in 1831. Lenz's law gives the direction of the induced EMF and current resulting from electromagnetic induction (elaborated upon in the examples below). In more visual terms, the magnetic flux through the wire loop is proportional to the number of magnetic flux lines that pass through the loop. If its direction is orthogonal to that surface patch, the magnitude is the area of an infinitesimal patch of surface.
For a planar surface ?, a positive path element d? of curve ?? is defined by the right-hand rule as one that points with the fingers of the right hand when the thumb points in the direction of the normal n to the surface ?. The circuit is completed by brushes making sliding contact with top and bottom discs, which have conducting rims.
When a permanent magnet is moved relative to a conductor, or vice versa, an electromotive force is created.
It is interesting to understand how it arises that mechanical work is necessary to drive this current. These induced eddy currents can be undesirable, since they dissipate energy in the resistance of the conductor.
In practical use, the number of laminations or punchings ranges from 40 to 66 per inch, and brings the eddy current loss down to about one percent.
Note the laminations of the electromagnet pole pieces, used to limit parasitic inductive losses. The same principle is applied to transformers used at higher than power frequency, for example, those used in switch-mode power supplies and the intermediate frequency coupling transformers of radio receivers. The set of equations used throughout the text was chosen to be compatible with the special relativity theory.
You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the GFDL. I was electronically stalked by a cellphone hacker, Chris returned my message within the hour and walked me step by step through how to protect myself right away. Also any discussion about the environment, global warming, and other related topics are welcome here.


The rotor overlaps the the two exciters a significant amount so the left half of the iron will have one pole and the right half will have the opposite pole. When the rotor is at the halfway point between the exciter poles it is short circuiting a large portion of the flux before it gets to the stator. We can do this by moving a wire through a magnetic field or moving a magnet near to a coil. We represent the magnetic field with magnetic field lines (in this case, they are going into the screen and are shown as crosses). He plugged one wire into a galvanometer, and watched it as he connected the other wire to a battery. Heaviside's version (see Maxwell–Faraday equation below) is the form recognized today in the group of equations known as Maxwell's equations. This version of Faraday's law strictly holds only when the closed circuit is a loop of infinitely thin wire,[15] and is invalid in some other circumstances. If the wire is connected through an electrical load, current will flow, and thus electrical energy is generated, converting the mechanical energy of motion to electrical energy. When the generated current flows through the conducting rim, a magnetic field is generated by this current through Ampere's circuital law (labeled "induced B" in the figure). Therefore, an electromotive force is set up in the second loop called the induced EMF or transformer EMF.
The magnetic field is more concentrated and thus stronger on the left edge of the copper bar (a,b) while the field is weaker on the right edge (c,d). The magnetic circuit path is just like electrical current in that it will always flow through the least resistance in the iron. The pulley on your typical car alternator will spin at around 3x engine rpm, so around 2200 rpm+ at idle alone, but with the right setup, it shouldn't pose too much difficulty. As the wire moves through the field, the number of field lines enclosed by the circuit increases.
A different version, the Maxwell–Faraday equation (discussed below), is valid in all circumstances. The rim thus becomes an electromagnet that resists rotation of the disc (an example of Lenz's law). It travels from one exciter pole through the rotating iron core through the stator iron and back through the closest opposite exciter pole (or the one with the least resistance) then back around to the first exciter. If the generator takes as little to spin as is shown, then maybe using a bedini style pulsed motor setup will easily provide the rpm required to produce some amperage.
A different implementation of this idea is the Faraday's disc, shown in simplified form on the right. On the far side of the figure, the return current flows from the rotating arm through the far side of the rim to the bottom brush. The B-field induced by this return current opposes the applied B-field, tending to decrease the flux through that side of the circuit, opposing the increase in flux due to rotation.
On the near side of the figure, the return current flows from the rotating arm through the near side of the rim to the bottom brush.
The induced B-field increases the flux on this side of the circuit, opposing the decrease in flux due to rotation. The energy required to keep the disc moving, despite this reactive force, is exactly equal to the electrical energy generated (plus energy wasted due to friction, Joule heating, and other inefficiencies). This behavior is common to all generators converting mechanical energy to electrical energy.



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