This week we introduce the Filoviridae family of viruses, with perhaps its most infamous member: Ebola virus. Ebola virus is named after the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of Congo, which is one of the two places documented outbreaks first occurred in 1976. Monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, liver cells, and endothelial cells are the primary target cells of ebolaviruses. Many of these bats are quite large relative to the other suborder of bats, the Microchiroptera, but this is not a defining feature as some species of megabats are as small or smaller than some microbats.
There are three species distributed across tropical Africa that have demonstrated EBOV infection without disease. These bats can be found across a wide variety of landscapes, including wet, dry, and mangrove forests, swamps, and dry savanna.
The third possible reservoir is Myonycteris torquata, known as the Little Collared fruit bat.
However, the Little Collared fruit bat is somewhat more ecologically specialized in that it prefers wet lowland forests and wet savanna. Hemorrhage, often severe, thus ensues and can be seen at several sites within approximately 5 to 7 days of the onset of symptoms. Interestingly, the map demonstrates a very wide potential reservoir host distribution across much of South and Southeast Asia and Oceania, which includes several additional fruit bat species in the Pteropodidae family not described above.
Schematic representation of the Ebola cycle in the equatorial forest and proposed strategy to avoid Ebola virus transmission to humans and its subsequent human-human propagation. As you can see from this depiction, the physical and social landscapes are both important in the epidemiology of EHF.
Blocking transmission at the source of index cases is very difficult because there is no way that a primary source of subsistence, i.e. Add a comment about this ecard & share your comments with other users who browse this ecard.
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They roost in the tree canopy of forested habitat during the day, but are not selective about tree species other than they must be sufficiently high (20 to 30 meters).
Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is characterized by an abrupt onset presenting with myalgia,  fever, and chills. Moreover, REBOV has been found extensively in monkeys and domestic pigs in the Philippines, though no human infections have yet been observed. In particular, 1) the interface between human subsistence economies and sylvan habitat generates critical index cases, and 2) the bare-essential act of care-giving, either in the home or in a clinical setting, generates the propagative secondary cases. Control and prevention of EHF are typically focused on outbreak containment and control, and in only one of the two primary paradigms of transmission described above. Swipe your finger across the screen to slash them!TAMIL HD VIDEO SONGS FREE DOWNLOAD FOR PC download songs from youtube to ipod touch, Hd sun direct hd video songs, hd for free download, tamil bluray.
Unfortunately this attention has usually been amplified by sensationalism in news media and film. These two outbreaks occurred almost simultaneously but were caused by two distinct species of the virus, as described below. These species are Bundibugyo ebolavirus, Coite d'Ivoire ebolavirus (CIEBOV), Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV), Reston ebolavirus (REBOV), and Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV), which is the specific virus denoted by the name Ebola virus (EBOV).


Mortality is high, typically ranging from 50% to 90% depending on the species and strain of Ebolavirus. Direct and indirect contact, and droplet transmission are the primary specific routes of viral spread between humans, and between other animals and humans. Nevertheless, the Wild Animal Mortality Monitoring Network is an important surveillance instrument that has been developed to survey animal carcasses in sylvan habitat where EBOV has been identified in order to help predict and prevent future outbreaks. While this hemorrhagic fever is undoubtedly a very serious disease and needs to be treated as such, this post will strive to describe only what is currently known and avoid hyperbole. There have been about 25 outbreaks in central Africa since, and including, the first, and these have occurred on an annual or biannual basis since 1994. There are two important features of EHF that are critical in its pathogenesis: 1) endothelial damage mediated by both the virus and the up-regulation of toxic cytokines, which leads to extensive vascular leakage, and 2) disseminated intravascular coagulation, which leads to severe thrombocytopenia. Health care settings and subsistence hunting define the two primary paradigms for human infection, and therefore both human to human and zoonotic transmission are viable and important routes of human infection.
This is the central component to EHF control and prevention as outbreaks often generate many secondary cases by human to human transmission during the care of infected individuals.
While of limited geographic and temporal implementation, the use of this kind of surveillance could be quite useful for the future identification of sylvan EBOV foci and the possible interception of human contact with these cites before transmission occurs. Infection of hunters by manipulation of infected wild animal carcasses or sick animals (d). Three animal species are known to be sensitive to Ebola virus and to act as sources of human outbreaks: gorillas, chimpanzees, and duikers. Person-to-person transmission from hunters to their family and then to hospital workers (e). The wild animal mortality surveillance network can predict and might prevent human outbreaks.



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