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07.09.2013, admin

Electronics engineering is an engineering where non-linear and active electrical components such as electron tubes and semiconductor devices like transistor , diode and ic’s(integrated circuit), are utilized to design elctronic circuit, devices and systems, typically also including passive electrical components and based on printed circuit board(PCB). Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series. First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations and variable separable method.

Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor’s and Laurent’ series, Residue theorem, solution integrals.

Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and continuous distributions, Poisson,Normal and Binomial distribution, Correlation and regression analysis. Solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

Definitions and properties ofLaplace transform, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier series, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier Transform, DFT and FFT, z-transform. Basic control system components; block diagrammatic description, reduction of block diagrams. Random signals and noise: probability, random variables, probability density function, autocorrelation, power spectral density. Here is the circuit diagram of a simple 100 watt inverter using IC CD4047 and MOSFET IRF540. You are using irf 540 as switching mosfet, of course the center tap will be positive, if you use Transistors 3055 then also it will work or use irf 540 this also work, but irf 540 has higher amp working.

Hi,i want to ask..if i replace battery with solar PV panels that provide 12V input,can this inverter works?

Hi,I have got the success to make the above invertor but the output freqency is 68hz and i am unable to adjust it to 50hz by 1k pot. Hi,I have got the success to make the above invertor but the output freqency is 68hz and i am unable to adjust it to 50hz by 1k pot,plz help me.

It will kill your laptop charger, you may try to connect a night light bulb as load and measure the voltage if it is within 250 volts you can use with lamp also connected. I wish to use this circuit for charging my laptop,mobile etc,will it make problems to laptop adapter (90 w)? As the gate current increases the drain current in turn will increase hence more current through primary winding of the transformer, which will increase the power output. Should not give problem in this application, provided you are not using a higher rating transformer and try to draw higher output than the above design.

To increase the drive current from CD4047 (it is limited to 2mA appox) use NPN transistor like 2N2219 between IC out put pins and the MOSFET. Hi Vasudev your transformer capacity is only 7 to 8 amps, say maximum of 72 VA alone can be expected why 2 MOSFETS in parallel? No the loss will be quite high and the MOSFETs also may get damaged as the transformer impedance will be quite low. The ability of an SCR to control large currents to a load by means of small gate current makes the device very useful in switching and control applications. Here we will consider six applications of SCR like power control, switching, zero-voltage switching, over-voltage protection, pulse circuits and battery charging regulator. Because of the bistable characteristics of semiconductor devices, whereby they can be switched on and off, and the efficiency of gate control to trigger such devices, the SCRs are ideally suited for many industrial applications. The bistable states (conducting and non-conducting) of the SCR and the property that enables fast transition from one state to the other are made use of in the control of power in both ac and dc circuits.

In ac circuits the SCR can be turned-on by the gate at any angle ? with respect to applied voltage. Power control in dc circuits is obtained by varying the duration of on-time and off-time of the device and such a mode of operation is called on-off control or chopper control. Another important application of SCRs is in inverters, used for converting dc into ac. A commonly used circuit for controlling power in load RL using two SCRs is shown in figure.

During positive half cycle capacitor C2 gets charged through diode D1, pot R, and diode D4. Thyristor, being bistable device is widely used for switching of power signals owing to their long life, high operation speed and freedom from other defects associated with mechanical and electro-mechanical switches. For starting the circuit, when switch S is closed, SCR1 will fire at the beginning of the positive half-cycle (the gate trigger current is assumed to be very small) because during positive half cycle SCR1 is forward biased. As shown in figure, Capacitor C provides the required commutation of the main SCR since the current does not have a natural zero value in a dc circuit.

In some ac circuits it is necessary to apply the voltage to the load when the instantaneous value of this voltage is going through the zero value. This is to avoid a high rate of increase of current in case of purely resistive loads such as lighting and furnace loads, and thereby reduce the generation of radio noise and hot-spot temperatures in the device carrying the load current.

SCRs can be employed for protecting other equipment from over-voltages owing to their fast switching action. What type of background would an expert in SCR come from – are they electronic or some other classification as I need to find someone who can advise on the types of SCR we need for our application? Hi Quiescent feed the load through a resistance sense the current to the load as the voltage drop across the resistance and use zener for the level and fire another SCR to disconnect the supply to load. The 3 phase electric power is common way of alternating current transmission and it is a type of polyphase system and is the normal way used by electric power distribution grids to distribute power. I wonder if you could perhaps help with values to the full wave speed control using 2 SCR’s and caps, diodes and pot to adjust the point on the wave of starting to conduct for both half cycles. The term denotes a broad engineering field that covers important subfields such as analog electronics,digital electronics, consumer electronics, embedded systems and power electronics.

Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems. Simple diode circuits, clipping, clamping, rectifier.Biasing and bias stability of transistor and FET amplifiers. Combinatorial circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders, PROMs and PLAs. Here it is wired as an astable multivibrator producing two pulse trains of 0.01s which are 180 degree out of phase at the pins 10 and 11 of the IC.

Ensure you use through surge protected supply sockets as the inverter is a square wave one. Check whether each winding is rated for 5a ms that is 12 volt 5 amps and 12 5 amps that is total VA rating is 120VA.

Still it can be used provided you take care of the maximum drive current through the MOSFETs. A few of the possible applications for the SCR are listed in the introduction to SCR blog post.

SCRs have got specific advantages over saturable core reactors and gas tubes owing to their compactness, reliability, low losses, and speedy turn-on and turn-off. This angle ? is called the firing angle and power control is obtained by varying the firing angle. When the capacitor gets fully charged, (charge on the capacitor depending upon the value of R) it discharges through Zener diode Z. The input voltage is alternating and the trigger pulses are applied to the gates of SCRs through the control switch S. When the SCR1 is in conducting state, the load voltage will be equal to the supply voltage and the capacitor C will be charged through resistor R. The capacitor C is charged during the positive half cycle of the input supply and the SCR is triggered during the negative half-cycle.

Diodes D1 and D2 are to establish a full-wave rectified signal across SCR1 and the 12 V battery to be charged.

Do you know of a system control programmer that could write the software to control the SCR as switches in a voltage regulator?

Electronics engineering deals with implementation of applications, principles and algorithms developed within many related fields, for example solid-state physics, radio engineering, telecommunications, control systems, signal processing, systems engineering, computer engineering, instrumentation engineering, electric power control, robotics, and many others.

Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton’s maximum power transfer, Wye-Delta transformation.

Generation and recombination of carriers.p-n junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, p-I-n and avalanche photo diode, Basics of LASERs. Signal flow graphs and their use in determining transfer functions of systems; transient and steady state analysis of LTI control systems and frequency response. Thus, variable frequency supply can be easily obtained and used for speed control of ac motors, induction heating, electrolytic cleaning, fluorescent lighting and several other applications.

The greater the resistance of the pot, lesser will be the voltage across capacitors C1 and C2 and hence smaller will be the time duration of conduction of SCR1 and SCR2 during a cycle.

Resistance R is provided in the gate circuit to limit the gate current while resistors R1 and R2 are to protect the diodes D1 and D2 respectively. As soon as SCR1 is turned-off, SCR2 will fire since the voltage polarity is already reversed and it gets the proper gate current. Whenever the voltage exceeds a specified limit, the gate of the SCR will get energized and trigger the SCR. The capacitor will discharge through the output circuit, and when the SCR forward current becomes zero, it will turn-off. When the battery is in discharged condition, SCR2 is in the off-state as will be clear after discussion. When the full-wave rectified input is large enough to give the required turn-on gate current (controlled by resistor R1), SCR1 will turn on and the charging of the battery will commence.

Device technology: integrated circuits fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography, n-tub, p-tub and twin-tub CMOS process. Tools and techniques for LTI control system analysis: root loci, Routh-Hurwitz criterion, Bode and Nyquist plots.

Because of the large power-handling capacity of the SCRs, the SCR controlled inverter has more or less replaced motor-generator sets and magnetic frequency multipliers for generating high frequency at large power ratings. A large current will be drawn from the supply mains and voltage across the load will be reduced. The output circuit is designed to have discharge current of less than a milli-second duration. At the commencement of charging of battery, voltage VR determined by the simple voltage-divider circuit is too small to cause 11.0 V zener conduction. Control system compensators: elements of lead and lag compensation, elements of Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control. When pin 10 is high Q1 conducts and current flows through the upper half of the transformer primary which accounts for the positive half of the output AC voltage. During negative half cycle similar action takes place due to charging of capacitor C1 and SCR1 is triggered.

Whatever may be the instant of time when switch S is opened (either during the positive or the negative half cycle), only at the beginning of the following positive half-cycle of the applied voltage SCR1 will be triggered. Two SCRs are used—one for the positive half-cycle and the other for negative half-cycle, as shown in figure. The capacitor will again get charged in the following positive half-cycle and the SCR will be triggered again in the negative half-cycle.

In the off-state Zener diode is effectively an open-circuit maintaining SCR2 in the off-state because of zero gate current. When pin 11 is high Q2 conducts and current flows through the lower half of the transformer primary in opposite direction and it accounts for the negative half of the output AC voltage. As no further gate signal will be applied to the SCRs when switch S is open, the SCRs will not be triggered and the load current will be zero. This discharge current is in opposite direction to that flowing through SCR1 and when the two become equal SCR2 turns-off.

Similarly, when switch S is closed, SCR1 will stop conducting at the end of the present or previous positive half-cycle and will not get triggered again. The capacitor C is included in the circuit to prevent any voltage transients in the circuit from accidentally turning on of the SCR2.

Now capacitor C gets charged through the load and when the capacitor C gets fully charged, the SCR2 tums-off.

Resistors R3 and R4 are designed on the basis of minimum base and gate currents required for transistor Q1 and SCR1. As charging continues, the battery voltage increases to a point when VR is large enough to both turn on the 11.0 V Zener diode and fire SCR2. Thus the circuit acts as a dc circuit breaker. The resistor R is taken of such a value that current through R is lower than that of holding current. Resistors Rl and R2 govern rates of the charging and discharging of capacitor C1 Resistor R5 is used for preventing large discharge currents when switch S is closed. Once SCR2 has fired, the short circuit representation for SCR2 will result in a voltage-divider circuit determined by R1 and R2 that will maintain V2 at a level too small to turn SCR1 on. When this occurs, the battery is fully charged and the open-circuit state of SCR1 will cut off the charging current. Thus the regulator charges the battery whenever the voltage drops and prevents overcharging when fully charged. There are many more applications of SCRs such as in soft start circuits, logic and digital circuits, but it is not possible to discuss all these here. The load current wave-form can be improved by connecting a free-wheeling diode D1, as shown by the dotted line in fig-a.

After that, the load current will free wheel through the diode and a reverse voltage will appear across the SCR.

The main advantage of phase control is that the load current passes through a natural zero point during every half cycle. So, the device turns-off by itself at the end of every conducting period and no other commutating circuit is required.

Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor’s and Laurent’ series, Residue theorem, solution integrals.

Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and continuous distributions, Poisson,Normal and Binomial distribution, Correlation and regression analysis. Solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

Definitions and properties ofLaplace transform, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier series, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier Transform, DFT and FFT, z-transform. Basic control system components; block diagrammatic description, reduction of block diagrams. Random signals and noise: probability, random variables, probability density function, autocorrelation, power spectral density. Here is the circuit diagram of a simple 100 watt inverter using IC CD4047 and MOSFET IRF540. You are using irf 540 as switching mosfet, of course the center tap will be positive, if you use Transistors 3055 then also it will work or use irf 540 this also work, but irf 540 has higher amp working.

Hi,i want to ask..if i replace battery with solar PV panels that provide 12V input,can this inverter works?

Hi,I have got the success to make the above invertor but the output freqency is 68hz and i am unable to adjust it to 50hz by 1k pot. Hi,I have got the success to make the above invertor but the output freqency is 68hz and i am unable to adjust it to 50hz by 1k pot,plz help me.

It will kill your laptop charger, you may try to connect a night light bulb as load and measure the voltage if it is within 250 volts you can use with lamp also connected. I wish to use this circuit for charging my laptop,mobile etc,will it make problems to laptop adapter (90 w)? As the gate current increases the drain current in turn will increase hence more current through primary winding of the transformer, which will increase the power output. Should not give problem in this application, provided you are not using a higher rating transformer and try to draw higher output than the above design.

To increase the drive current from CD4047 (it is limited to 2mA appox) use NPN transistor like 2N2219 between IC out put pins and the MOSFET. Hi Vasudev your transformer capacity is only 7 to 8 amps, say maximum of 72 VA alone can be expected why 2 MOSFETS in parallel? No the loss will be quite high and the MOSFETs also may get damaged as the transformer impedance will be quite low. The ability of an SCR to control large currents to a load by means of small gate current makes the device very useful in switching and control applications. Here we will consider six applications of SCR like power control, switching, zero-voltage switching, over-voltage protection, pulse circuits and battery charging regulator. Because of the bistable characteristics of semiconductor devices, whereby they can be switched on and off, and the efficiency of gate control to trigger such devices, the SCRs are ideally suited for many industrial applications. The bistable states (conducting and non-conducting) of the SCR and the property that enables fast transition from one state to the other are made use of in the control of power in both ac and dc circuits.

In ac circuits the SCR can be turned-on by the gate at any angle ? with respect to applied voltage. Power control in dc circuits is obtained by varying the duration of on-time and off-time of the device and such a mode of operation is called on-off control or chopper control. Another important application of SCRs is in inverters, used for converting dc into ac. A commonly used circuit for controlling power in load RL using two SCRs is shown in figure.

During positive half cycle capacitor C2 gets charged through diode D1, pot R, and diode D4. Thyristor, being bistable device is widely used for switching of power signals owing to their long life, high operation speed and freedom from other defects associated with mechanical and electro-mechanical switches. For starting the circuit, when switch S is closed, SCR1 will fire at the beginning of the positive half-cycle (the gate trigger current is assumed to be very small) because during positive half cycle SCR1 is forward biased. As shown in figure, Capacitor C provides the required commutation of the main SCR since the current does not have a natural zero value in a dc circuit.

In some ac circuits it is necessary to apply the voltage to the load when the instantaneous value of this voltage is going through the zero value. This is to avoid a high rate of increase of current in case of purely resistive loads such as lighting and furnace loads, and thereby reduce the generation of radio noise and hot-spot temperatures in the device carrying the load current.

SCRs can be employed for protecting other equipment from over-voltages owing to their fast switching action. What type of background would an expert in SCR come from – are they electronic or some other classification as I need to find someone who can advise on the types of SCR we need for our application? Hi Quiescent feed the load through a resistance sense the current to the load as the voltage drop across the resistance and use zener for the level and fire another SCR to disconnect the supply to load. The 3 phase electric power is common way of alternating current transmission and it is a type of polyphase system and is the normal way used by electric power distribution grids to distribute power. I wonder if you could perhaps help with values to the full wave speed control using 2 SCR’s and caps, diodes and pot to adjust the point on the wave of starting to conduct for both half cycles. The term denotes a broad engineering field that covers important subfields such as analog electronics,digital electronics, consumer electronics, embedded systems and power electronics.

Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems. Simple diode circuits, clipping, clamping, rectifier.Biasing and bias stability of transistor and FET amplifiers. Combinatorial circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders, PROMs and PLAs. Here it is wired as an astable multivibrator producing two pulse trains of 0.01s which are 180 degree out of phase at the pins 10 and 11 of the IC.

Ensure you use through surge protected supply sockets as the inverter is a square wave one. Check whether each winding is rated for 5a ms that is 12 volt 5 amps and 12 5 amps that is total VA rating is 120VA.

Still it can be used provided you take care of the maximum drive current through the MOSFETs. A few of the possible applications for the SCR are listed in the introduction to SCR blog post.

SCRs have got specific advantages over saturable core reactors and gas tubes owing to their compactness, reliability, low losses, and speedy turn-on and turn-off. This angle ? is called the firing angle and power control is obtained by varying the firing angle. When the capacitor gets fully charged, (charge on the capacitor depending upon the value of R) it discharges through Zener diode Z. The input voltage is alternating and the trigger pulses are applied to the gates of SCRs through the control switch S. When the SCR1 is in conducting state, the load voltage will be equal to the supply voltage and the capacitor C will be charged through resistor R. The capacitor C is charged during the positive half cycle of the input supply and the SCR is triggered during the negative half-cycle.

Diodes D1 and D2 are to establish a full-wave rectified signal across SCR1 and the 12 V battery to be charged.

Do you know of a system control programmer that could write the software to control the SCR as switches in a voltage regulator?

Electronics engineering deals with implementation of applications, principles and algorithms developed within many related fields, for example solid-state physics, radio engineering, telecommunications, control systems, signal processing, systems engineering, computer engineering, instrumentation engineering, electric power control, robotics, and many others.

Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton’s maximum power transfer, Wye-Delta transformation.

Generation and recombination of carriers.p-n junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, p-I-n and avalanche photo diode, Basics of LASERs. Signal flow graphs and their use in determining transfer functions of systems; transient and steady state analysis of LTI control systems and frequency response. Thus, variable frequency supply can be easily obtained and used for speed control of ac motors, induction heating, electrolytic cleaning, fluorescent lighting and several other applications.

The greater the resistance of the pot, lesser will be the voltage across capacitors C1 and C2 and hence smaller will be the time duration of conduction of SCR1 and SCR2 during a cycle.

Resistance R is provided in the gate circuit to limit the gate current while resistors R1 and R2 are to protect the diodes D1 and D2 respectively. As soon as SCR1 is turned-off, SCR2 will fire since the voltage polarity is already reversed and it gets the proper gate current. Whenever the voltage exceeds a specified limit, the gate of the SCR will get energized and trigger the SCR. The capacitor will discharge through the output circuit, and when the SCR forward current becomes zero, it will turn-off. When the battery is in discharged condition, SCR2 is in the off-state as will be clear after discussion. When the full-wave rectified input is large enough to give the required turn-on gate current (controlled by resistor R1), SCR1 will turn on and the charging of the battery will commence.

Device technology: integrated circuits fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography, n-tub, p-tub and twin-tub CMOS process. Tools and techniques for LTI control system analysis: root loci, Routh-Hurwitz criterion, Bode and Nyquist plots.

Because of the large power-handling capacity of the SCRs, the SCR controlled inverter has more or less replaced motor-generator sets and magnetic frequency multipliers for generating high frequency at large power ratings. A large current will be drawn from the supply mains and voltage across the load will be reduced. The output circuit is designed to have discharge current of less than a milli-second duration. At the commencement of charging of battery, voltage VR determined by the simple voltage-divider circuit is too small to cause 11.0 V zener conduction. Control system compensators: elements of lead and lag compensation, elements of Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control. When pin 10 is high Q1 conducts and current flows through the upper half of the transformer primary which accounts for the positive half of the output AC voltage. During negative half cycle similar action takes place due to charging of capacitor C1 and SCR1 is triggered.

Whatever may be the instant of time when switch S is opened (either during the positive or the negative half cycle), only at the beginning of the following positive half-cycle of the applied voltage SCR1 will be triggered. Two SCRs are used—one for the positive half-cycle and the other for negative half-cycle, as shown in figure. The capacitor will again get charged in the following positive half-cycle and the SCR will be triggered again in the negative half-cycle.

In the off-state Zener diode is effectively an open-circuit maintaining SCR2 in the off-state because of zero gate current. When pin 11 is high Q2 conducts and current flows through the lower half of the transformer primary in opposite direction and it accounts for the negative half of the output AC voltage. As no further gate signal will be applied to the SCRs when switch S is open, the SCRs will not be triggered and the load current will be zero. This discharge current is in opposite direction to that flowing through SCR1 and when the two become equal SCR2 turns-off.

Similarly, when switch S is closed, SCR1 will stop conducting at the end of the present or previous positive half-cycle and will not get triggered again. The capacitor C is included in the circuit to prevent any voltage transients in the circuit from accidentally turning on of the SCR2.

Now capacitor C gets charged through the load and when the capacitor C gets fully charged, the SCR2 tums-off.

Resistors R3 and R4 are designed on the basis of minimum base and gate currents required for transistor Q1 and SCR1. As charging continues, the battery voltage increases to a point when VR is large enough to both turn on the 11.0 V Zener diode and fire SCR2. Thus the circuit acts as a dc circuit breaker. The resistor R is taken of such a value that current through R is lower than that of holding current. Resistors Rl and R2 govern rates of the charging and discharging of capacitor C1 Resistor R5 is used for preventing large discharge currents when switch S is closed. Once SCR2 has fired, the short circuit representation for SCR2 will result in a voltage-divider circuit determined by R1 and R2 that will maintain V2 at a level too small to turn SCR1 on. When this occurs, the battery is fully charged and the open-circuit state of SCR1 will cut off the charging current. Thus the regulator charges the battery whenever the voltage drops and prevents overcharging when fully charged. There are many more applications of SCRs such as in soft start circuits, logic and digital circuits, but it is not possible to discuss all these here. The load current wave-form can be improved by connecting a free-wheeling diode D1, as shown by the dotted line in fig-a.

After that, the load current will free wheel through the diode and a reverse voltage will appear across the SCR.

The main advantage of phase control is that the load current passes through a natural zero point during every half cycle. So, the device turns-off by itself at the end of every conducting period and no other commutating circuit is required.

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