Printable Word's Templates, Resumes Templates, Certificate Templates, Rental Agreements and Legal Forms. Menu planner is a calendar that will help you help you in deciding what meals you are going to serve your family on different times or occasions. Free Restaurant Menu Templates A menu is a presentation of food and beverages offers made by a restaurant. Project planning means defining the tasks and a schedule with time constraints to keep the project activities move on consistently. A project plan example is a proper recipe if you want to preserve yourself from the disasters of projects that cause due to cutting corner policies of project planning. Test Plan Template A test plan is a document which contains description of scope, approach, resources, activities of the test schedule etc. Project Log Template A project log is an effective project management tool used for tracking projects. A change management plan will be required when business management is going to make significant changes in business like its nature, adding a new product line, opening a new branch, changing the management, ownership is undertaken by some other business, operational changes, strategic changes, mission changes etc.
A change management plan example is a formal document which cover all the facts that necessarily required by individual while changing the management of company. Contingency Plan Template Contingency is an unexpected situation for which special contingency plan is prepared. Business continuity plan is prepared to identify an organization’s exposure to internal and external threats to the business which can affect business continuity. The business continuity plan format is a tool which designed by business to identify the exposure of organization.
Personal Development Plan Template A personal development plan is a written document which contains list of one’s objectives and achievements.
A risk management plan is a document which is used by business people usually project managers to access the risks, impacts of the proposed risks and responses or measures to deal with these risks. A lesson plan format is always prepared by the teacher before guiding the students about new lessons.
Strategic planning process starts from defining mission statement and objectives and ends with the evaluation and control on procedures and performances. No two ways about, for running a successful business there is a key which known as strategic planning.
A well written small business plan will define the business like what is the business name, what business will do, what products or services will be provided by the business, how customers can access the products and services of the business, what pricing approach will be used etc. If you want to get success in business then you need to take a first step via making a solid business plan. Excluding the 19 hijackers, 2,974 people died as an immediate result of the attacks with another 24 missing and presumed dead.
The attacks had major ramifications around the world, with the United States declaring a War on Terrorism in response and launching an invasion of Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, who had been accused of willfully harboring terrorists.
The damage to the Pentagon was cleared and repaired within a year, and a small memorial built on the site. During the hijacking of the airplanes, some passengers and crew members were able to make phone calls using the cabin GTE airphone service and mobile phones.[6][7] They reported that several hijackers were aboard each plane.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) launched investigations into the cause of collapse for the three buildings, subsequently expanding the investigation to include questions over measures to prevent progressive collapse, such as fire resistance design and retrofitting of structural steel.
The attacks created widespread confusion among news organizations and air traffic controllers across the United States. A total of 411 emergency workers who responded to the scene died as they attempted to implement rescue and fire suppression efforts.
Weeks after the attack, the estimated death toll was over 6,000.[49] The city was only able to identify remains for approximately 1,600 of the victims at the World Trade Center. In addition to the 110-floor Twin Towers of the World Trade Center itself, numerous other buildings at the World Trade Center site were destroyed or badly damaged, including 7 World Trade Center, 6 World Trade Center, 5 World Trade Center, 4 World Trade Center, the Marriott World Trade Center and St. Osama bin Laden's declaration of a holy war against the United States, and a fatwA? signed by bin Laden and others calling for the killing of American civilians in 1998, are seen by investigators as evidence of his motivation to commit such acts. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed was arrested on March 1, 2003 in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.[101] Mohammed ultimately ended up at Guantanamo Bay.
A variety of scholarship has also focused on bin Laden's overall strategy as a motive for the attacks.
The NATO council declared that the attacks on the United States were considered an attack on all NATO nations and, as such, satisfied Article 5 of the NATO charter.[118] In the immediate aftermath of the attacks, the Bush administration declared a war on terrorism, with the stated goals of bringing Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda to justice and preventing the emergence of other terrorist networks.
Within the United States, Congress passed and President Bush signed the Homeland Security Act of 2002, creating the Department of Homeland Security, representing the largest restructuring of the U.S. Following the attacks, 80,000 Arab and Muslim immigrants were fingerprinted and registered under the Alien Registration Act of 1940. Approximately one month after the attacks, the United States led a broad coalition of international forces in the removal of the Taliban regime for harboring the al-Qaeda organization.[136] The Pakistani authorities moved decisively to align themselves with the United States in a war against the Taliban and al-Qaeda.
Various conspiracy theories have emerged subsequent to the attacks suggesting that individuals inside the United States knew the attacks were coming and deliberately chose not to prevent them, or that individuals outside of the terrorist organization al-Qaeda planned or carried out the attacks.[148] The community of civil engineers generally accepts the mainstream account that the impacts of jets at high speeds in combination with subsequent fires, rather than controlled demolition, led to the collapse of the Twin Towers.
A federal technical building and fire safety investigation of the collapses of the Twin Towers and 7 WTC has been conducted by the United States Department of Commerce's National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). In May 2007, senators from both the Democratic Party and the Republican Party drafted legislation that would openly present an internal CIA investigative report.
North American air space was closed for several days after the attacks and air travel decreased significantly upon its reopening.
Legal disputes over the attendant costs of illnesses related to the attacks are still in the court system. In the days immediately following the attacks, many memorials and vigils were held around the world.[187][188][189] In addition, pictures were placed all over Ground Zero. One of the first memorials was the Tribute in Light, an installation of 88 searchlights at the footprints of the World Trade Center towers which projected two vertical columns of light into the sky.[191] In New York, the World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition was held to design an appropriate memorial on the site. Hi, I'm an admin for a group called sad world, and we'd love to have this added to the group!
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Hi, I'm an admin for a group called WTC BEFORE 911, and we'd love to have this added to the group! Jesus said there would be some people who would kill you (obviously meaning the Christians or Christ followers) who would think they were doing a Godly service. TAL Global clients benefit from our extensive knowledge of operational, intellectual and electronic disaster and recovery programs. In the face of unexpected disaster, either natural or man-made, preparedness can make all the difference in the future of an organization. With the increasing frequency, magnitude and impact of disasters, there is growing focus on contingency planning as a tool for enhancing resilience. It is an auspicious time to be increasing our efforts towards contingency planning in southern Africa considering the surge in loss of life, livelihoods and hard-won development resulting from disasters. With the predicted increase in frequency, magnitude and impact of disasters, particularly those triggered by hydro-meteorological hazards resulting from climate change, contingency planning is important for at least three reasons. TABLE 1: Best-case, middle-case and worst-case scenarios for flood, drought and earthquakes. Harrald and Mazzuchi (1993) further state that scenarios of possible emergency conditions allow key actors to envision, anticipate and solve problems that can arise during crises through regular updates and exercises.
Southern Africa generally falls under the Southern African Development Community (SADC), one of Africa’s five regional economic commissions. This study focused on the Zambezi River basin, which extends across five countries affected mostly by hydro-meteorological hazards such as floods, droughts and cyclones (Figure 1).
This study adopted a qualitative comparative analysis to capture similarities and differences (Ragin 1987) in contingency planning processes and practices in Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Contingency planning identifies hazards and vulnerabilities that are likely to interact to cause a disaster (Blaikie et al. There were recurring gaps in contingency planning across the five countries, namely limited financial resources and challenges in prompt release of field assessment results.
Using case material from Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe, this study suggests that contingency planning can be a complex process. The authors declare that they have no financial or personal relationship(s) that may have inappropriately influenced them in writing this article.
To make a menu planner format, you will have to sit a while and plan what meat and vegetables you would like to serve to your family. Target dates for beginning and completion of each task along with names and duties of concerned staff members will also be mentioned in the project plan. An effective project plan will give you insights to see across the new ideas & technology. A change management plan will include list of changes to be made, scope of changes, areas of the business affected by the changes etc. In simple words we can say that this plan will especially prepared by company as a set with full of backup procedures.
While making a strategy for business you may also need to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of a proposed business strategy that for sure will provide an edge to establish a niche in market & sustain the growth during the recovery of post disaster.
It is also meant to develop strategy to maintain competitive advantage and value system integrity. Well, this plan will help the company to run smoothly in days of trouble or in case of natural disasters. Well, a lesson plan will help the teacher to get prepared for all the questions students can ask while attending the lecture. Main headings of a strategic plan format will include; missions and objectives, environmental scanning, strategy formulation, strategy implementation and evaluation and control. It may be drafted by a person for his own development or may be provided by the employers to their employees like a job description template to make the employees know what they have to do and how. To make your business plan format, you must have knowledge of your customers like their age group, gender etc. There’re so many areas a small business planner may need to cover while preparing a business plan. On that morning, terrorists affiliated with al-Qaeda hijacked four commercial passenger jet airliners.[1][2] The hijackers intentionally crashed two of the airliners into the World Trade Center in New York City, resulting in the collapse of both buildings soon afterward and extensive damage to nearby buildings.
The overwhelming majority of casualties were civilians, including nationals from over 90 different countries.
The United States passed the USA PATRIOT Act, as many nations around the world strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded law enforcement powers.
Rebuilding the World Trade Center site has been more contentious, with controversy over possible designs as well as the pace of construction. All international civilian air traffic was banned from landing on US soil for three days.[19] Aircraft already in flight were either turned back or redirected to airports in Canada or Mexico.
After the first tower collapsed, FDNY commanders experienced difficulties communicating evacuation orders to firefighters inside the towers due to malfunctioning radio repeater systems in the World Trade Center. Soon after the invasion, Osama bin Laden traveled to Afghanistan where he helped organize Arab mujahideen and established the Maktab al-Khidamat (MAK) organization to resist the Soviets.
It released its report on July 22, 2004, concluding that the attacks were conceived and implemented by members of al-Qaeda. At the same time, another 17 al-Qaeda members were sentenced to penalties of between six and eleven years.[106][107] On February 16, 2006, the Spanish Supreme Court reduced the Abu Dahdah penalty to 12 years because it considered that his participation in the conspiracy was not proven. These goals would be accomplished by means including economic and military sanctions against states perceived as harboring terrorists and increasing global surveillance and intelligence sharing. There were reports of verbal abuse, attacks on mosques and other religious buildings (including the firebombing of a Hindu temple) and assaults on people, including one murder: Balbir Singh Sodhi was fatally shot on September 15, 2001.
Top organizations include: Islamic Society of North America, American Muslim Alliance, American Muslim Council, Council on American-Islamic Relations, The Islamic Circle of North America, and the Shari'a Scholars Association of North America. Across the globe, nations offered pro-American support and solidarity.[133] Leaders in most Middle Eastern countries, including Afghanistan, condemned the attacks.
The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), the American Stock Exchange, and NASDAQ did not open on September 11 and remained closed until September 17. The attacks led to nearly a 20% cutback in air travel capacity, and severely exacerbated financial problems in the struggling U.S. On October 17, 2006, federal judge Alvin Hellerstein rejected New York City's refusal to pay for health costs for rescue workers, allowing for the possibility of numerous suits against the city.[178] Government officials have been faulted for urging the public to return to lower Manhattan in the weeks shortly following the attacks.
We're going to come out of this stronger than before, politically stronger, economically stronger. A witness described being unable to "get away from faces of innocent victims who were killed.
We provide a full spectrum of emergency crisis support and services that range from consulting and plan creation to training, testing, implementation and contingency planning. The speed with which an organization is able to get back up and running often determines the short and long term impacts a catastrophe will have on the bottom-line.
Yet, there is little empirical evidence that reflects on the practice of contingency planning systems within the context of disaster risk reduction.
With climate change likely to increase further the frequency and magnitude of hydro-meteorological hazards in southern Africa, contingency planning is a key tool for enhancing resilience to disasters (Choularton 2007).
This article is timely considering the currency of disaster risk reduction across the world. Firstly, contingency planning is one of the elements of disaster preparedness and response planning that is amongst the five priority areas for disaster risk reduction as outlined in the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005–2015 (HFA), which was adopted by 168 nations in Japan in 2005.
Thus, contingency planning processes address risks through a process of hazard identification and prioritisation, identifying vulnerable elements as well as the capacity of affected people and responders in case the hazard degenerates into a disaster. Whilst it does not specifically address long-term recovery issues, contingency planning contributes towards building resilience by addressing some of the drivers of vulnerability, such as the reduction of negative impacts of a disaster on livelihoods. The outcome of contingency planning is an action plan that can be implemented once a disaster occurs.
The SADC has 15 member states.1 According to the United Nations Development Programme (2012), southern Africa is prone to a variety of natural hazards and related disasters such as drought, floods, cyclones, fires, earthquakes, landslides, livestock diseases, pest infestations and epidemics, which reinforces the need for contingency planning. These countries were chosen because (1) the authors had field experience in all five countries, specifically with regard to coordinating preparedness and response to floods and (2) the countries were amongst the first in the region to compile contingency plans. The study did not emphasise universality and causality used to make the kind of generalisations that have dominated disaster risk reduction theory. With the exception of Mozambique and Zambia, contingency planning takes the form of an event rather than a continuous systematic process to enhance preparedness and response. One of the gaps in the contingency plans of Namibia and Zimbabwe was related to budget allocation for both preparedness and response. Government of Mozambique, 2008, Mozambique vulnerability analysis, Technical Secretariat for Food Security and Nutrition, Maputo. International Council for Science (ICSU), 2007, Natural and human-induced hazards and disasters in sub-Saharan Africa, ICSU Regional Office for Africa Science Plan, Seychelles, 05–06 March. Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. It is not necessary that a menu plan template is prepared for whole family or customers at a restaurant but you can prepare a menu planner for yourself too. It will include list of concerned members, list of activities to be performed, list of resources, arrangement of finances etc. Any business that wants to ensure its long life need to draw a contingency plan template which covers number of areas, just like; anticipating business risks, possible impacts, mobility of business strategies, seizing business opportunities, developing mitigation, etc. Basically a business continuity plan will cover the topics including business impact analysis, recovery strategies, plan development, testing and exercises etc.


Basically there are four strategies being used by managers to deal with the risks to projects like accept the risks, avoid the risks, mitigate the risks, transfer the risks. No two ways about, it’s up-to the mantel level or self satisfaction of teacher to make a lesson plan on daily, weekly or monthly basis. Thus, an effective personal development plan will improve the overall working capabilities of person and boost him to get success with strong actions. Other important points to be included in a small business plan include business name, business location, key offers, price, staff members etc. In addition, the death of at least one person from lung disease was ruled by a medical examiner to be a result of exposure to dust from the World Trade Center's collapse, as rescue and recovery workers were exposed to airborne contaminants following the World Trade Center's collapse. Stock exchanges were closed for almost a week, and posted enormous losses immediately upon reopening, with airline and insurance industries suffering the greatest financial losses. The selection of the Freedom Tower for the site has drawn extensive criticism, forcing the abandonment of some parts of the project. 9-1-1 dispatchers also received information from callers that was not passed along.[60] Within hours of the attack, a massive search and rescue operation was launched. In the tape, bin Laden admits foreknowledge of the attacks.[92] The tape was broadcast on various news networks from December 13, 2001. He said that the attacks were carried out because "we are freea€¦and want to regain freedom for our nation. In addition, the highly visible role played by New York City mayor Rudy Giuliani won him high praise nationally and in New York.[123] Many relief funds were immediately set up to assist victims of the attacks, with the task of providing financial assistance to the survivors of the attacks and to the families of victims. Congress also passed the USA PATRIOT Act, stating that it would help detect and prosecute terrorism and other crimes. The legitimacy of these detentions has been questioned by, among others, the European Parliament, the Organization of American States, and Amnesty International.
In my opinion and conviction these hijackers were deceived and misled into the wrong faith.
Pontius Pilate had no qualms with Jesus and hoped the severe beatings the Romans gave would satisfy the Priestcraft's hatred for the King.
This article explores the practice of contingency planning in southern Africa, focussing on Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
This article explores the nature of contingency planning, related gaps and their effects on coordinated preparedness and response capacity in southern Africa, focusing on Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. It can make a significant contribution to our knowledge in contingency planning, particularly considering that there is limited empirical evidence about the status of contingency planning in southern Africa. Unlike disaster risk management planning, which tends to be long term and cover a whole range of hazards based on historical trends, contingency planning is forward planning in a state of uncertainty and formulated to address an emerging crisis (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 2003). Rather, the study focused on identifying recurring patterns, variations and inconsistencies in contingency planning processes.
Nonetheless, in all five the examples, the government often takes the lead in coordinating the contingency planning process at national level with support from partners, mostly the United Nations and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Lack of comprehensive risk analysis and unrealistic parameters that inform scenario development can potentially pose difficulties for implementing contingency plans. Financial resources were inadequate not only for preparedness activities but also for response, particularly for procurement of relief materials. Firstly, there appears to be a wide gap between theory and practice in contingency planning. Government of Mozambique, 2011, Republic of Mozambique contingency plan for rainy and cyclone season 2011–2012, National Disaster Management Institute, Maputo. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), 2007, Disaster response and contingency planning guide, IFRC, Geneva.
A menu planner will serve just like a diet schedule which will help you to decide what to eat at what time and how much.
In project plan, individual can include a fairly accurate schedule that for sure will assist the person to run up-coming or current projects in a professional manner. We can also call it as an emergency plan Template which assists the company or individuals to take quick responses. To make your business continuity plan effective, you need to select effective team members for execution of plan.
This plan will help the company to figure-out the areas from where the internal and external threats can appear. This kind of management plan will assist the individual planner to make strategies & figure-out the opportunities and threats.
Contents of the lesson plan may vary according to the preferences of the teacher and nature of the subject. Usually, while planning a lesson plan the teacher may use some techniques to develop a list of instruction with respect to the subjects. If this document is being provided by employer, it will include all courses and additional training schedules to help the employee improve himself.
While following a personal development plan someone defiantly will get guideline that for sure will optimize his skills as well as capitalize the existing capabilities. An effectively prepared small business plan template will thoroughly set some specific objectives for the manager & employees as well. The fourth plane crashed into a field near Shanksville in rural Somerset County, Pennsylvania after passengers and members of the flight crew on the fourth aircraft attempted to retake control of their plane. The economy of Lower Manhattan ground to a halt, as billions of dollars in office space was damaged or destroyed. Canada was one of the main recipients of diverted flights and launched Operation Yellow Ribbon to deal with the large numbers of grounded planes and stranded passengers. The sagging floors pulled on the exterior steel columns to the point where exterior columns bowed inward.
The Freedom Tower is currently under construction at the site and at 1,776 ft (541 m) upon completion in 2011, will become the one of the tallest buildings in North America, behind the Chicago Spire and the CN Tower in Toronto. They were following an illusion but today I bet if you asked them they'd go back and not do it if they could come back for one moment. But these miscreants would not be content until they saw Christ's body bloodied and hanging from a cross.
The study sought answers to the following questions: • To what extent do contingency planning processes address challenges of coordinated response to disasters in southern Africa? It adopts a systematic effort to analyse and manage the causal factors of disasters, including reduced exposure to hazards, lessened vulnerability of people and property, sound management of land and the environment, and improved preparedness for adverse events (United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction [UNISDR] 2009). 2011) by adapting, resisting or changing to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure (UNISDR 2005).
However, at sub-national level, only Mozambique has well-developed regional contingency plans. To a certain extent, some contingency plans tend to be reactive as they are developed once there are already signs of a disaster looming. Owing to inadequate budget allocation, the responses were not carried out in a timely manner in Namibia, Malawi or Zambia during 2008 and 2009 floods. The contingency plans tend to be skewed towards hazards, with limited attention to vulnerabilities and capacities. A well prepared menu planner will also tell you how much calories you will consume with each intake. No matter you’re running a restaurant or just want to set a menu for family, here the menu planner template will professionally help you to add healthy foods in a meal while avoiding the junk ones.
The project plan will help the planner to measure all the areas of resources including the financial, material & human resources. This plan may work just like a risk management plan which essentially required by businesses those working on limited funds. A plan which affects the business continuity may thoroughly require in-depth understanding for serving the customers. Key contents of the risk management plan will include list of risks, impacts of risks, times of risks, key personnel, decided responses to the risks etc.
This plan is necessary because it will assist you and motivate you to accomplish what you’ve dreamed for. If it is to be drafted for the writer himself, he will answer following questions in this plan; what I am, what I need to be, how can I achieve my goals, what time will be undertaken, what changes will I have in my personality after completing the plan etc. With the damage to the core columns, the buckling exterior columns could no longer support the buildings, causing them to collapse. Three more towers are expected to be built between 2007 and 2012 on the site, and will be located one block east of where the original towers stood.
They demanded Jesus have nails driven into his wrists, as this was not normally undertaken, even for the most hardened criminals. The findings show that (1) there was a wide gap between theory and practice in contingency planning, (2) response activities rarely reflected projected scenarios and (3) resources were inadequate for effective contingency planning. This is followed by the methodology used in the case study, focusing on the data collection methods and tools.
Secondly, contingency planning can provide a holistic picture of disaster risk reduction by bringing together the major elements of the disaster: risk, hazard and vulnerability. As a result of warmer temperatures, diseases such as malaria are likely to spread to places where it was not previously endemic and increased heat stress to natural ecosystems and agricultural crops are likely to impact negatively on the productivity of rangeland, grazing and food production (SADC 2012).
Data from both secondary and primary sources revealed that the contingency plans from the five countries provide basic and generalised flood and drought risk analysis. It should be noted that in theory, contingency plans have budgetary allocations; however, in practice barely any financial resources are allocated.
Southern African Development Community Climate Services Centre (SADC CSC), 2009a, Rainfall forecast January–March 2009, Issue no. Thankfully, having a menu planner in place will reasonably help the individual to add foods in menu that can be cooked quickly. Seemingly, the impact of change management must be experienced by the each member of organization. No doubt, a business continuity plan will use to develop strong strategies to maintain competitive advantage.
To all appearance, for the profitability of business there is exceptionally required by the company to run effectual risks management that for sure wills smoother the workflow.
Main contents of a lesson plan include title, time required for completing the lesson, names of materials required, list of lesson objectives, list of steps, summary to wind up the discussion, list of required responses etc. The strategic plan example of business will define where the company is exists, so follow the strategic plan to run the functions& operations of business.
An individual can assess his knowledge, skills, capabilities and other qualifications to form a personal development plan template which lead him to follow an effective way to make further attempts to achieve a goal. This report, too, turned out to be in error; the plane was briefly thought to represent a hijack risk, but it responded to controllers and landed safely in Cleveland, Ohio.
In addition, the report asserts that the towers' stairwells were not adequately reinforced to provide emergency escape for people above the impact zones. We conclude that unless these issues are addressed, contingency planning is likely to remain a theoretical rather than a practical tool for building disaster-resilient communities in southern African countries. The relationship between these three elements is expressed using the most cited disaster equation (Blaikie et al. This study examines whether there is any evidence that southern African countries fulfil the basic characteristics of contingency planning to ensure an effective response to crises. Similarly, since 1950, southern Africa has witnessed a downward trend in rainfall and an increase in cyclone activity in the south western Indian Ocean region (SADC 2012). However, one of the major challenges of qualitative comparative analysis is to determine comparable units of analysis (Patton 2002). The key issues highlighted in the risk analysis include hazard identification, vulnerable groups and possible disaster impacts. For example, in 2009 the regional plan for the Caprivi region in Namibia had a budget of N$7 million, but it was not clear whether there was any actual allocation from the central government. No doubt, a good food menu planner will plan your meals, & seemingly you’ll end up with a more balanced and nutritious diet. However, this smartly crafted project plan template will showcase the scope of project as well as clearly define the responsibilities of each person who attached with the project. For getting the value system integrity planner must have to cover all those areas where continuity plan will directly or indirectly effect. Seemingly, a previously designed lesson plan will assist the teacher to take a solid grip on the upcoming lesson.
In simple words, we can call a strategic plan as a mission statement which defines the objectives and ends with the evaluation. With the assistance of strategic plan template, the individual can take control on procedures and performances. NIST stated that the final report on the collapse of 7 WTC will appear in a separate report.[156][157] This was confirmed by an independent study by Purdue University.
Although a generalisation cannot be made on the status of contingency planning and practice in southern Africa without a wider analysis of more examples, the findings may apply beyond the examined contexts and also offer insights into research gaps.
According to the International Council for Science (ICSU) (2007), about 59% of the disasters experienced between 1997 and 2007 in southern Africa were related to hydro-meteorological hazards, mostly floods, cyclones and droughts.
To address this weakness, we derived a range of topics from contingency planning literature. Namibia has regional contingency plans, but at the time of this study the national contingency plan was going through an approval process. In contrast, the Mozambican government allocated a budget to cover most of the contingency planning and implementation processes. There appear to be system challenges in hazard, vulnerability and capacity analysis to develop comprehensive contingency plans that reduce the impact of a disaster. Southern African Development Community Climate Services Centre (SADC CSC), 2009b, Rainfall forecast February–April 2009, Issue no. The menu planner will keep your monthly budget in check, as well as reduce the chances of waste. This plan will also identify the rules of project developers. A project plan if is written by following the instructions shared above will definitely work efficiently.
In addition, a change management plan template will improve the performance of employees as well as increased the customer services.
To all appearance, a business continuity plan template may completely cover the impact analysis of business.
Thus, a risk management plan template is very important for business because with the help of this format, owner or management can handle the potential risks effectively.
Southern African countries should shift from viewing contingency planning as an event that produces a document that gathers dust on a shelf to approaching it as a plan of action that affected communities can embrace, thus enhancing their resilience to disasters. These included policy guidelines, hazard and vulnerability assessments, scenarios, plan development and validation, resources, approaches and response. In Mozambique, the National Institute for Disaster Management coordinates most of the key aspects of disaster preparedness and response and leads the process of contingency planning. In Mozambique, the number of people who were likely to be affected by floods under the best-case, middle-case and worst-case scenarios for floods (see Table 1) was calculated at provincial level. Believe me your health is more important than time, so spend little time and set meals for the whole week, month or fortnights using our format of menu planner.
However, this plan may consist on recovery strategies, plan development, benefits, testing and exercises, considerations, potential, & expert’s insights. They view contingency planning as a process leading towards the prior allocation of resources, personnel, equipment, crisis control rooms, tasks, responsibilities and decision guidance or rules. The planning process begins at district and provincial level and culminates into a national contingency plan (Government of Mozambique 2008). However, there was a lack of further detailed information indicating the areas within the province that were likely to be affected by the floods.


Consequently, when the country was hit by three cyclones and several floods in the period 2012–2013, Mozambique did not request international assistance as there were adequate funds allocated for the purpose.
The contingency plans are not necessarily based on comprehensive risk analysis to inform scenario building.
Southern African Development Community Climate Services Centre (SADC CSC), 2011, Rainfall forecast December 2011–February 2012, Issue no.
More than 700 lives were lost in Mozambique alone, with material loss estimated at $500 million (ICSU 2007). This strengthens vertical linkage and coordination between national and lower levels during preparedness and response. Also, there was a missing link between the sectors and numbers of people who were likely to be affected. Other non-government organisations contributed to the budget shortfall to support the government (Mozambique Humanitarian Country Team 2010). Finally, the UNISDR (2007) defines a contingency plan as a management process that analyses specific potential events or emerging situations that might threaten society or the environment and establishes arrangements in advance to enable timely, effective and appropriate responses to such events and situations. Firstly, an extensive review of all contingency plans from the five countries was performed. In contrast to the Mozambican contingency planning framework, contingency planning is highly centralised in Malawi and Zimbabwe, with limited participation by provinces and districts (Government of Malawi 2011; Government of Zimbabwe 2009).
As a result, Mozambique was able to, amongst other, (1) test national and local preparedness plans through simulation exercises and (2) pre-position stocks strategically in areas that were likely to be inaccessible during floods and this helped the timely delivery of assistance.
In this case, contingency plans are of little value, as there tend to be discrepancies between the contingency plan and the response plan when the disaster happens. Southern African Development Community Climate Services Centre (SADC CSC), 2012, Rainfall forecast March–May 2012, Issue no. The UNISDR (2007) further states that contingency planning is part of the overall preparedness that often results in organised and coordinated courses of action, with clearly identified institutional roles and resources, information processes and operational arrangements for specific actors at times of need. By the end of 2011, all countries in southern Africa had at least some form of a contingency plan for identified priority hazards, ranging from flood contingency plans to cholera contingency plans. The district officials who coordinate the response at district level in Zimbabwe and Malawi have limited involvement, if any, in the national contingency planning process. In Zimbabwe, there was an attempt to give a breakdown of people affected to include children, and pregnant or lactating mothers (Government of Zimbabwe 2006, 2009).
The simulations involved multiple stakeholders who later implemented the plan, which made it possible for them to identify and address their weaknesses. Thirdly, although Mozambique has seen an improvement in the allocation of resources, contingency planning is under-resourced in the other sampled countries.
Choularton (2007) states that since contingency planning is a forward-looking undertaking in the imminence of a disaster, it is one of the components of preparedness planning; it does not equate to comprehensive preparedness planning.
Seismic risk could be another justification for contingency planning in southern Africa, particularly for countries along the Rift Valley, stretching from Eritrea through Malawi to Mozambique. Secondly, regional seasonal forecasts from 2006 and country-specific downscaled forecasts were analysed to determine whether hazard analysis and scenario development reflected seasonal forecasts.
Some district officials contacted in Malawi and Zimbabwe were not sure whether a national contingency plan even existed. The government also invited experts in preparedness and response from outside the region to provide a critical appraisal of the simulation. Yet, response plans, which tend to be informed by contingency plans, require strategic positioning of resources, training and simulation exercises, dissemination of information and broad-based participation before the onset of a disaster. In other words, a contingency plan addresses short-term planning when a disaster is imminent to prepare society to respond. Along the Rift Valley and on Indian Ocean islands, several volcanoes are known to be active, including Mount Nyiragongo in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Mount Karthala on the island of Comoros.
Seasonal weather forecasts give an indication of expected weather for the season and it is possible for countries to identify areas likely to receive above-normal rainfall that may lead to flooding.
National disaster authorities in Zimbabwe and Malawi often support responses at district level, but rarely follow the national contingency plan’s guidance.
A comparison of seasonal forecasts including identified hazards and developed scenarios tended to be generic, and scenarios were rarely updated to reflect projected and changing rainfall patterns. This helped to strengthen the national and regional contingency plans.During flood responses, rapid assessments and the prompt release of assessment results are deemed essential. Underlying the resource challenges are generally outdated legal and institutional frameworks, despite disaster management having changed dramatically, particularly following the adoption of the HFA in 2005. The intention of contingency planning, according to Choularton (2007) is to minimise casualties by addressing possible gaps that were not easily discernible during the long-term preparedness planning.
These hazards, combined with vulnerabilities, have the potential to cause disasters (Blaikie et al.
Where available, hydrological information was also reviewed to determine how it was used in risk determination.
Contingency planning processes also develop assessment tools and a multisector assessment team is usually set up. In this way, disaster risk reduction has not necessarily shifted towards proactive management of disasters.We conclude that unless these issues are addressed, contingency planning is likely to remain theoretical, rather than a practical tool for building disaster-resilient communities in southern African countries. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR), 2009, Terminology on disaster risk reduction, UNISDR, Geneva.Wijkman, A. As events unfold and responders get more information on what is likely to happen, and the extent and likely location of events, a contingency plan is drafted to address specific events (Harrald & Mazzuchi 1993). Finally, data were collected from discussions and observations during the development of contingency plans in the respective countries. Whilst contingency plans are designed mainly to strengthen coordination for preparedness and response, the results from Malawi, Namibia and Zimbabwe show that the practice is different. The same response plans, and the number of people likely to be affected, were maintained throughout the rainy season, thus making the plan of little use for the responders’ purposes.
Essentially, the team should be well trained in assessment and ready for field assessments in the shortest possible time. In contrast, comprehensive preparedness planning is not prompted by an imminent disaster but considers all possible disasters, mostly based on historical records and other projected threats that are likely to occur (Choularton 2007). The major vulnerabilities include food insecurity, HIV and AIDS, population growth, urbanisation, land degradation, inequalities with regard to gender, education, health and wealth and poor governance (SADC 2012). NGOs that work at district level develop their own plans, which in most cases are rarely informed by the national plans. Most of the hazards continuously change, hence the need for frequent reviews of the initial scenarios.
Assessments are also linked to other information management systems required for effective response, such as data processing, analysis and reporting. Choularton (2007) further states that comprehensive preparedness planning addresses broader issues that include institutional and legislative framework, policies and resource allocation.
Data analysis was organised according to themes (see later) to compare and contrast items assigned to the same theme. The ideal situation is that lower-level contingency plans should dovetail with the national plan, with the national plan providing the guiding framework. This would ensure that the plan becomes a living document and could, in many ways, reinforce the view that contingency planning is a process rather than an event.
The tendency has been for the contingency planning to look at information management not as a system, but as a one-off intervention. Harrald and Mazzuchi (1993) emphasise the importance of scenarios as tools for successful contingency planning, particularly in identifying gaps in resource mobilisation and exercising.
Consistent with literature, this involved an iterative process to generate a compact summary of the data (Harding 2013).
This is the case in Mozambique, where organisations working at sub-national level developed guidelines and plans that informed the formulation of the national contingency plan (Government of Mozambique 2011). The situation is made more difficult by the lack of hydrological data, which is an important input in flood forecasting.
This has resulted in challenges in data processing, with little clarity with regard to not only data capturing and analysis approaches but also the kind of outputs expected from the analyses.
The most common approach to scenario building in contingency planning is the best, most-likely or middle and worst-case scenario approach. The major limitation of the study was that generalisations cannot be made simply on five examples without a comprehensive analysis of many more examples from southern Africa.
Discussions with participants during reviews in Mozambique revealed that because the process promoted transparency and mutual trust between the national and local levels, it strengthened a coordinated response.
Scenarios and risk analysis tend to be primarily based on weather forecasts, with little or no consideration of other factors that may exacerbate flooding, such as basin characteristics, soil moisture conditions and current river discharge and flow regimes. Also, the time taken during field assessments rarely meets the international standards, which state that field assessments should be conducted during the first week of the emergency (Inter-Agency Standing Committee 2007; International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies 2007).
Scenarios are developed to allow planners to examine and plan for different scales of the same potential crisis or emergency.
However, the findings may resonate with contingency planning processes and practices in some contexts and offer insights into further areas of research. In Namibia, Zimbabwe and Malawi, the coordination structures proposed in the contingency plan rarely reflect the national preparedness coordination structures. Namibia’s regional plans for the Kavango and Caprivi regions along the Zambezi River also rely mainly on the regional weather forecast (Government of Namibia 2009) and rarely considers hydrological data. During the 2009 floods in Namibia, the disaster assessment lasted for more than 2 weeks, with the results made available only after another 3 weeks (Government of Namibia 2009). Table 1 provides examples of the best-case, middle-case and worst-case scenarios for drought, flooding and earthquakes.
As Zimbabwe was experiencing a humanitarian crisis during the time of this study, the contingency response plans were based on United Nations cluster coordination mechanisms. For example, changes in the discharge of the Zambezi River upstream, which affects flooding downstream in the Caprivi region, are not often reflected in scenario updates. The clusters such as agriculture, health, nutrition and education, and water, sanitation and hygiene were led by the United Nations agencies. Similarly, during the 2008 flood season in Zambia, it took close to 3 weeks to have the disaster assessment results released.
Although the national disaster plan and the Civil Protection Act have clearly defined national committees, links with UN-led clusters that dominated sector response plans were unclear. The plans for all five countries clearly identify the hazards such as floods, cyclones, dry spells and epidemics, but tend to lack vulnerability analysis.
The assessment reports tended to be general; they did not necessarily target specific response sectors. In Mozambique and Zambia, the coordination structures are strongly linked to national structures, with contingency planning and coordination structures clearly embedded within government-led structures (Government of Mozambique 2008; Government of Zambia 2009).
There was a tendency to cluster vulnerability as vulnerability indicators were not disaggregated by age, gender and disability. In most cases, different response sectors require different sets of information to support their responses. Further, interviews with participants in Mozambique and Zambia suggested that the contingency planning processes in these countries adopted a participatory and multisectoral approach, with clear roles and responsibilities for roleplayers. Senior government authorities may not have the time to read lengthy, untargeted reports, whilst donors have specific information requirements to enable them to provide appropriate resources. Without clearly outlined guidelines and coordination mechanisms, the implementation of contingency plans becomes fragmented.
Risk assessment, hazard detection and prediction, communication and dissemination, public awareness and coordination are some of the key fundamental components of an effective early-warning system for hydro-meteorological hazards (O’Neil 1997). Agencies also tend to carry out their own assessments in cases where a common multisector tool has not been developed and agreed to in advance, as was the case in Namibia in 2009. Parallel coordination structures, mostly led by United Nations agencies and other humanitarian organisations, tend to duplicate effort, thus creating confusion. Disaster preparedness does not entail only the development of early-warning information systems but also the dissemination of early-warning information.
As a result, too many agencies can conduct field assessments involving the same group of affected people, who may develop assessment fatigue. Whilst all contingency plans from 2008 to 2012 refer to early-warning information, the challenge is that early-warning systems are either underdeveloped or non-existent. Some participants noted that underdeveloped or non-existent early-warning systems could have been a result of lack of clarity on what an early-warning information system should entail as well as limited understanding of vulnerabilities and capacities. People affected by floods in the five countries have diverse socio-economic situations and linguistic differences. National radio and television were used as the main means of disseminating early-warning information; however, not only was there poor radio transmission and reception in some of the areas affected by floods but it was also unclear whether people owned a radio or a television set.
People along the Save River in Zimbabwe, which is affected mostly by floods, tend to listen to South African rather than local radio stations. This means that information disseminated through the national radio stations in Zimbabwe may not reach some of the marginal areas, where most of the vulnerable people live. Further, the information was disseminated in the main national languages (Shona, Ndebele and English), yet most of the people in the south-eastern districts of Zimbabwe speak Tsonga, which is one of the minority languages in the country. A comprehensive risk analysis could indicate distinct vulnerabilities and capacities as determined by socio-cultural factors, which could strengthen the implementation of the contingency plan by making it relevant to the multiple contexts. What is clearly discernible from the study is that the plans from all five countries include strong hazard identification, but pay little attention to vulnerability and capacity analysis. Namibia is still in the process of developing a legal framework for disaster risk management.
The legislative framework should be central to informing lower-level planning that includes risk management and contingency planning. Lack of clarity of roles and responsibilities for lower-level roleplayers in the legislative framework may mean that contingency plans at this level risk being anchored on a weak foundation, making them difficult to implement.
The contingency plans from all five countries identified the prepositioning of relief items in strategic areas before flooding starts as one of the preparedness measures. This was meant to facilitate timely assistance to affected people as some of the areas may become inaccessible during disasters owing to poor road networks. For Namibia, Malawi and Zimbabwe, the challenge relates to lack of finances needed to purchase stocks for prepositioning as the contingency plan does not include a budget for this. With high levels of chronic vulnerability in some of the countries, governments and partner organisations were reluctant to set aside financial resources for an event that possibly would not occur. Defining the tipping point that distinguishes chronic and acute vulnerabilities in most countries in southern Africa has been a major challenge.
Indeed, the authors of this article feel that it is not always easy to determine the point when a problem perceived to be common or obvious can occur above the threshold, which would qualify it as an emergency or disaster.With the five countries sharing a common river system and all being affected by flooding of the Zambezi River, it is worth noting that none of the scenarios and risk analyses consider cross-border issues.
Information from neighbouring countries such as Angola, which includes river discharge levels and rainfall forecasts, were rarely used to forecast hazard trends for contingency planning by countries downstream along the Zambezi (Mozambique, Namibia and Zimbabwe). There was also barely any regional system in place to develop and disseminate a basin-wide early warning to all the countries affected by flooding of the Zambezi River.
The situation was exacerbated by a poor network of hydrological gauging stations and recording instruments providing real-time data, especially from remote locations.



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