In the previous articles in this series, we discussed risk assessment, the importance of establishing what risks and threats your business faces, how some of them can be prevented or avoided and how you should formulate and use an emergency plan.
Surviving an emergency is only the first stage though, if your business is to continue in the long-term, you need to ensure that disaster recovery and business continuity are a high priority, from the moment that you become aware of a disaster, whether imminent or already taking place.
Post-incident disaster recovery is an essential element in mitigating the effects of specific incidents, ensuring that operations are resumed as quickly as possible and before any secondary damage (to client lists or reputation) is incurred.
Again, this should be an ongoing procedure, detailed in your emergency plan and with post-test and post-incident reviews feeding into improving the plan. How do you maintain production or service provision if your main business location is out of action?
The emergency plan should make clear what sort of down-time is acceptable before temporary measures are introduced, and how these are escalated. Particularly if there is going to be any lengthy disruption to your business, ensure that you keep your customers, suppliers, staff and contractors informed.
To read the first article in this series, go to Emergency Preparedness Planning: Identifying the Key Stages of your Disaster Recovery Plan.
In the previous articles in this series, we discussed risk assessment, the importance of establishing what risks and threats your business faces in order to be able to properly address them and how to minimize casualties and disruption.
Your risk assessment evaluation has given you a ranked list of threats, some of which you may have been able to discount (see previous article).
In this article, we will give consideration the the areas of disaster prevention and disaster avoidance, detailing how you can prevent or avoid risks. However, you must always bear in mind that even if you can avoid a risk entirely, the initial threat can still arise, everyone on site needs to know (or be informed) of the actions to be taken, and therefore your disaster prevention, disaster avoidance and business recovery measures must still be included in your business continuity plan.
Certain risks such as earthquake or flooding could be largely avoided through the construction of earthquake resistant buildings, building bunds or levees around your property, installation of a lightning conductor etc. Many of the risks associated with IT (computers and communication systems) can be avoided entirely through astute investment. Many threats can be managed down to negligible levels through adequate policies and procedures.
We recommend that you register for a free online demonstration of Regroup’s powerful, secure and easy-to-use mass notification and emergency messaging system or for more information, case studies and white papers about how Regroup helps in meeting your day-to-day and emergency communications needs, talk to a Regroup Communications Consultant today at 775-476-8710. Loss Prevention Engineering involves the engineering required to help us prevent accidental, undesired loss-producing incidents.
However, because loss prevention engineering is such a diverse and broadly demanding application of engineering and scientific principles and even if we limit the subject to preventing accidental loss incidents (such as automobile crashes, sporting accidents, etc.), we would still never be able to cover all the relevant and important topics that would be needed in just one book.
A diverse and detailed publication like this would not be possible without the input of many people of a multitude of experiences, languages, countries of origin, and industrial backgrounds. Several industries around the world apply a multifaceted health, environmental, and safety (HES) program approach in reducing occupational HES incidents. Taking a look at the oil and gas industry for illustration purposes, statistics within the industry across the globe clearly show a consistent decline of total recordable incident rate (TRIR) from 2002 to 2009. To have an appreciation of loss prevention engineering management systems, a look at some relevant historical events that have helped shape the approach of industries to loss prevention is necessary. Process safety incident occurrences go far beyond all of the above-mentioned incidents and other similar high-profile process safety incidents well known to the public. Reacting to process safety incidents, the US government put in place laws that led to the creation of the Risk Management Program (RMP) in 1999, being managed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Similarly to the above, the European Union also maintains a database for all process-related incidents a€“ the Major Accident Reporting System (MARS) database (Nivolianitou, Konstandinidou, and Michalis, 2006). Considering past incident occurrences and the outcome of the analysis of historical data indifferent studies, there is still a great need for industries to continue to work at initiatives that will guarantee the success achieved in the occupational safety, health, and environment field.
A schematic of the basic management system standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is shown in Figure 1.3. Plan a€“ Establish objectives and make plans (analyze your organization's situation, establish your overall objectives, and set your interim targets, and develop plans to achieve them).
Act a€“ Correct and improve your plans and how you put them into practice (correct and learn from your mistakes to improve your plans in order to achieve better results next time). Within any establishment, the HES function with support of the executive leadership will need to define and establish a fit-for-purpose management system that is based on the basic model discussed above.
Engineering in loose terms will be the utilization of mathematical, socioeconomic, practicability, and scientific expertise to design and build functional structures that allow for the enhancement of quality of life.
Considering the industry at large, there are huge upsides to having functional loss prevention management systems in place; this allows companies to understand their risks and proactively mitigate their exposures.
Regarding cost savings, as a case study for illustration purposes, we can refer to a publication by the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), an arm of the US Department of Transportation, on the topic a€?The Economic Burden of Traffic Crashes on Employersa€? (NHTSA, 2003).
The NHTSA estimated that the potential savings for employers could be up to $15 billion annually if these two root causes of crashes are eliminated. We now change gear to focus on the insurance industry and their perception of a customer with adequate safety training being less of a liability, hence reducing insurance premiums. As indicated by the sample size involved, all but one insurance company offers a discount of one form or another whether or not a specific percentage was stipulated. Regardless of the industry, it should be clear at this point that having a functional loss prevention engineering program could influence the bottom line of a company by minimizing financial losses. Considering the range and complexity of loss prevention engineering processes and tools, it becomes an exceptional candidate for the implementation of management systems to deliver success.
A schematic diagram that shows the six basic stages of the loss prevention engineering management system cycle is presented in Figure 1.4. Figure 1.4 depicts a system with a scope that goes beyond traditional loss prevention engineering which focuses more on the technical part of HES. Executives and top leadership managerial teams are responsible for setting precise HES visions that offer clarity. Prevent injury and illness and pursue improvements in safety and health to achieve industry leadership. Attain industry leadership in environmental stewardship; operate with minimal environmental footprint. The set HES vision and objectives will form the foundation for all other tools and processes.
Set HES objectives are only as good as the available enabling tools, supporting processes, and competent workforce for implementation.
The above organizational structure is generic enough and HES positions can go from simple to more complex, as shown in the schematic on the right in Figure 1.5, depending on the needs of the organization (which may even be much more complex if needed). As part of National Preparedness Month we are trying to help raise awareness and help the unprepared masses get a better understanding on why they need to prepare for real-world threats and disasters. A great way to help your loved ones is to send them some quick facts, and bullet points that help them understand why they need to prepare.
I have always prepped, however while on a business trip to Japan I found myself in a 9.0 earthquake and radiation aftermath. Thanks for sharing your experience, I think it highlights the need to be prepared no matter where you are and how disasters can strike when you least expect them.
Is there an information source where you can determine which freeze dried food products are what they claim to be?

Your best bet is to call the company and find out exactly how they are freeze drying the food, how they package it and what guarantees they give on lifespan. I see that the 3d US healthworker who tested positive for ebola is being allowed to come back to the US via Nebraska.
I think the three days of supplies and water recommendation from the government is laughable. It is more like a recommendation to sit and wait for the government to some nanny state preps and have people counting on government assistance, which may actually never come. This is Emergency Preparedness Week and the City is reminding residents of the importance of being prepared to respond to an emergency.
Kingston Fire & Rescue is marking the week by launching its Facebook page and Twitter feed. Can you arrange alternative supplies or production facilities, or can key activities be conducted by staff working from home? For example, disruption of manufacturing, lectures or the sales team of up to 24 hours may be acceptable, but for any longer, you will need to consider relocating the activity. In an emergency, people will pull together, and a customer who understands the nature of the disaster that you suffered and is being kept informed on the supply situation is more likely to remain a customer than one who has no idea what is happening or when supply might resume.
You not only have to marshal your staff and other resources, but you need to keep everyone informed if you are to retain their trust and business. To read the 2nd article in this series, go to Emergency Preparedness Planning 2: Risk Assessment. However, these can be very expensive and only justifiable if the threat (likelihood x consequences) is particularly serious. Off-site backup of data and cloud based solutions can (with other measures) ensure that any disruption to on-site servers can be quickly and easily worked around. For instance, having properly trained deputies able to stand in for indisposed key members of staff, properly trained security staff checking everyone entering your business critical areas or distributing business critical activities around multiple sites.
There is no point having measures in place unless everyone is told when those measures are in effect. Nevertheless, authors, editors, and publisher do not warrant the information contained in these books, including this book, to be free of errors.
No part of this book may be reproduced in any form a€” by photoprinting, microfilm, or any other means a€” nor transmitted or translated into a machine language without written permission from the publishers.
It is a diverse application of engineering that can call upon every engineering discipline and many other scientific and social science disciplines as well as just about every aspect of industrial life. So, we have chosen to cover the topics relating to engineering industrial processes to prevent or reduce loss from accidental and undesired incidents. Our authors hail from nine different countries, represent nearly 20 different industry categories, and have an average of about 20 years of experience in their fields.
Arguably, it is conventional wisdom within most industries that not a single safety or environmental or health process or tool has been proven to act independently to reduce or eliminate workplace incidents directly.
Figure 1.1 represents the data across 102 countries where member companies have operations (OGP, 2010). The 1984 Union Carbide Bhopal gas leak disaster (at a pesticide plant in India) remains one of the major industrial catastrophes that have played a role in looking beyond loss prevention from a mere occupational health and safety perspective. It is important to remember that process safety incidents include the release of hazardous materials from leaks within systems, spills, equipment malfunctions that result from exceeding design temperatures and pressures, system integrity issues that include corrosion, metal fatigue, and other similar conditions. This program required process industries to log their facility information and incident history, incident consequences, and preventive programs that have been introduced as a result of the incidents. A report prepared by Pitblado in 2004 indicated that the outcome of the DNV Energy examination of the data in the MARS database showed no trends; however, the data set showed a steady average level of incident severity. Engineering processes and controls to keep the plants inherently safe will be an area for continuous improvement and focus to steer industry along this path. Process safety programs specifically focus on the design and engineering of facilities, hazard assessments, management of change, inspection, testing, and maintenance of equipment, effective alarms, effective process control, procedures, training of personnel, and human factors. The reward for having such systems backed up with data showing its success is passed back to the company in the form of cost savings from reduced incidents and by insurers offering lower premiums. This could be achieved by implementing motor vehicle safety programs that include a€?drug and alcohol policiesa€? forbidding operation of vehicles while under the influence, and a policy governing the proper use of seat belts by employees during commuting.
This is not an uncommon practice in the insurance industry beyond motorcycle or motor vehicle insurance.
In line with industry practice, management systems for loss prevention will be made up of the overarching cycle of defined stages, hinged around leadership commitment as the most important factor. It will be implemented with equal consideration to building a safety culture within the enterprise that believes that all incidents are preventable.
Management systems have been known to fail for lack of leadership support and the absence of providing visibility to the system by leadership. While recognizing the different degrees of responsibility and influence of individuals who make up the strata of leadership within any enterprise, every leader ranging from executives to front-line supervisors have unique roles to play in running the management system. The HES vision should support the company's philosophy and be written such that every employee could be held accountable for its execution at every level. This will be needed to break the vision further into more executable and measurable umbrella statements that summarizes all pillars that support the vision. Depending on the industry of interest, a benchmarking exercise will be very beneficial in establishing existing industry approaches, checking the industry pulse, and projected future direction prior to setting a vision.
All leaders will always use the vision as a primer for discussions or workforce engagements to ensure that the workforce understands that these expressed values are important to their leadership.
Success relies on leadership demonstrating commitment by providing adequate resources to support the loss prevention management system. The questions to ask in order to test criticality of any HES process is a€?What impact will the absence of the process have on meeting set HES objectives?a€? Depending on the immediate need of the organization, processes should be ranked according to their criticality to the success of the business objectives; ranked high, medium, or low risk. The HES defined positions along with the support of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) will support process implementation (Table 1.2) and manage HES human resources and workforce HES competency development down the chain. I have always thought the 72 hour recommendations were pretty ridiculous, but I suppose anything helps considering most people don’t even have the recommended 72 hours worth of supplies.
I did have on hand my multi tool, small flashlight, lighter, compass, and a couple other items but that was far from what was needed in order to survive.
I can tell you that I’m not a fan of most commercially made survival food, but I was impressed with the guys at Food Insurance and their knowledge of the industry. These social media tools will offer regular and seasonal fire prevention and other safety messages. How long will particular locations be out of action, what can be salvaged and relocated to a temporary work site etc.?
To read the 3rd article in this series, go to Emergency Preparedness Planning 3: Continuity Planning. A mass messaging system that allows communication to be maintained even when phone lines or the internet are unusable can minimise these threats to the point that they can be safely ignored in many instances. In parallel with drafting your emergency plan, you should be giving active consideration to your communications requirements, and in particular, considering whether you need a dedicated emergency messaging system, or whether a more flexible mass messaging system that can be used for day-to-day business activities (keeping in touch with remote working staff, sending promotional or other information to customers etc.) would be more suited to your needs. Readers are advised to keep in mind that statements, data, illustrations, procedural details or other items may inadvertently be inaccurate.

It is generally assumed that, by definition, we do not want to experience this type of loss. It is the expectation of our authors to present to you, our readers, a thorough collection and summary of what is known in industry about preventing work related injuries and other undesired, accidental loss incidents.
This book would not have been possible without them and I thank all of them for their significant and valuable contributions. To ensure that workplace incident prevention is achieved and sustained, an optimal mix of HES tools and processes needs to be implemented and managed (Shakioye and Haight, 2010). A process failure in this incident resulted in a leak of methyl isocyanate gas and other chemicals from the plant, causing undue exposure of thousands of people (Jackson Browning Report; Browning, 1993).
In essence, several less severe process safety incidents occur every day across the industry with less media attention.
Based on Lord Cullens recommendation, a leak database was created in the United Kingdom to record the count of leaks of process fluids (Pitblado, 2011).
Having said this; we need to understand that to reach an incident and injury-free state, personal safety, process safety, and environmental issues need to be well understood. Management systems ensure that leadership has the needed framework to cascade their vision across the enterprise and it also establishes a platform for accountability at different strata of the organizational hierarchy. To ensure inherently safe design, construction, and operation, consideration of an engineering approach certainly offers the most logical course of action.
Once our loss prevention system fails, then it becomes a case of loss control which may be out of range however planned for during the design phase.
Installation of vehicle monitoring systems on company-owned vehicles to manage drivers' attitude on the roads will add some value to motor vehicle safety in addition to helping with accountability.
The general theory is that insurance premiums are significantly higher for clients who show operationally higher risks which may introduce some level of ambiguity to the probability of an event occurring than those with inherently safer operations (Kunreuther et al., 1995). Leaders must take full ownership and set the expectations by demonstrating commitment through providing the right level of support and resources adequate for its full implementation. The idea is to orchestrate the interactions of people with people and also the interactions of people with machines and the environment, ensuring alignment with incident-free strategic visions and objectives set by the corporate executives. Public perception and confidence need to be considered in the HES vision statement considering the potential for the company's interaction with the public during the life of the operation. Personnel support can then be appropriated accordingly depending on availability, with priority given to the high and medium risk processes. Here are some of the best infographics wea€™ve found for helping your loved ones understand the importance of emergency preparedness. All these need to be considered and you need to think about emergencies not only affecting you directly, but also your suppliers, shippers or customers. To read the 4th article, go to Emergency Preparedness Planning 4: Disaster prevention and avoidance. In response to that, the authors of this book seek to inform the engineering community about what must be considered when designing, operating and maintaining systems and processes so that accidental and undesired failures or loss-producing incidents (including human injury) are less likely to occur or, if they do, that they result in lesser consequences. Some of our readers will already be well-versed in such fields as safety engineering, process safety management, fire protection engineering, industrial hygiene, or environmental engineering, but it is expected that not many engineers are well-versed in all of these fields. I would also like to thank the reviewers of our chapters as it is an important aspect of this book to ensure that you, our readers, get more than just the opinions of one author. Another major process-related incident was the March 2005 British Petroleum Texas City Refinery explosion, which was caused by the ignition of a hydrocarbon vapor cloud.
A decision was made by the government to restrict access to the data for national security reasons, the main reason being that the RMP database contains details of potential consequences of hypothetical worst-case scenarios of accidental releases. Figure 1.2 shows a plot of the analysis of the leak database, which shows a slight decline in major leaks whereas trends for other minor leaks do not clearly show a decline. Management systems that support processes, based on facts and not just mere intuition, need to be put in place. Having said this, a management system is incomplete without having the robustness to allow for continuous improvement of the organization's policies, procedures, and processes.
The root causes of the crashes reported in the study were primarily driving under the influence of alcohol and unrestrained driving (primarily non-use of seatbelts). These solutions may sound simplistic; the challenge to the safety policies is the implementation, which can only be achieved by the managers leading by example and holding employees accountable. Table 1.1 is a direct extract from the study, showing a market survey of some major insurance players in the United States. We rely on the human element for design, preventive maintenance, following standard operating procedures while incorporating safe work practices, reacting and responding to emergencies, and so on a€“ the list can be endless. Vision must be communicated to the workforce using all avenues by leaders, including written statements and personal communications for the workforce to be convinced and hence buy in (Kouzes and Posner, 1987). Corporate visions of many companies are publicly available for reference, especially on the Internet; this certainly provides an opportunity to understand what minimum goals you need to set. You may be well protected against a blizzard, but will your students still be able to get through, can you still get your products out, or if you are in the power industry, can you cope with the increased demand for heating etc.? Therefore, with the input of nearly 40 authors, and since many find themselves to be in need of information on any and all of these topic areas, the book encompasses parts of all of them. You will find that the material is widely accepted and is not just a a€?here's how we do things at our planta€?-type book. Such complexity requires a systemic management of implemented HES programs to ensure that the programs are sustained and continuous improvements in the form of learnings are captured and incorporated into existing practices. The vapor cloud was created from a series of system malfunctions that eventually led to liquid hydrocarbon overfilling the blowdown drum and stack, then spilling over to the ground, creating the flammable vapor (The Baker Panel, 2007). With the agreement of the EPA, the Wharton School (University of Pennsylvania) conducted a preliminary analysis of historical process-related incident data from the RMP (non-security sensitive data). The book is grouped into major topic areas of similar subject matter to lend cohesiveness to the information. All engineers are charged with a responsibility to protect people, equipment, facilities and operations and therefore, it is our hope that in reading this book you will learn something new and that you will enhance your organization's efforts to protect their operations and their people from injuries and other loss-producing incidents. The Whartson School analyzed 10 years of process safety data, and identified only small improvements which may have been due to changes in the reporting attitude of companies rather than actual performance (Kleindorfer et al., 2007).
Our authors present a number of case studies and exercises that will help our readers to put the principles and theories of loss prevention engineering into proper day-to-day perspective.
More recently, the April 2010 British Petroleum Deepwater blowout incident (Macondo well incident) was largely due to a succession of interrelated well design, construction, and temporary abandonment decisions that compromised the integrity of the well and compounded the risk of its failure (Transocean, 2010).
It is also the expectation of the authors that our readers will find this book to be a necessity any time each of you are tasked with solving an engineering problem that could lead to a loss-producing incident, any time you find yourself assigned to a job in which loss prevention engineering is part of the defined responsibilities or any time you want to learn about loss prevention engineering as an occupation or field of study. This incident resulted in an explosion with 11 fatalities and an environmental disaster off the Gulf Coast of the United States. From several investigation reviews, and if history is anything to go by, the common theme of the root causes in the majority of these incidents was management system-related deficiencies, particularly in the area of process safety. It is an excellent and thorough reference handbook that we hope you find useful in the everyday dispatch of your industrial duties.

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