Electrostatic separator (corona electrostatical; triboelectric)intended for dry separation of mixtures of polymers and other materials, according to their electrical properties.
Drum triboelectric separatordesigned for dry separation of materials, having different electric properties.
Roller magnetic separatordesigned for high-performance dry magnetic separation of ore materials. Roller magnetic separatordesigned for high-performance dry magnetic separation of non-metallic materials. Drum magnetic separatordesigned for extracting of magnetic impurities from bulk materials or for their enrichment.
Drum magnetic separatordesigned for extracting of magnetic impurities from bulk materials or for their enrichment in the laboratory. Drum electrostatic separatordesigned for high-performance dry separation of materials, having different electric properties.
Pulley magnetic separatordesigned for extracting of ferromagnetic impurities from the product or enrichment of it in the laboratory. Columnar magnetic separatordesigned for extracting of ferro-magnetic impurities from bulk materials. Eddy current separatordesigned for extracting of ferrous and non-ferrous metals from cullet in laboratory. Plate magnetic separatordesigned for extracting of ferro-magnetic impurities from bulk materials. Rod magnetic separatordesigned for high-performance magnetic refinement of bulk materials of low humidity from ferro-magnetic impurities. Rod vibrating magnetic separatordesigned for refinement of furnace charge for glass production and other bulk materials from ferro-magnetic impurities. Rod rotary magnetic separatordesigned for high-performance magnetic separation of finely grounded cohesive materials (capable of sticking together, clumping), e.g. Tunnel metal detectordesigned for detecting of extraneous metallic impurities (both ferrous and non-ferrous metals and manganese steel ) in the streams of non-metallic products  that are transported by belt conveyor.
A small scale and simple structure is enough as flocculation, setting and separation can be conducted in the same tank by using PG-M.
The project has a two-way purpose, firstly for learners to continue learning about doing research, finding information and presenting the information to others, and secondly, for learners to explore careers in this industry. Allow for some time at the beginning of this chapter to introduce the topic and the research project, and at the end for some feedback from the research projects. In the previous two chapters you have learnt about the spheres of the Earth especially the lithosphere. This project should be handed out in the beginning of the chapter so that learners have time to work on it.
You can use Assessment Rubric 8 (Poster), 9 (Oral presentation) and 10 (Group work) to assess this project.
Choose one mining industry in South Africa and find information about the industry of your choice. Choose from the following list: gold, iron, coal, phosphate, manganese, diamond, chromium, copper and the platinum group metals (PGMs).
Today technology helps mining geologists and surveyors to find high quality ore without having to do any digging. In all these methods we use the properties of the minerals and our knowledge of the lithosphere to locate them underground, without going underground ourselves.
Exploration methods are used to find, and assess the quality of mineral deposits, prior to mining. This image covers an area of 15 × 19 km and was taken from the NASA research satelliteTerra.
Rare earth elements are a set of 17 elements on the Periodic Table, including the fifteen lanthanides and scandium and yttrium. Find where the lanthanides are located on the Periodic Table by looking in the front cover of your workbook.
Geophysical methods make use of geology and the physical properties of the minerals to detect them underground. The Kimberley Big Hole was a diamond mine until 1914 when it closed down, and is now a tourist attraction. The Kimberley Big Hole is considered to be the largest hand-dug excavation on Earth at 463 m wide and 240 m deep.
Geochemical methods combine the knowledge of the chemistry of the minerals with the geology of an area to help identify which compounds are present in the ore and how much of it is present.
This is an optional activity to conduct as a class discussion, or as small group discussions. Many indigenous people, such as the San, share the same central belief that the land and all it produces are for all the people to use equally. When colonialists arrived, they realised the potential mineral wealth of South Africa as gold, and later diamonds, were discovered. Once the ore body has been identified, the process of getting the ore out of the ground begins.
Surface mining is exactly what the word says - digging rocks out from the surface, forming a hole or pit.
There is a growing emphasis on the need to rehabilitate old mine sites that are no longer in use. Surface mining coal and mine rehabilitation.In Phalaborwa in Limpopo province, copper ore is mined using open pit mining. Old headgear at the Kimberley Mine in the Northern CapeThe TauTona Mine in Carletonville, Gauteng is the world's deepest mine.
South Africa is a leader in the field of deep underground mining as we have several mines deeper than 3 km. One of the methods used in underground mining is called room and pillar, and is often used for mining coal. This section looks at methods to get very large rocks crushed and ground until it is as fine as powder.
Mineral crystals are spread throughout rocks, just like chocolate chips are spread throughout a choc chip biscuit.
Ore is like choc chip biscuits where the minerals are spread through the rocks.The only way to find out how many choc chips there are is to crush the biscuit. The ore needs to be crushed, as a choc chip biscuit, to get the minerals out.Once we have crumbled the choc chip biscuit, the chocolate pieces can be separated from the crumbs. The choc chips are separated from the rest of the biscuit, just as minerals are extracted from the rock.Let's look at an example. The smaller rocks are then moved to mills where large rod mills and ball mills grind them further into even smaller pieces until it is as fine as powder.
You can demonstrate this to your class by placing some pieces of broken up biscuit into a plastic container with some marbles or ball bearings. A rough diamond crystal embedded in rock.Some rocks are used as is, and do not need to be crushed into powder, or involved in minerals extraction.
You might remember some of the different methods of physical separation from previous grades. An electromagnet, as we have learnt in Energy and Change, is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by electric current. Which container, the left or the right, will contain the magnetic iron ore and which one will contain the non-magnetic waste?
The magnetic iron ore will fall into the container on the right as it is attracted to the magnetic roller and travels around the bend of the magnet for a longer period, whereas the non-magnetic waste drops straight down due to gravity, as the magnet turns, and falls into the first container on the left. One of the first methods for mining gold was that of panning, a technique where ore is mixed with water and forms a suspension. When gold was discovered in Pilgrim's Rest, Mpumalanga in the 1840s they mostly used panning to separate the gold nuggets ore ore from sand and stones in rivers. When choosing beads to separate, ensure that there are a variety of shapes, round and flat, small and large. To separate by density, learners can drop the beads into water - some beads will float and others will sink. As an extension, include some beads which are identical in shape and size, but different colours. This activity can also be done as a class demonstration and some flow diagrams can be designed.
In this activity you are going to separate beads as an analogy for separating minerals in the mining industry. Although hand sorting is an effective method, it is very time consuming which makes it an expensive process, so it is almost never used in the mining industry, except for diamond sorting.
As you have seen in the activity, separating a mixture can be done using different properties, depending on the different properties of the beads. The focus of this activity is to illustrate the principle of flotation and for learners to practice explaining their observations.
The activity can be done as a classroom demonstration, but it is more effective if done by the learners in pairs. Learners should observe that the peanuts and raisins sink to the bottom in the tap water and remain there since they are more dense than water. Once the compound is removed from the ore, the element we want needs to be separated from the other atoms by chemical means. The first iron mining techniques used charcoal which was mixed with iron ore in a bloomery. A blast furnace is a huge oven where iron ore is burned with oxygen and coal to produce the metal, iron. Remember from Matter and Materials that lead (II) oxide is formed from the reaction between lead (a metal) and oxygen. Use a blow pipe to direct the flame of the Bunsen burner into the hollow where the lead(II) oxide-carbon paste is. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas and large scale production will negatively influence the environment and contribute to global warming. The iron that is formed in the blast furnace often contains too much carbon - about 4% where it should contain not more than 2%. Most minerals go through chemical extraction and refining processes to purify them for use in making materials and other chemical products.
Long before diamonds were discovered in the Kimberley area and the Gold Rush in Pilgrim's Rest and Witwatersrand areas in the late 1800s, minerals have been mined in South Africa.
The Okiep Copper Mine, South Africa, established in the 1850s, is one of the richest bodies of copper ore ever found to this day. Minerals in South AfricaThe Bushveld Igneous Complex has the world's largest primary source of platinum group metals, indicated on the map in light blue. In South Africa in 2012, miners were striking due to dangerous working environments and low wages. Learners need to develop their own symbols for each mineral that is mined, and also colour code the map.

Use the map of South Africa and the data provided in the table below to draw your own map of where mining in South Africa takes place. Your teacher will indicate whether you must show all the locations, or a selection of the ones provided.
Also complete the table by filling in the chemical symbols or formulae and answer the questions that follow. Most of them are all together in one area in the shape of an arch, mainly in the Free State. There are two types of diamond mining, alluvial (which is found on the coast or in inland rivers which have washed through kimberlite pipes) and kimberlite (which is found inland).
Air and water pollution can take place if care is not taken in the design and operation of a mine. If the mining process is not monitored properly, acid and other chemicals from chemical processing can run into nearby water systems such as rivers.
An example are pollutants (dangerous chemicals), called tailings, left over from gold mining which pose a threat to the environment and the health of nearby communities. As an alternative you can get the learners to write a paragraph on each issue, after discussing it in their groups, instead of presenting it in the classroom. Ore is removed from the crust by mining, either on the surface (open pit mining) or underground (shaft mining or room and pillar mining). Some minerals can be used in their natural form, for example sand in the building industry, phosphate rock for fertilisers and diamonds in jewellery. The valuable minerals are then separated from the rock using a variety of physical and chemical separation methods. People have extracted minerals, for example iron and copper, from ores for thousands of years. Examples of how minerals were mined long ago can be found at archaeological sites in South-Africa, such as Mapungubwe. Use the following concept map to summarise what you have learnt in this chapter about mining of mineral resources.
Suggest one way of separating the iron (III) oxide from the rest of the minerals in bauxite.
In 1934 the first modern mining started with the extraction of apatite for use as a fertiliser.
The open pit facility closed down its operation in 2002 and has now been converted to an underground mine.
This mine was a leader in the field of surface mining technology with the first in-pit primary crushing facility. In 1982 a series of cavities with well-crystallised minerals were discovered, for example calcite crystals up to 15 cm on edge, silky mesolite crystals of up to 2cm long and octahedral magnetite crystals of 1-2 cm on the edge. They could not mine any deeper and they had exhausted the minerals that could be reached from the surface. It changed dramatically because an entire koppie, called Loolekop, was removed due to the mining activity. Dust pollution, noise pollution, changing the landscape, carbon dioxide emissions (any three). Differing from conventional flocculants, magnetic substances are added to flocculants so that the flocs,can be collectd by gravitation of magnetic power. Applications :Electric Drum Magnetic Separator can separate ferromagnetic impurities or ferromagnetic materials from bulk dry powdery or granule materials in the automatic production line,such as in the industries of plastic,cereals,food, chemicals, mining,pharmacy,etc.
After learning that rocks contain minerals, we now explore how the minerals may be extracted so that they may be utilised.
Let the learners choose one industry and research the different aspects of mining covered in this chapter for their chosen industry.
Learners can then present their projects at the end of the chapter, by doing a poster or an oral, or both. We have a lot of mineral resources in our country and a lot of people depend on mining for a living. Once the ore is on the surface, the process of getting the mineral you want out of the rock can start.
Information for the project is provided in the sections in the chapter, but learners also need to find information on their own.
Most minerals are found everywhere in the lithosphere, but in very, very low concentrations, too low to make mining profitable. When the geologists and surveyors are quite sure where the right minerals are, only then do they dig test shafts to confirm what their surveying techniques have suggested. For example, iron is magnetic so instruments measuring the changes in the magnetic field can give us clues as to where pockets of iron could be.
Generally a number of explorative techniques are used, and the results are then compared to see if a location seems suitable for mining. For example, by using radar, sonar and satellite images, we can obtain images of the Earth's surface. It shows the mine at Baiyun Ebo China, which is the site of almost half the world's rare earth element production. For example, diamonds are formed deep in the Earth at very high temperatures, in kimberlite pipes of igneous rock. They are named after the town of Kimberley, where a where a 16.7 g diamond was found in 1871, starting the the diamond rush. For example, when an ore body is identified, samples are taken to analyse the mineral content of the ore. They ruthlessly took land from the local people wherever minerals were found, completely ignoring their right to ownership and access. Anyone entering the area would be prosecuted and the sale of so-called 'illegal' diamonds was heavily punished. In South Africa, this method is used to mine for iron, copper, chromium, manganese, phosphate and coal. If it is too difficult to restore the site to what it was before, then a new type of land use might be decided for that area. Coal is formed from fossilised plant matter which is compressed and heated over millions of years to eventually form coal. They are ruthenium (Ru), rhodium (Rh), palladium (Pd), osmium (Os), iridium (Ir) and platinum (Pt).
In these cases mine shafts go vertically down and side tunnels make it possible for the miners and equipment to reach the ore. If the canary died, they knew that oxygen levels were being dangerously depleted and that it was not safe to remain underground.
We have been doing gold mining for more than a century and our mines are the deepest in the world. The first concept that needs to come across here is that minerals are inside rocks and by crushing rocks, the minerals are exposed at the surface of the rock fragment. Sometimes we can see the chocolate chips from the outside, but most of the time the chips are not visible because they are inside the biscuit.
In the same way we can sometimes see mineral crystals from the outside of the rock, but mostly we don't know what minerals there are and and what concentrations are inside the rock. In the same way in the mining process the valuable minerals can be separated from the unwanted rock. Place the lid on the container and then shake it so that the marbles help to crush and break up the biscuit pieces even further. Only a few minerals are found in their pure form, in other words not bound to any other element.
For example phosphate rock itself can be used as a fertiliser, or it can be used to make phosphoric acid. It can only be used in exceptional situation or by individuals, for example many people mine for alluvial diamonds by hand in rivers in Angola.
To separate by size, learners can use the mesh and let the smaller beads fall through into the cup, with the larger ones staying behind.
Think about changing the order in which you separate the beads to see if you can find a more efficient process.
For example, some beads might have been flat and would therefore stick to the carpet, whereas the round ones would roll off. There could be a number of different ways to separate the beads depending on which type of bead you want to select (considered to be the most valuable ones). For example, when iron ore is exported, it needs to be a certain size to be acceptable to the world market.
Chemicals are added to change the surface properties of the valuable minerals so that air bubbles can attach to them. However, in the soda water, the peanuts and raisins initially sink to the bottom, but then the peanuts start to rise.
The start of the Iron Age in most parts of the world coincides with the first widespread use of bloomeries. When heating the mixture and blowing air (oxygen) in through bellows, the iron ore is converted to the metal, iron. A group of archeologists spent a weekend building an iron furnace and then used it to extract iron.
This is similar to the process used in iron mining where iron ore is reacted with coke (carbon) to form iron metal. At the end of the reaction the red colour of the lead oxide has changed to a grey colour and a solid pellet of lead has formed. These are then distributed to where they are needed, for example, coal is distributed to coal power stations and slag is distributed to construction groups for building roads. At Mapungubwe in the Limpopo Province evidence of gold and iron mining and smelting was found which dates back to the early 11th century AD.
We are the world's largest producers of chromium, manganese, platinum, vanadium and andalusite; and the second largest producer of ilmenite, palladium, rutile and zirconium.
It is one of the most important mining areas in South Africa due to its abundance of minerals. A series of devastating and violent incidences followed, resulting in the deaths of 44 people. The map is blank and so they must find out where each town is located and add it to the map. You will need to find out where the towns are located in South Africa and indicate them on the map. It accelerated technological development and created infrastructure in remote areas in South Africa.
Dust from open pit mines, as well as harmful gases such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, could be released from mining processes and contribute to air pollution. This is poisonous to animals and plants, as well as to humans who may rely on that water for drinking. Dangerous waste chemicals can leak into the groundwater and contaminate water supplies if the tailings are not contained properly.

Exploration is followed by excavation, which is followed by crushing and milling to reduce the size of the rocks.
The following mining industries can be researched: gold, iron, copper, diamond, phosphate, coal, manganese, chromium or platinum group metals (PGMs). For the orals, we suggest you work with the language department so that learners can be assessed there as well. Once the mineral is separated from the rest of the rock, the mineral needs to be cleaned so that it can be used. These images help us to locate possible mining sites, as well as study existing mining sites for possible expansion. Holes are drilled in the rock and explosives, like dynamite, are placed inside the holes to blast the rock into pieces. These trucks can carry 300 tons of material and their engines have an output 10-20 times more powerful than a car engine. Examples of underground mining in South Africa are mining for diamonds, gold and sometimes the platinum group metals (PGM). A structure called the headgear is constructed above the shaft and controls the lift system into the vertical shaft. The coal face is dug out, but pillars of coal are left behind to keep the tunnels open and support the roof. In South Africa, the Bushveld Igneous Complex is an area which stretches across the North West and Limpopo Provinces.
Examples of minerals found in their pure form are gold and diamonds (diamonds consist of the element carbon). Conveyor belts carry the ore past strong electromagnets which remove the magnetic pieces (containing the iron) from the non-magnetic waste. Learners will want to separate every single bead in the process and this is not possible, nor does it happen in the mining industry. The piece of carpet is provided to make the tray rough, but still smooth enough for round beads to roll off, and flat beads to stick. Tell learners that hand sorting, although effective and is used by individuals, it is a very time-consuming process and therefore almost never done in the mining industry. Coal that is used in power stations also needs to be a certain size so that it can be used to generate electricity effectively. This activity can also be modified by letting the learners predict what they think will happen before they add the peanuts and raisins to the tap water; and again before they add it to the soda water. A suggestions is to buy packets of peanuts and raisins separately, otherwise oil from the peanuts can coat the raisins, causing some of the raisins to rise.
Small bubbles from the soda water attach to the peanuts' oily surface and cause them to rise to the surface. But more often the element that we are looking for is found as a chemical compound, and so will have to be separated by further chemical reactions. Most of the methods however, make use of chemistry to extract the metal from the compound or remove impurities from the final product.
Iron ore, a type of coal called coke (which contains 85% carbon) and lime are added to the top of the blast furnace. This is the same process that is used in iron extraction in the blast furnace, that we discussed above. To improve the quality of the iron, it needs to be refined by lowering the amount of carbon.
However, it was the large scale mining activities that accelerated the development of the country. We are the third largest coal exporter, fifth largest diamond producer and seventh largest iron ore producer. The idea is for the learners to realise that it is a continuous system where the one process feeds into the next one to produce a useful end product.
This applies particularly to surface mines (open pit mines), where large amounts of soil and rock must be removed in order to access the minerals. Archaeological findings at Loolekop revealed small scale mining and smelting activities carried out by people who lived there long ago. Hans Merensky started investigating Loolekop and found economically viable deposits of apatite in the foskorite rock. The pipe is 19 km2 in area and has an unknown depth, containing minerals like copper, phosphates, zirconium, vermiculite, mica and gold.
Learners will therefore learn about the mining industry in South Africa and the impact that mining may have on a country and the globe.
This is followed by extraction (removing the valuable minerals from the ore) and finally refining.
If posters are done, then we suggest you put these up for display for the whole school to see.
A mineral could be a pure element, but more often minerals are made up of many different elements combined. The next step is to separate the choc chips from the crumbs - also a step in the mining process.
This is one of the steps in the mining process that is very expensive because energy is needed to drive the process. Coal found in sedimentary rock, is crushed into the appropriate size and used as fuel for electricity generation or the iron-making process. Different minerals are often found together, for example copper and zinc, gold and silver or the PGMs. Choose the smallest flattest beads to represent the valuable materials.They will remain on the carpet in the tray more easily. The outcome might not be what they expected and the value of the activity is for them to try to explain what they see. The raisins can also be rinsed in acidulated water because they are often dressed with oil before sale for visual enhancement.
South African archaeological sites in Kwa-Zulu Natal and Limpopo provide evidence for this. Coke, which is mainly carbon, removes the oxygens from the iron(III) oxide to form carbon dioxide and leaves behind the iron metal. This is done by melting the metal and reacting the carbon with pure oxygen to form carbon dioxide gas. Up to 2010 we were the world's largest gold producer, but our gold production has declined steadily over a number of years. If there are mining activities in your area which is not indicated on this table, let the learners add it to the list. This activity links up with the research project and should give learners a good guide for doing and presenting their research projects. The shape of the landscape can be changed when large amounts of rocks are dug up from the Earth and stacked on the surface.
The idea is that learners should come up with all the issues and think about the impact of what we as humans do. Remember that you can add in your own notes to these concept maps, for example, you could write more about the environmental impacts of mining. An early underground mine shaft of 20 meters deep and only 38 centimeters wide were also found. Learners can stand at their posters during breaks where learners from other grades have the opportunity to come and have a look at their work and ask questions about it. Minerals are useful chemical compounds for making new materials that we can use in our daily lives. To be able to work there, the air is constantly cooled to about 28 °C using air-conditioning vents. Here they mine for PGMs, chromium, iron, tin, titanium, vanadium and other minerals using open pit and underground mining. A combination of techniques are used to separate the minerals from the waste and then the minerals from each other. The air bubbles are much less dense than the solution and rise to the top where the minerals can be scraped off easily.
Evidence of early mining activities was found in archaeological sites dating mining and smelting of iron back to the Iron Age around 770 AD. The northern part of the mine is rich in phosphates and the central area, where Loolekop was situated, is rich in copper. The idea is not that learners should know all the terms off by heart, but rather that they grasp the bigger picture. In this chapter we are going to look at how to get the minerals out of the rocks and in a form that we can use.
The vegetation and soil, called the topsoil, is removed and kept aside so that it can be re-deposited in the area after mining. This is a very energy-intensive step in the mining industry, and one of the reasons why mining is so expensive.
For example, tell learners that one colour bead reacts with an acid and the other does not.
Use a straw to extend the blow pipe so that you can stand a bit further away from the flame.
If you want to make the activity simpler, learners can also chose a certain number of minerals to represent. Open pit mines also create very large unsightly and dangerous holes (pits) in the ground that change the shape of the land.
Copper with the co-products of silver, gold, phosphate, iron ore, vermiculite, zirconia and uranium are extracted from the rocks. A number of different processes are needed with each one dependent on the efficiency of the step before. If there is a layer of rock above the coal face, called the overburden, this is also removed before the coal can be excavated.
Lime (calcium carbonate or CaCO3) is added to react with the unwanted materials, such as sand (silicon dioxide or SiO2). Ensure that a steady stream of heat gets right into the middle of the mixture so that it glows red hot for a while.
The flow diagram exercise towards the end of the chapter is meant to consolidate the chapter content and help learners realise the continuous nature of many industrial processes. Once all the coal has been removed, the overburden and topsoil are replaced to help in restoring the natural vegetation of the area. The video link in the Visit box also shows how the experiment is performed (and the mistakes made).

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