The original mandate of the HPC was confined to the preparation of management plans for natural disasters only. However, it was expanded to include man-made disasters as well in order to develop an effective plan of action that would encompass disasters of all origins and shades. The Terms of Reference of the HPC were subsequently enlarged to include man- made disasters also with the approval of Prime Minister of India. The HPC thus constituted five sub-groups to go into details of five major classifications as decided by the HPC. The guidelines have identified nine major areas for systematic and coordinated management of landslide hazards. It is necessary that the hazard must first be recognized, the risk analyzed and an appropriate strategy developed at the national level to mitigate its impact. An aware and vigilant community sensitized to the warning signs of impending landslides is the vital pillar for implementation of an effective early warning system.
The issues related to snow avalanches, which affect certain areas in the Himalayas at regular intervals have also been taken up in these guidelines along with landslides. Developing and continuously updating the inventory of landslide incidences affecting the country. Landslide hazard zonation mapping in macro and meso scales after identification and prioritization of the areas in consultation with the Border Roads Organization, state governments and local communities.
Taking up pilot projects in different regions of the country with a view to carry out detailed studies and monitoring of select landslides to assess their stability status and estimate risk. Setting pace setter examples for stabilization of slides and also setting up early warning systems depending on the risk evaluation and cost-benefit ratio. Complete site specific studies of major landslides and plan treatment measures, and encourage state governments to continue these measures.
Setting up of institutional mechanisms for generating awareness and preparedness about landslide hazard among various stakeholders. Enhancing landslide education, training of professionals and capacity development of organizations working in the field of landslide management. Development of new codes and guidelines on landslide studies and revision of existing ones.
Establishment of an autonomous national centre for landslide research, studies and management. Efficacy in managing landslides and avalanches in the country is expected to improve substantially after all these action points have been addressed on a priority basis with a sense of urgency and duly backed by requisite operational, legal, institutional, and financial support. Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation.
The Red Cross and Red Crescent National Societies , supported by the International Federation, work with communities to reduce risk, mitigate the effects of, prepare to respond, respond to and recover from disasters.
Disaster Management can be defined as the organization and management of resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies, in particular preparedness, response and recovery in order to lessen the impact of disasters.

When the capacity of a community or country to respond and recover from a disaster is overwhelmed, and upon request from the National Society, the International Federation uses its regional and international networks, assets and resources to bring assistance to the communities and National Red Cross Red Crescent Society which is assisting them. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) is the world's largest humanitarian organization, with 190 member National Societies.
Many similar projects had been initiated after 2005 when the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) was established. Analyse this: Could the floods and landslides disasters been handled better by the government? These efforts are aimed to conserve developmental gains as also minimize losses to lives, livelihood and property.
Representation from concerned Ministries dealing with industrial, nuclear, biological, chemical disasters were ensured by way of inclusion of experts from these Ministries. To achieve this objective, the NDMA initiated a series of consultations for drafting the national guidelines on landslides and snow avalanches to guide the activities envisaged for mitigating the risk emanating from landslides at all levels. Landslide hazard and risk assessment will be done through landslide hazard zonation mapping and geological and geotechnical investigation of vulnerable slopes and existing landslides.
Early warning systems also comprise a scientific and technological base, mechanisms of dissemination and transmission of information, and response capability on receipt of warning information. A brief summary of the types of avalanches, their causes, their forecasting possibilities and the control strategies is presented. Firstly I want to thank KAVITA TYAGI Ma’am who assisted me this project.• I have taken information from wikipedia and pictures from different websites. At an international level the International Federation advocates with Governments, international organisations and humanitarian donors for better practice and accountability in disaster management and greater respect of the dignity of the vulnerable people. As part of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, our work is guided by seven fundamental principles; humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity and universality. It makes provision for the establishment of Disaster Management Groups for State, disaster districts and local government areas. The nodal agency for disaster management failed to ensure that the mission aimed at disaster forecasting is expedited. The track record of Uttarakhand, which is among the states vulnerable to natural disasters, was particularly abysmal. It was the first attempt in India towards evolving a systematic, comprehensive and holistic approach towards all disasters.
The guidelines include regulatory and non-regulatory frameworks with defined time schedules for all activities. It is imperative to execute a few pilot projects as pace setters of early warning systems which will also promote confidence in their operational capabilities. The Red Cross and Red Crescent National Societies therefore focus on community-based disaster preparedness, which assists communities to reduce their vulnerability to disasters and strengthen their capacities to resist them. The Act also provides the legislative basis for the preparation of disaster management plans and guidelines, including the State Disaster Management Plan, which records agreed management arrangements for coordination of disaster prevention, preparedness, and response and recovery operations.

If effective warning systems which were planned 10 years ago had been put in place by now, the destruction in Uttarakhand could have been minimised.
The body also failed miserably in implementing its own projects such as the National Disaster Management Informatics System and National Disaster Communication Network. Former chief executive officer (CEO) of '108' Emergency Response Services in Uttarakhand, Anup Nautiyal said disasters are not new to Uttarakhand and a system for disaster forecasting has always been the need of the hour. It is envisioned that all national and state disaster management plans and policies for landslides will be formulated and implemented keeping in view the overall framework of the guidelines.
Proper mapping will be helpful not only for pre-disaster preparedness but also in rescue and relief operations with greater accuracy and speed. The Department of Space, which is with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, had approved a disaster management programme in 2003 and despite Rs 112 crore pumped in for various components of disaster forecasting, the project has been put in cold storage. Shashidhar Reddy has blamed the Met office for not giving accurate forecasts instead of using generic terms such as heavy rainfall in Uttarakhand.But the NDMA chief has done little - despite being associated with the body since 2005 - to ensure that warning systems for disaster forecast are put in place.
Between 2008 and 2012, there were several landslides, cloudbursts, heavy rain and floods that killed 653 people in the hill state. The disaster management programme aimed at providing quick support and services by using hitech systems. This resource is the first of its kind, both in explaining the arrangements and the advanced interactive technology Further detail on the Queensland approach to disaster management has also been further outlined below. This included creating of a digital database to identify hazard zones, damage assessment, monitoring natural disasters using satellite and aerial data, establishing satellite-based reliable communication network and deployment of emergency communication equipment.
The main project of the programme included National Database for Emergency Management, airborne laser terrain mapping and digital camera system, disaster management synthetic aperture radar, satellite-based communication network for disaster management and Doppler weather radars. Other than these, NDMA projects such as earthquake, flood and landslide risk mitigation have not even begun despite being approved in 2007. The key elements of a plan includes: Preliminaries Introduction Risk Assessment Prevention Measures Preparedness Measures Response Measures Recovery Measures Disaster plans are usually structured to provide and all hazards approach within the prevention, preparedness, response, recovery (PPRR) philosophy, but may also have sub-plans that address specific hazards or event types that may confront the community. Successful planning and management requires a collaborative and coordinated approach by all agencies involved. Community safety awareness programs) Response Taking measures to support your emergency services during and immediately after an event (to ensure effects are minimised). It prescribes particular roles and responsibilities of the agency before, during and after emergencies and disasters.
The National Emergency Management Committee subsequently developed the National Strategy for Disaster Resilience which was adopted by COAG on 13 February 2011.

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Rubric: Emergency Preparedness Survival


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