In recent years, it has become the state-of-the-art approach in disaster management to intervene, although nearly every concept or strategy highlights the higher efficiency of preparedness activities (e.g. A major problem of disaster management is that international (mostly North American or European) teams are well prepared, but the victims are not. Table 1 illustrates the number and consequences of natural disasters in developing, threshold and industrialized countries. WatSan-Kits were designed to strengthen local, regional and national capacities in disaster prone areas and pre-crisis situations.
The kits are a lot easier to transport and operate for National Societies than emergency response equipment. After a flood catastrophe in January 2010, the United Republic of Tanzania was the first country to gain practical experience with WatSan-Kits. Heavy precipitation, which had started on 24th of December 2009, lead to a major flood event in the Eastern parts of the country between the districts of Kilosa and Kongwa.
According to RELIEF WEB (2010), more than 1,000 people were displaced and approximately 25,000 affected at the beginning. International support was provided by the International Red Cross Federation’s Eastern Africa Regional office in Nairobi (Kenya) with WatSan-Kits 10. WatSan-Kits are a complementary bottom-up instrument to various general top-down processes, such as the ones recommended in the UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY FOR THE DISASTER REDUCTION (2008): development of early warning systems and social safety nets, better insurance cover, avoidance of uncontrolled settling, etc. An internal review of the IFRC (2008A) criticizes the purely technical focus of emergency response operations, which sometimes leads to a worse level of preparedness than before the impact of the disaster. However, one major advantage of the kits is that they might enable the local community to cope with small scale disasters without having to call for international help or losing face in front of the government. In this regard, especially the scientific basis for the kits pre-positioning, which does not exist yet, is crucial.
Figure 3 depicts a SWOT-analysis, which is based on results of a questionnaire that was sent to the Tanzanian Red Cross National Society and several discussions with experts in Austria and on site.
The fastest, cheapest and therefore most efficient way of providing a general baseline for the pre-positioning of preparedness tools is satellite navigation. That second step would enable more individual technical solutions and a scientific basis for the deployment of preparedness equipment. Especially in the water sector, identifying and monitoring key vulnerabilities requires information on their relation to capacities. Besides meteorological parameters, a main influencing factor for droughts and floods is soil moisture. This technology will also play a role in an international GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) project of the European Commission and the European Space Agency. Markus Enenkel studied Natural Resource Management and Ecological Engineering at the University of Natural Resources, Vienna (Austria) and at Lincoln University, Christchurch (New Zealand). This entry was postedon Friday, January 28th, 2011 at 12:01 AMand is filed under Articles, Disaster Management Theme, OpEd, Original, Water. The annual General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union will be held in Vienna, Austria from 02-07 May 2010. Naturally, that leads to little trust in the helping teams’ activities and poor understanding of their actions.
Their main purpose is to serve as a buffer before international assistance has to be requested.
Depending on which kind of kit is pre-positioned, 2,000, 5,000 or 10,000 people can be provided with treated water, sanitation, hygiene promotion, vector control, etc. Hence, they can replace the request for international emergency response units or at least serve as a buffer until they arrive.


The results were food shortages, skyrocketing food prices and enormous losses in cattle and cash crops. In an operation’s update, it is reported that 50,000 people were affected and 28,000 had to leave their homes due to further heavy precipitation and a thunderstorm.
Three Austrian delegates, two Regional Disaster Response Team delegates and three WatSan officers of the Tanzanian National Society supervised the kit’s operation and maintenance. It is necessary to distinguish between vulnerabilities that lead to unsafe conditions (root causes) and others that are related to disaster relief. However, the training component especially has to be improved with regard to actual conditions in specific target countries.
The local National Society was lucky to be supplied with kits and delegates from neighboring countries. Nevertheless, restricting a strategy to the use of Earth Observation satellites for vulnerability mapping only is not enough. Additionally, communicating vulnerabilities by maps would give threatened societies with little experience in (natural) disaster response a tangible reason to practice the handling of preparedness tools and evacuation. Surface soil moisture can be detected by active microwave sensors aboard polar orbiting satellites.
Eleven international universities and organizations started to work on the Global Water Scarcity Information System (GloWaSIS) in January 2011. His research is focused on water management, disaster preparedness and microwave remote sensing.
The dissertation at the Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (Vienna University of Technology) will deal with linking GLOWASIS to preparedness tools of humanitarian aid organizations. 295-308, KEDAK - Union of Surveying Engineers of Northern Greece - Technical Chamber of Greece, pp. Both emergency response after the impact of a disaster and development cooperation are subject to countless handicaps. People are decoupled from their natural surroundings, responsibilities are undefined and passed on. Besides, even National Societies of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement in developing countries run the risk of losing face in front of their governments if they admit that a certain disaster exceeds their capacities.
Experts from the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement help National Societies to practice on one of the three different types of WatSan-Kits in their own country to increase preparedness. As a first means of intervention, the kits are operated either by regional or national disaster response teams (IFRC, 2008). Figure 1 (below) compares the capacities of the kit system to standard emergency response equipment. People had to walk up to 50 kilometers to receive emergency aid rations (EHRHART and TWENA, 2006).
The update especially highlights vulnerabilities that were caused by the collapse of the water and sanitation infrastructure.
Additionally, Districts Mpwapwa and Kongwa received three WatSan 2 kits on the 16th of February. Delegates and affected people also need to understand dynamic pressures of hazards (WISNER et al., 2004) and that technical equipment is only one way of mitigating vulnerability (LEWIS, 1999).
Simultaneously, standardization neglects the individuality of locations and disaster events. If the kits had been positioned in the United Republic of Tanzania from the beginning, the risk of impassable transport routes and delays would have been lower. In a world of countless interacting and developing vulnerabilities, it is extremely hard to get a holistic picture.


The Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing at the Technical University Vienna developed an algorithm to model soil moisture up to a depth of 1 meter. Up-to-date information on water supply and demand (in situ- and satellite-based) can be a valuable input for preparedness strategies. Stergiadis on the occasion of his completing 25 years as a full professor at the Aristotle Univ. International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN), Guimarães, Portugal, 21-23 September 2011. Joint International Symposium on Deformation Monitoring (JISDM), Hong Kong, China, 2-4 November 2011. Some of them appear in the chaotic situation after the event, others within the time of reconstruction. Increased vulnerability of communities at risk can have manifold reasons, whereas poverty is often presented as the major root cause.
Nevertheless, high levels of vulnerability serve as the breeding ground for severe impacts of huge-scale disasters like floods or thunderstorms. Since systemic vulnerabilities are far more distinct in developing countries, it is clear that international preparedness strategies have to focus on mutual capacity building in the Third World.
Whether people in a developing country actually benefit from the technology was assessed in a master thesis at the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria. They can generally provide efficient disaster relief in the water supply sector, if some basic improvements are considered. Obviously, standardized equipment and technically trained personnel are not enough to cope with the impact of a large-scale disaster. Sometimes the major needs are pit latrines, sometimes emergency shelter, sometimes water supply. An attempt to illustrate the already existing preparedness level of communities at risk would add a new layer to humanitarian aid.
Only preparedness tools whose locations are resilient to disasters can actually be used afterwards. 3rd National Conference of Urban Planning and Regional Development, Volos, September 27-30, 2012.(in greek).
In fact, poverty is one crucial reason for high communal vulnerability, which triggers further interconnected weaknesses of the system, but by far not the only one. Sanitation and hygiene promotion, for instance, is part of the kits’ concept, but practically under-represented. Combining this approach with already existing vulnerability and capacity assessments on site might even increase benefits of relief operations in the long run. Only the most complex and most expensive, Kit 10 includes the full hygiene promotion add-on when it is pre-positioned. Fields of Applications and Perspectives, Conference "The Surveying Engineer towards the year 2000.
A Synoptic Overview of their Categories and of the (Existing or Prospect) Services Provided by Geodesy.
7th International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies in Agriculture, Food and Environment (HAICTA 2015), pp. Pan-Hellenic Conference on Digital Cultural Heritage-2015, 24 - 26 September 2015, Volos (in Greek).



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