Faraday was a British chemist and physicist who contributed significantly to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
A year later, Faraday was invited to accompany Davy and his wife on an 18 month European tour, taking in France, Switzerland, Italy and Belgium and meeting many influential scientists. In 1831, Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction, the principle behind the electric transformer and generator. As a chemist, Faraday discovered benzene, investigated the clathrate hydrate of chlorine, invented an early form of the bunsen burner and the system of oxidation numbers, and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. However, in the early 1840s, Faraday's health began to deteriorate and he did less research. Ten years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction.
Faraday then used this principle to construct the first dynamo (in the form of a copper disk rotated between the poles of a permanent magnet), the predecessor of modern dynamos and generators. In 1831-1832 Michael Faraday discovered that a potential difference is generated between the ends of an electrical conductor that moves perpendicular to a magnetic field.
This design was inefficient due to self-cancelling counterflows of current in regions not under the influence of the magnetic field.
Later homopolar generators would solve this problem by using an array of magnets arranged around the disc perimeter to maintain a steady field effect in one current-flow direction.
Farady's diskThis exemplar of Faraday's disk is currently in the Marischal museum in Aberdeen. On this particular model, there is actually no magnet; the copper disk is so thin that the earths own magnetic field is sufficient to make the apparatus work.
Michael Faraday had constructed Faraday's disk to demonstrate and visualise the theory about currents and magnetic fields he had discovered. Other scientists, with Nikola Tesla amongst them as one of the earliest to take profit of Faraday's invention, later improved and changed Faraday's disk. Faraday's disk helped a wide range of scientists, such as Sir Joseph Larmour, to understand more phenomena.
Zenobe Gramme used the principle of Faraday's disk to design the first commercial power plants in Paris, discovering what is since then known as the basic concept of a spinning endless loop of wires.
Later, Joseph Newmann invented the axletree dynamo, which was believed to be a perpetual motion dynamo but was never patented.
In 1832, Michael Faraday reported that the quantity of elements separated by passing an electrical current through a molten or dissolved salt was proportional to the quantity of current passed through the circuit. In 1845 he also discovered the phenomenon that he named Diamagnetism - a very weak form of magnetism that is only exhibited in the presence of an external magnetic field. In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. The Faraday cage is a practical application of the effect demonstrated in school as the Faraday ice-pail experiment.
A more impressive demonstration of the Faraday cage effect is that of an aircraft being struck by lightning.
When the cage is charged, the pith balls move away from the outside of the cage, indicating the presence of an electric field, but the pith balls inside the cage are not repelled, indicating that there is no electric field inside the conductor.


Faraday also dabbled in chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene, inventing the system of oxidization numbers, and liquefying gases. On their return in 1815, Faraday continued to work at the Royal Institution, helping with experiments for Davy and other scientists. This discovery was crucial in allowing electricity to be transformed from a curiosity into a powerful new technology. He died on 25 August 1867 at Hampton Court, where he had been given official lodgings in recognition of his contribution to science.
In 1821, soon after the Danish chemist, Hans Christian Orsted, discovered the phenomenon of magnetism, Humphry Davy and William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor.
He found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. This relation was mathematically modelled by faraday's law, which afterwards became one of the four Maxwell equations. He also built the first electromagnetic generator called the 'Faraday disc', a type of homopolar generator, using a copper disc rotating between the poles of a horseshoe magnet.
While current flow was induced directly underneath the magnet, the current would circulate backwards in regions outside the influence of the magnetic field. It is approximately 75 centimeters long and 26 centimeters wide and measures 19 centimeter in the diameter. Unfortunately, the disk was very inefficient in producing current and was never actually used as a practical power source, but only as a tool of demonstration. Tesla patented a version of Faraday's disk which had less frictional losses and Hippolyte Pixii constructed the first efficient dynamo by adding a commutator to it.
In Larmour's case, the newly found link between magnetic fields and current lead him to an explanation of several phenomena related to sunspots.
The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. If an ice pail, or any other hollow conductor is given a charge on its inside, then the charge will spread all over the outside surface of the conductor in such a way as to produce no electric field inside. If an electronic watch is placed inside such a container, and then a spark is drawn to the container either from a Van de Graaff generator or induction coil, then after the demonstration, the watch will be unharmed. Lets allow someone to stand inside while the discharge from a Tesla coil is directed towards it. When he was 14, he was apprenticed to a local bookbinder and during the next seven years, educated himself by reading books on a wide range of scientific subjects. In 1821 he published his work on electromagnetic rotation (the principle behind the electric motor). He gave his name to the 'farad', originally describing a unit of electrical charge but later a unit of electrical capacitance. Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation which is a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire. This counterflow limits the power output to the pickup wires, and induces waste heating of the copper disc.


This apparatus can be considered to be the first dynamo ever made, capable of producing electricity by making a copper disk spin between two magnets. Sir Mark Oliphant was inspired by it to build what became the world's largest homopolar generator (producing 500 Megajoules). He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". The Van de Graaff generator uses this effect to produce such a large potential on the outside surface of its dome. To increase the dramatic content of the demonstration, the person inside is asked to hold a fluorescent tube, which does not light, while similar tubes balanced against the sides of the cage do light when the discharge is enabled.
In 1812, Faraday attended four lectures given by the chemist Humphry Davy at the Royal Institution.
He was able to carry out little further research in the 1820s, busy as he was with other projects. He was partly responsible for coining many familiar words including 'electrode', 'cathode' and 'ion'. A wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if charged with electricity by a chemical battery.
This was the first transformer (inductor), although Faraday used it only to demonstrate the principle of electromagnetic induction and did not realise what it would eventualybe used for.
In large Van de Graaff generators it is possible to have a lab or office actually inside the dome, and even have people there, while the machine is on!
For the same reason, and if it were not for the highly flammable nature of petrol, a car would be a very safe place to be in a thunderstorm.
In 1826, he founded the Royal Institution's Friday Evening Discourses and in the same year the Christmas Lectures, both of which continue to this day.
Faraday's scientific knowledge was harnessed for practical use through various official appointments, including scientific adviser to Trinity House (1836-1865) and Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich (1830-1851). The idea that a hollow metal conductor will protect the interior from electric fields can be used using Faraday screens, cans or cages. Davy turned him down but in 1813 appointed him to the job of chemical assistant at the Royal Institution. He himself gave many lectures, establishing his reputation as the outstanding scientific lecturer of his time.
The mesh is secured to a strong 'speedframe' framework, and riveted all round the frame except for the door section which is hinged on, and has two retainer catches to ensure the door stays shut while the demonstration is taking place. Unwisely, Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years.



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