Why we remember and forget is a big topic of study, and scientists at the Aarhus University Center on Autobiographical Memory Research in Denmark have turned to the animal kingdom for answers. Now, a new study published today in Current Biology shows that captive chimpanzees and orangutans can quickly recall past events like people. Martin-Ordas and her team used specific cues to trigger memories of an experiment that the chimps and orangutans had learned three years prior.
During that previous experiment, researchers hid tools in strategically placed boxes and asked the primates to find them. This suggests that primates can quickly recollect past events, a feat that scientists previously thought only humans could do. Memory recall is important for humans because it allows us to plan for future events, she added. Memories also allow people to build their sense of self across time in a coherent way, which plays a big role in our personal wellbeing.
Next, researchers will look at whether chimpanzees and orangutans are aware that they’re recalling a personal memory. Autobiographical memories are like movies that you store in your brain: When something triggers a memory, the movie replays in your head. But further study of memory in the animal kingdom could provide valuable information that could someday prevent memory problems in people. I would have liked to read more information about any of the numerous topics in this article.- Sleep and memory and development, etc. I have written a couple of books on the subject that these scientists, or, more likely this journalist, might want to read…. We’re Moving!As of October 22, 2014, Weird & Wild will be hosted on National Geographic's main news site. A touching moment between primatologist and National Geographic grantee Jane Goodall and young chimpanzee Flint at Tanzania’s Gombe Stream Reserve, 1964.
The Goualougo Triangle Ape Project research, funded in part by the National Geographic Society, is published in the current issue of the International Journal of Primatology. Chimpanzees at this site, in the southern portion of Congo’s Nouabale-Ndoki National Park, used several tools in a single tool-using episode and could also use a single tool for many different purposes.
The results supported suggestions of regional tool-using traditions in honey-gathering, which could be shaped by variation in bee ecology across the chimpanzee range, they added. Bees have developed effective means of protecting their hives that most often involve the fortification and concealment of their nests.
The different defense strategies of the bees could require honey raiders to apply different combinations of tactics.
Previous reports of chimpanzee tool-use in honey-gathering describe several different tools and tool strategies, Morgan and Sanz said. Inserting a probe into a beehive to extract honey (dipping) is the most widespread tactic used by chimpanzees in honey-gathering.
Morgan and Sanz observed 40 episodes of Goualougo chimpanzees using tools to gather honey, video-recording 30 of the episodes, representing 12 different individuals.
To pound, or hammer, a hive, a chimpanzee uses the end of a stout branch to hit the entrance of a beehive to gain access to honey. Most honey-gathering episodes in Goualougo involved one or two tools, but up to five tools were used by a single individual during a successful honey-gathering episode. Chimps did not use multiple tools simultaneously, but one after another in a serial fashion.
The rich behavioral diversity and technological traditions of wild chimpanzees has important, but often overlooked conservation value, the scientists concluded.

Map showing showing where different forms of tool use by chimpanzees were observed in Africa courtesy Morgan and Sanz. Chimpanzee holds one end of a twig or stick tool and pushes the other end either into the hive entrance or on the area near the hive entrance. Chimpanzee places end of tool at hive entrance, and a foot on the other end of the tool to apply force on the hive entrance.
Chimpanzee holds midsection of tool and places end of tool at the hive entrance, and pushes for several seconds. Chimpanzee places end of tool at hive entrance and then rotates tool as if drilling into the nest.
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Support National GeographicWe've supported more than 11,000 grants to scientists and others in the field.Learn more about our work. Two years after being discovered deep in a South African cave, the 1,500 fossils excavated during the Rising Star Expedition have been identified as belonging to a previously unknown early human relative that National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Lee Berger and team have named Homo naledi. With at least 15 individuals of all ages and both sexes represented, the find adds an unprecedented amount of information to our understanding of early human evolution in Africa. In addition, the absence of any other animal remains or large debris in the fossil chamber strongly suggests that these non-human beings intentionally deposited their dead within this cave. BANABA ISLAND, Kiribati—Asbestos dust covers the floors of Banaba’s crumbling colonial houses, buildings, and schools. Questo sito o gli strumenti terzi da questo utilizzati si avvalgono di cookie necessari al funzionamento ed utili alle finalita illustrate nella cookie policy. When the scientists recreated the test, the primates had no trouble quickly remembering where the tools had been concealed. General events are those that happen over and over, similar to our collective memory of attending school. Martin-Ordas and colleagues used visual cues with the primates, using the same lab layout and technology to activate the animals’ remembrance of the experiment. I feel it would be important to tie emotional events or actions with the tests to see if that would alter or improve their memory. Where do these “surprised scientists” think we humans got our ability to remember past events? Why not emphasize the good memory of chimps instead of bad memory of humans as in your tag line?
Put a pigeon back in a test chamber three years after training on some a rather elaborate task, and it will do the task (almost) immediately. Now observations of chimpanzees in the Congo Basin indicate that they may have developed sophisticated technical solutions to gather honey that differ from those of apes in other regions. Fisher Center for the Study and Conservation of Apes, Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, and Crickette Sanz, of the department of primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany, monitored 40 episodes of tool use in honey-gathering by chimpanzees in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo, between 2002 and 2006.
Different bee species show particular nesting habits, but there is also variation in nest building within species. Others may find lodging underground, in the forest canopy, or within the nests of other insects such as ants or termites. Bees also have alarm pheromones that mark the raider so as to direct one another to the threat, the scientists said.

Chimps may also manually detach an entire hive or a branch segment that contains a bee nest, and then use a dipping tool to extract the honey.
It was clear that they expended significant effort to open the hive and attain relatively small amounts of honey,” the scientists noted.
Chimpanzee uses end of a stout branch to hit the entrance of beehive to gain access to honey.
This action may be repeated several times, and the chimpanzee may visually examine or smell the end of the tool between probing. Chimpanzee inserts stick tool into hive entrance and then moves the tool vigorously within the nest.
In addition to possibly weakening the hive structure, pressing and holding for several seconds may also provide information about the structural integrity of the hive. Posters and commenters are required to observe National Geographic's community rules and other terms of service.
To learn firsthand what's going on in and around this marine treasure of global importance, the National Geographic Society sent its top scientists and officials to the region in January 2016. Se vuoi saperne di piu o negare il consenso a tutti o ad alcuni cookie, consulta la Cookie Policy e Privacy Policy. Is this demeaning to our species, theirs or both, I guess it doesn’t matter since humans are apes anyway. A better test of human-like memory would be to train the chimpanzee (or other species) in a rather richly complex environment and return the animal to that environment, the basic layout of which remains largely unchanged must many of the specific features deleted, modified, or replaced. The function of this tool is to weaken or break the area near the entrance of the hive to provide a larger access point.
Tool function seems to be determining the presence of bees, verifying access into the hive, or testing the structural integrity of the nest.
Insertion of the tool into the nest and pressing against the sides of the hive structure may provide leverage to widen access to the inner chambers of the hive or break the inner structures of the hive. Rather than focusing specifically on the hive entrance, these forceful blows with the side of the club may serve to weaken the structure of the area around the hive as well as the hive entrance.
The tool is vigorously whisked or swatted at insects near the entrance of the hive or around the body of the tool user. They toured the desert islands off the southeastern coast of the Baja Peninsula and they listened to presentations by more than a dozen experts, including several whose Baja California research is funded by the Society. Chiudendo questo banner, scorrendo questa pagina o proseguendo la navigazione, acconsenti all'uso dei cookie. The sides or ends of the tool may show wear from friction with the hive entrance or inner nest chambers.
The function of the tool may be to locate the exact location of the underground hive, provide an access point to the hive, or perforate the hive structure itself to access to honey. Some populations have been reported to use frayed dip sticks, but dip sticks may also become frayed as a byproduct of repeated dipping into the hive.

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