Scientists have long held that modern humans originated in Africa because that's where they've found the oldest bones.
Let’s go back 520 years ago to the year 1494 on the island of Vieques, off the southeast coast of Puerto Rico’s mainland. Tainos, the largest indigenous Caribbean population, were living a life based on the cultivation of root crops and fishing when upon the shores arrived Columbus and his fleet, having crossed the Atlantic Ocean for the second time in as many years. National Geographic’s Genographic Project researches locations where different groups historically intermixed to create a modern day melting pot. Our Genographic team learned some key pieces of information that helped us gain more insight into the peopling of the Caribbean. This leads us to conclude that the Y chromosomes (inherited strictly paternally) of Tainos were completely lost in Puerto Rico, whereas the mitochondrial DNA (inherited strictly maternally) survived long and well. These types of analyses, not just across the Caribbean or the world, but across a specific population’s DNA, can have strong historical implications and at the same time help paint a new picture of world history. Wanted to know if maybe you can help me, I just got my DNA results back but there not a thorough as I thought they would be. I am the great great great grandaugther of a mother & daugther who came as slaves from Africa to Puerto Rico 1834, to work the sugar plantations. First off A recent study of Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 800 individuals found that patrilineal input, as indicated by the Y-chromosome, showed 66% of Puerto Ricans could trace their ancestry to male European ancestors, 18% could trace it to male African ancestors, and 16% could trace it to male Native American ancestors.
Males would not have necessarily been decimated for the European Y-chromosome to dominate in Puerto Rico.
It’s also noteworthy that the map that is shown, illustrating migration patterns to Puerto Rico, makes more of a connection to the route taken to America by Asians, rather than the route taken by Africans.
Maps showing genetic migration paths consistently are shown in this non-conventional manner. This is to disavow any knowledge that Africans have been coming to the Americas, on their own, for thousands of years before Columbus, and that the indigenous peoples of the Americas, the Mound Builders, were African-looking people.
Better to embrace your combined European-African ancestry, because this is the heritage of the proud Moors, who civilized Spain, and were then banished and tortured during the Inquisition. Once over the over excitement about the mtdna Taino, or Native American, I came to my own analysis and conclusion.
We have also to considerate the archives , that many times do not match to much with the autosomal tests results. Grandfather and father lived originally in Fajardo, later Ponce, then Mayaguez, and eventually moved to the San Juan Metro, where I was born. You can’t find the truth about your history from the same corporate persons that rewrote all the history in the first place.
I am Taino Indian ,my Great Grand mother told us so ,the surname Coriano is asociated with the decendants of Tainos ,and a Native American tribe from venezuela! I was told and read that my last name was given to my tiano ancestors by a Spanish priest is this true anyone know..?
I am not sure that a sample of 326 volunteers from a population of over three million, can represent that population.
These results of more aboriginal maternal lines corroborate what we learned at school and heard from our elders: That the colonizers physically abused of the male slaves, native Americans, and blacks as well, often to death, and sexually abused, most cases, of the female slaves.
36% Mediterranean, 22% Northern European, 16% Sub-Saharan African, 13% Native American, (Esto es Taino, please!… Where is the confusion? Mis paisanos y antepasados del Valle de Carranza (Vizcaya), emigraron tambien a esta isla, se puede leer a Birgin Sonesson, y puede verse la casi prevalencia de varones. Por tanto repita sus sus modelos matematicos, porque los hombres indigenas tuvieron que competir durante casi 525 anos con una continua e importante emigracion masculina, de otras partes del mundo.
Although I know who my family is, I love to know more as history and Culture has always interest me. In 1953, English biologist Francis Crick wrote a letter to his 12-year-old son Michael, describing a discovery he and his colleague had recently made. Michael Crick put that letter up for auction on April 10 with Christie’s in New York City. Half the proceeds will go to the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in San Diego, California, where Francis Crick, who died in 2008, was a professor.
Now the exciting thing is that while these are 4 different bases, we find we can only put certain pairs of them together.
Now on one chain, as far as we can see, one can have the bases in any order, but if their order is fixed, then the order on the other chain is also fixed.
In other words we think we have found the basic copying mechanism by which life comes from life. I read this because of my curiousity to see how great minded people wrote personal letters lol. I have studied structure of DNA so many times & every time i go through it, i feel so fascinated of how every thing works together inside the cell. Everyone should know Watson and Crick famously ripped off Rosalind Franklin’s discovery of the structure of DNA. Franklin is best known for her work on the X-ray diffraction images of DNA which led to the discovery of the DNA double helix. How interesting to find another dimension to the man who helped us understand this great secret of life.
This article explains how DNA works and will give you a good understanding of DNA, as well as cloning and genetic engineering.
Without her skill as a biophysicist and X-ray crystallographer, Watson and Crick would not have had the information they needed to expound on DNA, and would probably be forgotten by now. National Geographic VoicesResearchers, conservationists, and others around the world share stories and commentary on the National Geographic Society's conversation platform Voices. Society Field Inspection 2016: Gulf of CaliforniaDescribed by Jacques Cousteau as the "aquarium of the world," the Gulf of California in Mexico is threatened by coastal development, climate change, and other human activities. Support National GeographicWe've supported more than 11,000 grants to scientists and others in the field.Learn more about our work. Two years after being discovered deep in a South African cave, the 1,500 fossils excavated during the Rising Star Expedition have been identified as belonging to a previously unknown early human relative that National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Lee Berger and team have named Homo naledi. With at least 15 individuals of all ages and both sexes represented, the find adds an unprecedented amount of information to our understanding of early human evolution in Africa. In addition, the absence of any other animal remains or large debris in the fossil chamber strongly suggests that these non-human beings intentionally deposited their dead within this cave. BANABA ISLAND, Kiribati—Asbestos dust covers the floors of Banaba’s crumbling colonial houses, buildings, and schools. The Geno 2.0 Public Participation and DNA Ancestry Kit opens up many classroom opportunities across disciplines and grade levels. As your classroom explores its own genetic ancestry, you'll also be able to explore humankind's shared journey. This is not a genealogy test; you and your students will not learn about your great grandparents. If you or your students would like to contribute your results to the project's global database, you will be asked to answer a dozen "phenotyping" questions that will help place your DNA in cultural context. For more ideas on how to integrate the Genographic Project into your classroom, view our lesson plans. Click here to register for the educator discount and order your Geno 2.0 Public Participation Kits today! Learn about the Genographic Project, a multi-year research initiative that uses DNA to trace our shared ancient ancestry. The Genographic e-newsletter is a quarterly publication featuring the latest news on Genographic field research, public participation stories, education highlights, and special offers. A molar tooth found at the archaeological site of Denisova cave provided crucial genetic evidence for the existence of the Denisovansa€”a hominid species discovered in only 2010.
The analysis of a fossil tooth from Siberia reveals that a mysterious people known as Denisovans, discovered a mere five years ago, persisted for tens of thousands of years alongside modern humans and Neanderthals.
The find underscores that our Homo sapiens ancestors shared the Eurasian continent with other human-like populations.
The new study, published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, marks an important step in scientistsa€™ understanding of where Denisovans fit in the human family tree. The DNA from the previously analyzed finger bone and tooth show that Denisovans left their mark on modern humans, contributing about five percent of the genome of modern Melanesians, who live in Papua New Guinea and other parts of the Pacific. A replica of the bone chip that permitted the discovery of the Denisovans balances on the pinky finger of evolutionary geneticist Svante PA¤A¤bo. But researchers still knew next to nothing about the hominids, other than their existence and the genetic shadow they cast on the present.


Viola found that the two teeth were consistent with one another and different from those of  modern humans and Neanderthalsa€”strongly suggesting for the first time that large teeth were part of the Denisovan package.
Though ita€™s difficult to say what large-toothed Denisovans would have looked likea€”wisdom teeth have notoriously variable shapesa€”therea€™s little doubt that a€?large teeth with massive roots would probably require massive jaws,a€? says Viola.
The results also underscore the innovative genetics that anthropologists are increasingly using to pull back the veil of time.
Susanna Sawyer of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology led the genetic effort to describe and date the recently found tooth. Student Zoya Gudkova takes a break while excavating in Denisova cave, in Siberiaa€™s Altai Mountains.
Her team homed in on the tootha€™s mitochondrial DNA, a portion of genetic material that holds up better in fossils over time. Once Sawyer had the new tootha€™s mitochondrial DNA in hand, she was able to verify that it indeed was Denisovan.
The common ancestora€™s DNA provided the team with an important baseline, calibrating a genetic stopwatch that accrues mutations with each tick. The discrepancy suggests that the Denisovan to whom the tooth belonged lived about 60,000 years before the individuals who left behind the finger bone and the other tooth.
For starters, the researchers dona€™t actually know how old the Denisovan fragments are, except that theya€™re more than 50,000 years old, the oldest dates that radiocarbon dating can reliably provide. And when it comes to the actual branching of the human family tree, the recent findings seem to conflict with the 2010 studies, which analyzed DNA found in cellsa€™ nuclei instead of mitochondrial DNA.
It doesna€™t help that scientists know next to nothing about how Denisovans looked, moved, and behaved.
Fortunately, there may be other hidden Denisovans scattered throughout Asia, accidentally mislabeled in museums as human or Homo erectus, an ancient hominid ancestor. But researchers wona€™t know for sure if the Denisovans are hiding in plain sight until they conduct further genetic tests.
Geneticists have come to the same conclusion by looking at Africa's vast genetic diversity, which could only have arisen as DNA mutated over millennia. Collaborating with 326 individuals from southeastern Puerto Rico and Vieques, the Genographic Project conducted the first genetic testing in the area with the goal to gain more information about their ancient past and learn how their DNA fits into the human family tree.
Most surprisingly, we found that roughly 60% of Puerto Ricans carry maternal lineages of Native American origin.
This stark difference has been seen in other former colonies (Brazil, Cuba, Jamaica), but the gender dichotomy appears strongest in the Spanish-speaking Americas.
To help explain these frequencies in light of the maternal and paternal differences, I used basic math and inferred that it would take at least three distinct migrations of hundreds of European men each (and practically no European women) to Puerto Rico, followed by intermixing with indigenous women.
Learn more about how DNA can inform you about your own personal past, and help us uncover some new secrets of world history by joining The Genographic Project. Basically It states that I’m 81% European 12% Sub-Saharan African and 7 % East Asian, I figured The 81 percent is probably from Spain ,the African is know surprise but where would the Asian come from? Is there a chance that you have some Latin American ancestry, which would tie back to Native American and Asian? It’s as if there was never any migration across the narrow Atlantic, just across the much wider Pacific, like when the world was still flat!
No coincidence that the following year, 1492, Columbus got the financing to follow the Moors on their trade routes to the Caribbean and Virginia coastline.
I have all the information i could get so here it is…my mother is Julia Lleras Melendez, born in Caguas, her mother (my grandmother) is Juana Gonzalez from Cayey.
We have worked with people from the mountainous regions of the island, as has a coleague Dr.
Have you notice that almost everybody that have Native American , have dna match with Finland?
Puertorricans genes are mostly from Europeans and Africans countries with a great variety of different admix and varieties of percentage in the mix.
You can send your DNA to a place that’s ran by corporate America and expect them to give you the truth about who we are if they gave you the truth the would have to forfeit the lands and the riches of the ancestors. My paternal Y chromosome is Taino ,Ha, ha I did a Dna test like 10 years ago and found out! DNA test has proven the majority of their DNA is European Mediterranean and the African and Native American is the lesser.
In this case the volunteers all proceed from a particular region of Puerto Rico (Vieques and southeastern PR). However, as was noted in the manuscript, we found that after sampling several hundred people we found that adding new people to the project was not adding new lineages. You painted the picture of Columbus discovering Puerto Rico in 1494… He claimed it for Spain in 1493. Unbiased history books teach that, and well done movies, like Roots, and historic novels, etc., too. It sold for $5.3 million to an anonymous buyer who bid over the phone, according to news reports.
For example, suppose the first chain goes [points to string of letters on left], then the second must go [points to string of letters on right]. The beauty of our model is that the shape of it is such that only these pairs can go together, though they could pair up in other ways if they were floating about freely.
When my son was a mere 3yr old, I tried explaining to him why he couldn’t have a doughnut every day. Wouldn’t it have been much better to be put in a museum, for other children to see, if not yours and the future children to come in your own family? Expected this letter to be written in a form of an article or something, but was humbled to see how human he was. Posters and commenters are required to observe National Geographic's community rules and other terms of service. To learn firsthand what's going on in and around this marine treasure of global importance, the National Geographic Society sent its top scientists and officials to the region in January 2016.
The Geno 2.0 Kit offers a range of opportunities for students to learn about the world and themselves. To ensure total anonymity, you will be identified at all times only by your Genographic Project Participation ID (GPID), and not by name unless you register your Participant ID online with the project. If you choose to participate, the genetic data from your test and the answers you provide to our questions, including some personal information such as your zip code, will be included in our database of global genetic information and linked to your Participant ID. For hundreds of thousands of years, modern humans lived alongside Neanderthals, a sister hominid species that died out about 40,000 years ago. The new DNA also allowed Sawyer to reconstruct the mitochondrial genome of the common ancestor of the  three individuals found in the cave. Denisovans who died closer to the common ancestora€™s time would have fewer mutations in their genomes than more recent Denisovans would.
At a minimum, this miniature family tree shows that the Denisovans were a single biological group that sporadically inhabited the region for at least as long as modern humans have.
The new study suggests that Denisovans are not as closely related to Neanderthals as the previous findings indicated.
In particular, the studya€™s authors point to recent finds in southern China, where anthropologists have uncovered human teeth between 80,000 and 120,000 years old that share modern and ancient features, much like the Denisovan teeth. There's less consensus about the routes our ancestors took in their journey out of Africa and around the planet. The results, just published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology, paint a picture of vast historic complexity dating back some 5,000 years, to the first Caribbean peoples.
Native American ancestry, higher than nearly any other Caribbean island, originated from groups migrating to Puerto Rico from both South and Central America.
A look into the rest of the Puerto Rican genome using the Genographic Project’s custom genotyping tool, the GenoChip, sheds some light on what may have happened during Spanish colonial times to create this ancestral imbalance. It also would necessitate the complete decimation of indigenous men (but not women), to account for those numbers. Those are the real ancestors, and where the racial mix began, in Spain and Italy, not on the island of Puerto Rico. So I must say National Geografic yiu were looking in all the wrong Places my family is from Arecibo one of the last Taino strong holds along with las Marias! My grand mother and her mother had plenty of Taino traits, especially my great grandmother wish I could post her picture here. But since nearly all Puerto Ricans also carry European ancestry, there must have been some mixing with Europeans, too. To generalize the findings from these subjects to the entire population of Puerto Rico is a bit of a stretch.


And we also found that the same lineages we found had been reported by other groups thoughout Puerto Rico, and were not specific to Southeastern PR and Vieques. La emigracion espanola fue de principalmente hombres, solo el 17% fue de mujeres, con prohibicion expresa de las mujeres solteras. That is, the order of the bases (the letters) makes one gene different from another gene (just as one page of print is different from another). How nice that he was so enamored of the work he was doing, which no doubt contirbuted to the success of the project. When we were a single cell and that cell divided, the new cells were the same size as the original cell and we got bigger. He stole the pictures to develope the model he talks about and gets credit for those pictures when some women spent years getting them and then being played.
They toured the desert islands off the southeastern coast of the Baja Peninsula and they listened to presentations by more than a dozen experts, including several whose Baja California research is funded by the Society. They will realize that, although they may look different from one another and each have unique cultural characteristics, students are more similar to their classmates than they ever thought possible. If you lose the GPID, there will be no way to access your genetic results unless you create an online profile.
The dental analysis fell to Bence Viola, an anthropologist of the University of Toronto who had examined the first Denisovan wisdom tooth and initially mistook it for the tooth of a cave bear, given its size and huge, splayed roots.
Sawyer found that the recently discovered tooth had half the number of mutations of the other remains, suggesting it was older. Early migrations stalled but left behind evidence such as a human skull from 92,000 years ago at Qafzeh, Israel. Analysis of the Y Chromosome DNA found that no Puerto Rican men (0%) carried indigenous paternal lineages, while more than 80% were West Eurasian (or European). These results are surprising and also shed light into a dark colonial past that, until now, had remained somewhat unclear. Recently, I found two cousins who are related to my great great great grandmother in Ponce…one is a male the other a female.
What we found is that the Taino ancestry seems to be among nearly all Puerto Ricans and, in my opinion.
I was told that my grandmas father my great grandfather was a very famous witch doctor in puerto rico. We just launched new work in Dominican Republic, and that will surely shed some light as to the pre-colonial and post-colonial relationships with Puerto Rico and the impact of Spanish colonization and the slave trade on Hispanola (the colonial capital). Which is almost impossible unless: 1- The person have Native American Genes from other country.
The Slaves and what was left of the natives were still going to be the in the losing end because they had an inferior culture. Are you suggesting that the Tainos mixed with Africans first, and then later on mixed with Europeans? Basta leer los abundantisimos estudios de la emigracion europea, espanola principalmente a la America Colonial, recomiendo entre otros a Peter Boyd-Bowman “La emigracion espanola a America”, Jose Luis Martinez “Pasajeros de Indias”, Nancy O?sullivan-Beare “La mujer espanola en los comienzos de la colonizacion americana”,.
The woman at the check-out was obese, & when he looked up at me and asked, her have too many calories? And did Denisovans really have such massive teeth, or did researchers happen upon a biological oddity?
Which one would be suited for DNA testing, proving which region of Africa my ancestors could have come from? Most Spanish lived around the coast and I’m positive that you will see more Tiano blood in places like Utuado.
2- A big number of Tainos survive, male and female have a big population almost secluded and centuries later admix with the rest of the population. We have also to considerate to the puertorrican admix, populations from others countries with a high component for Native American genes that may have impact our genetic pool. This has nothing to do with race is about culture and the Africans were selling their own kind into slavery. Though a discount on Genographic Project Public Participation Kits has always been offered to educators, the Genographic Project has chosen to further subsidize the cost for educators on Geno 2.0 Kits to make the kits more accessible to classrooms around the world.
But other emigrants who left Africa tens of thousands of years later could also have taken a different route: across the southern end of the Red Sea. Is a fact with the autosomal test take for granted the coordinates from where the test is done. Also, mixing of people is not New, it has always happened since the first tribes conquered others.
Stop complaining about the USA and how unfair things are when there are more killings done know than colonial times and now is done by Puerto Ricans killing other Puerto Ricans. So this letter just makes me realize how excited he was as a father, & how much he wanted to relay to his son in a manner a 12yr old could understand.
The sequence in our DNA directed our mother’s food, we received in the womb, to become new cells forming all the tissues and organs of our body. Scientists say these more recent wanderers gave rise to the 5.5 billion humans living outside Africa today.
Any information would be deeply appreciated, if not I still plan to do the actual swap test to dig a little deeper. Lastly, a lot of people in the Island have this Romanticized belief that aborigines lived in peace. We have also to considerate that with the Cedula de Gracia 450,000 European Immigrants came to Puerto Rico.
African CradleMost paleoanthropologists and geneticists agree that modern humans arose some 200,000 years ago in Africa. Some people want to believe all the Spaniards raped everyone and left all these children around wrong. Samples are taken with a simple and painless cheek swab, and submitted through a secure process.
News flash most of the unions were legitimate marriages of immigrants from Spain and other Catholic Mediterraneans and native or African women. Spain brought Christianity and advance western culture and the beloved language you all love and won’t give up for Englis. Out of AfricaGenetic data show that a small group of modern humans left Africa for good 70,000 to 50,000 years ago and eventually replaced all earlier types of humans, such as Neandertals. Is Ironic the majority of people in these former Spanish colonies are Christians and hate Spain. It is a god damned shame and there is no one to blame except yourselves for letting your home turn into a giant ghetto in the middle of the ocean. Your lucky the USA has not gotten rid of you as Spain did since there is nothing to gain for them except a bunch of disgruntle people who are not assimilating nor progressing even when they have so much more advantage than other islanders in the Caribbean. So if some of you want to be a Taino then go live butt naked run around with no shoes and live in a hut and see if you can survive. Their descendants, Australian Aborigines, remained genetically isolated on that island continent until recently.4. Early EuropeansPaleoanthropologists long thought that the peopling of Europe followed a route from North Africa through the Levant. The Parental Consent Form was created for educator’s records, and should not be sent to the project.
But genetic data show that the DNA of today's western Eurasians resembles that of people in India.
Populating AsiaAround 40,000 years ago, humans pushed into Central Asia and arrived on the grassy steppes north of the Himalaya.
At the same time, they traveled through Southeast Asia and China, eventually reaching Japan and Siberia.
Into the New WorldExactly when the first people arrived in the Americas is still hotly debated. Genetic evidence suggests it was between 20,000 and 15,000 years ago, when sea levels were low and land connected Siberia to Alaska. Ice sheets would have covered the interior of North America, forcing the new arrivals to travel down the west coast.



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