A gallery of falsely colored transmission electron micrograph images captures the presumed order of events when the HIV virus buds from the surface of a T-lymphocyte white blood cell. Thai soldiers learn about AIDS by grim example as they view a victim's body at a hospice run by a Buddhist monastery.
A scientist in Franceville, Gabon, removes hair and blood samples from a cooperative chimpanzee. National Geographic explores how we can feed the growing population without overwhelming the planet in our food series.
Get up close with some of the world's most fascinating underground communities, from gangs to cults to organized crime families. As the global population soars toward nine billion by 2045, this corner of Africa shows what's at stake in the decades ahead. There’s no part of the drug trade that isn’t dangerous, but transporting drugs can be one of the most risky stages of the process. Although cartels go to great and varied lengths to avoid detection during trans-continental smuggling, using private aircraft, disguised casing, human drug mules, tunnels and even submarines, once inside the U.S.
When encountering a car that a law-enforcement officer suspects possesses drugs, the officer’s goal is to verify whether or not there’s probable cause to search the vehicle. Follow these Gloucester, MA fishermen as they use rod and reel to catch the elusive bluefin tuna. Explore the fascinating facets of your cranium with brainteasers, experiments, and hard science. Explore the lives of otherwise ordinary Americans who are going to great lengths to prepare for the end of the world. A hurricane, a car accident, a roadside bomb, a rape — extreme stress is more common than you might think, with an estimated 50 to 60 percent of Americans experiencing it at some point in their lives. In order to fit into the nucleus of each cell, DNA wraps tightly around spherical proteins called histones. In the new study, Tsai’s team investigated whether this enzyme is also involved in the way that fear memories cement themselves into brain circuits.
But in mice (and, importantly, in some people with severe PTSD), this extinction therapy only works for recently acquired fear memories. Tsai and her colleagues trained mice to fear a tone and then gave them extinction therapy either a day later or 30 days later. Researchers are investigating HDAC inhibitors for all sorts of other conditions, too, including heart disease, HIV, and cancer. Good to point out that there are a lot of HDAC enzymes, and alot of HDAC inhibitors, some which aren’t too specific. I wonder if this can be used to encode whole new sequences not possible with low plasticity. So, if the animals were able to unlearn their fear memories thirty days after they were formed, when the extinction therapy was combined with the HDAC inhibitor, are we to conclude that a 30 day period is considered a “long-term” fear memory and are we then, also concluding that this provides hope to some people that have older formed fear memories?
Excellent research continues to be done on the effective use of Emotional freedom Technique (EFT) on PTSD including war veterans. Another study from LeDoux lab showed that if you shut down global protein translation and then try to remember a particular fear memory , then you specifically erase that memory. Maybe im just being the devil’s advocate here – but does nobody else see the danger in this?
I understand the obvious benefits of the drug, but how far will it go in humans that they cannot test in rats?
If this drug relates specifically to neuroplasticity then I immediately wonder if it can be used as an aide to accelerate the learning process in adults rather than just treat PTSD. I have PTSD and went through EMDR therapy ( Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) It was awful!


Yes Manely, it is so easy to meditate and reach your subconcious after someone witnesses their friends’ blown up and have to help clean up their body parts form a roadside IED.
I was diagnosed with PTSD in March 2010 after trauma experienced during a procedure that was performed on me in a hospital. Fascinating of course, but one thing occurs to me: Removing the memory of trauma may induce the victim of childhood assault to be no longer motivated to help track down the perpetrator. Obesity is rampant in our society and there is some speculation that certain genes can be influence in a way to cause a precursor for obesity in people. The virus particles attack T-lymphocytes, stealing their genetic machinery, thereby forcing them to produce more copies of the virus. He learned to use clean needles in a Doctors Without Borders risk-reduction program aimed at lowering the numbers of people passing disease through dirty needles. Sex workers are at high risk of contracting HIV and AIDS—unprotected sex is the primary method of spreading the disease.
Ninety-four out of every hundred HIV-infected people live in developing nations, where currently available drug therapies are largely unaffordable. Researchers believe that an evolving AIDS virus first spread to humans from wild African chimpanzees, which suffer from a similar virus called SIV. Maxwell Lawton gives himself a weekly testosterone injection and takes a plethora of prescription pills. On the season premiere of Drugs, Inc., the crew exposes the veins of Salt Lake City’s drug trade from the viewpoint of a DEA agent, an addict, a smuggler and a distributor. But it’s far too costly and inefficient for smaller gangs and distributors that are closer to the street-level dealer and have a smaller cut or the profits, yet must move drugs between locations.
This can be shockingly easy to obtain, so long as there’s evidence: police can acquire warrants from their squad cars, as long as a magistrate agrees that there is probable cause. One of the only ways to legally uncover a car trap without a search are drug-detection dogs, utilized by most law-enforcement agencies with enthusiasm. Drug detection dogs can be responding to an officer’s signals intentionally or unintentionally, thereby compromising the dog’s evidence. About 8 percent of that group will be diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD. In that study she also showed that blocking HDAC2 led to dramatic gains in the animals’ memory. Using so-called Pavlovian fear conditioning, researchers train the animals to fear a particular cue, such as a sound or smell, by pairing it with a mild shock to the foot.
After a mouse learns to fear, say, a certain tone, researchers can extinguish that fear by repeatedly playing the tone without a shock. When extinction training happened a day later, the HDAC2 enzyme was inactivated in brain cells, the study found. In 2012, Yossef Itzhak and his colleagues at the University of Miami reported that giving a different HDAC inhibitor to mice before they acquire the fear memory accelerates the extinction of the memory weeks later.
Because HDAC enzymes are expressed all over the body, though, some experts are worried about their translation into the clinic. The anticonvulsant valproate and the experimental anticancer drug vorinostat both are HDAC inhibitors, for example.
This means that recycling of a certain protein at synapse is important after the memory is recalled.
Intellectually I was always aware of the risk, but living through a traumatic experience made me ultra-aware on an involuntary level – something that has done me good since. I went through it for months and all it did was force me to live through the horrible things that happened to me, the things that caused the PTSD.
My anxiety levels are still too high for CBT almost 4 years later, so I would be very grateful if this worked.


Cambodia's AIDS epidemic is the worst in Southeast Asia, with about 4 percent of adults infected. Though fighting the disease was "a full time job," Lawton lived more than a decade longer than doctors predicted. The episode highlight distribution’s vulnerability: even as the drug trade has gotten more sophisticated, the most efficient way to move drugs around will always be in a personal automobile. So in the 80s’, mechanics and auto-body specialists commissioned by drug dealers began building “urban traps,” or small compartments where drugs could be stashed and only revealed using after-market mechanized switches. Thousands of dogs are trained specifically to sniff for drugs – many breeds’ noses are so sensitive, they can detect residue of drugs long after the drugs themselves are gone. Whenever we actively recall a memory, it transforms into a pliable molecular state and becomes vulnerable to modification. A mouse study published last week in Cell throws the spotlight on a drug that acts in concert with exposure therapy to help extinguish fear memories.
With HDAC2 quiet, acetyl groups stayed latched on to histones and various memory genes stayed on. Since mRNAs are already poised at the synapse, this process of reinstegating the memory you recall is pretty fast. The reaction that follows is a conditioned fear that will be essential for the rest of the child’s life. I have worked thru all the horror that happened, still I will have episode’s of PTSD just depends on what triggers it. Sick of being sick and tired and also sick of treatment and meds – but it would be awesome if this could work. As these are a vital part of the immune system, the disease severely weakens immunity, making victims susceptible to seemingly harmless infections. Low-level street dealers in some major cities are subject to stop and frisk laws, where they can be randomly searched for drugs. These evolved into more sophisticated compartments which utilized a car’s internal electric system, allowing drug smugglers to hide drug compartments behind customized combinations of built-in signals (compartments that could only open if all of the doors were closed became common; some flashier dealers now use voice-activated controls). The drug works by changing the epigenome, the chemical markers that attach to DNA and can turn genes on and off. He eventually grew up and stopped and is a model husband and father 11 years later but no matter how gentle and patient and understanding he is about what all the trauma and behavioral conditioning did, I just can’t feel safe around people. It made me worse and turned me into this sad, angry person who my family ended up disliking. And although the Supreme Court last year ruled in favor of the legality of warrantless use of drug-detection dogs on the roads, their use and reliability remain controversial. The new treatment sounds scary, I need to know to be protected by my instincts I am afraid the treatment may take that away. This process requires actually dismantling much of the vehicle in order to discover the drugs which have been welded or stored in compartments not easily searched during traffic stops. In what other circumstances would someone know that they are going to experience trauma and form fear memories? A drug like that would be wonderful if it worked in humans and didn’t have horrible side effects like most drugs do.




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