About:The Genographic Project seeks to chart new knowledge about the migratory history of the human species and answer age-old questions surrounding the genetic diversity of humanity. National Geographic and IBM launched a groundbreaking research initiative that will trace the migratory history of the human species. WASHINGTON (March 6, 2012)— The Genographic Project announced today the most comprehensive analysis to date of Basque genetic patterns, showing that Basque genetic uniqueness predates the arrival of agriculture in the Iberian Peninsula some 7,000 years ago.
WASHINGTON (March 28, 2012)—A study by The Genographic Project has found that the majority of all known ethnic Afghans share a unique genetic heritage derived from a common ancestral population that most likely emerged during the Neolithic revolution and the formation of early farming communities. Let’s go back 520 years ago to the year 1494 on the island of Vieques, off the southeast coast of Puerto Rico’s mainland. Tainos, the largest indigenous Caribbean population, were living a life based on the cultivation of root crops and fishing when upon the shores arrived Columbus and his fleet, having crossed the Atlantic Ocean for the second time in as many years. National Geographic’s Genographic Project researches locations where different groups historically intermixed to create a modern day melting pot.
Our Genographic team learned some key pieces of information that helped us gain more insight into the peopling of the Caribbean.
This leads us to conclude that the Y chromosomes (inherited strictly paternally) of Tainos were completely lost in Puerto Rico, whereas the mitochondrial DNA (inherited strictly maternally) survived long and well. These types of analyses, not just across the Caribbean or the world, but across a specific population’s DNA, can have strong historical implications and at the same time help paint a new picture of world history. Wanted to know if maybe you can help me, I just got my DNA results back but there not a thorough as I thought they would be.
I am the great great great grandaugther of a mother & daugther who came as slaves from Africa to Puerto Rico 1834, to work the sugar plantations.
First off A recent study of Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 800 individuals found that patrilineal input, as indicated by the Y-chromosome, showed 66% of Puerto Ricans could trace their ancestry to male European ancestors, 18% could trace it to male African ancestors, and 16% could trace it to male Native American ancestors.
Males would not have necessarily been decimated for the European Y-chromosome to dominate in Puerto Rico. It’s also noteworthy that the map that is shown, illustrating migration patterns to Puerto Rico, makes more of a connection to the route taken to America by Asians, rather than the route taken by Africans.
Maps showing genetic migration paths consistently are shown in this non-conventional manner. This is to disavow any knowledge that Africans have been coming to the Americas, on their own, for thousands of years before Columbus, and that the indigenous peoples of the Americas, the Mound Builders, were African-looking people. Better to embrace your combined European-African ancestry, because this is the heritage of the proud Moors, who civilized Spain, and were then banished and tortured during the Inquisition. Once over the over excitement about the mtdna Taino, or Native American, I came to my own analysis and conclusion.
We have also to considerate the archives , that many times do not match to much with the autosomal tests results. Grandfather and father lived originally in Fajardo, later Ponce, then Mayaguez, and eventually moved to the San Juan Metro, where I was born. You can’t find the truth about your history from the same corporate persons that rewrote all the history in the first place.
I am Taino Indian ,my Great Grand mother told us so ,the surname Coriano is asociated with the decendants of Tainos ,and a Native American tribe from venezuela! I was told and read that my last name was given to my tiano ancestors by a Spanish priest is this true anyone know..? I am not sure that a sample of 326 volunteers from a population of over three million, can represent that population.
These results of more aboriginal maternal lines corroborate what we learned at school and heard from our elders: That the colonizers physically abused of the male slaves, native Americans, and blacks as well, often to death, and sexually abused, most cases, of the female slaves. 36% Mediterranean, 22% Northern European, 16% Sub-Saharan African, 13% Native American, (Esto es Taino, please!… Where is the confusion?
Mis paisanos y antepasados del Valle de Carranza (Vizcaya), emigraron tambien a esta isla, se puede leer a Birgin Sonesson, y puede verse la casi prevalencia de varones. Por tanto repita sus sus modelos matematicos, porque los hombres indigenas tuvieron que competir durante casi 525 anos con una continua e importante emigracion masculina, de otras partes del mundo.
Although I know who my family is, I love to know more as history and Culture has always interest me.
The Genographic Project recently released the most refined evolutionary tree of the human Y chromosome, which every male inherits directly from his father. As more people participate in the Genographic Project, we are able to fill in branches and gaps on the entire human family tree, and gain new insights on our ancient past.
Acacia trees are an iconic sight in East Africa, where genetic analysis suggests the most recent male common ancestor of all humans lived.
Each human male carries a series of DNA mutations in his Y chromosomes that records a portion of the story of humanity.
The Geno 2.0 DNA Ancestry Kit invites participants to test their own ancient ancestry by submitting a DNA sample to the project. The new Y chromosome tree shows mutation names (small blue font) and haplogroup names (letters on right side). How different is this Y chromosome tree to the previous versions used by the Genographic Project?
The overall structure of the tree remains consistent with past versions, thus not affecting major haplogroup (or lineage) designations.
The new Genographic Project participant results incorporate more information in an even simpler design. This is an exciting moment for The Genographic Project as we can actively show the power of participant involvement in advancing genetics and anthropology. Maybe is only my ancestors journeys but I have notice similar patron in several puertorican DNA and trees. I am very interested in your findings regarding the origins of the people and the movements that can be traced. As you noted, you cannot tell based on her mtDNA is she was part Blackfoot since that lineage that you listed in more commonly associated with European groups. I have cross-checked the Geno results with documentation and historical information I have from traditional family research.
I did Geno 2 about a year ago, and it turned out to be a very efficient way to define my SNPs down to several thousand years ago.
In some terminal branches, there are those who have defined SNPs into the usual genealogical time frame, and eventually that will be true for far more people when enough have done sequencing of their Y chromosomes, but for now STR testing is the way to test distant family relations.
I was really excited about this project and was about to sign up when I read all the negative comments above. The haplotypes can be differentiated, they were only grouped together because of geographical proximity. With mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome DNA the story we can tell is often and ancient one. Well, based on the comments above, I’ll be looking elsewhere for a good genealogically based, informative DNA test.
From their comments, people who have taken part seem very disappointed at the dearth of information you provide. Where can I find your answers to many very interesting questions I’ve read in the comments? There is a list of reference populations that you are matched against, but there is no explanation as to why certain countries are on there and others aren’t.


Maybe most participants are satisfied with the few bits of info that the project provides, but it is not enough for me, given the $200 price tag at the time I bought into it.
My wife’s Y-DNA haplogroup (via testing a paternal cousin) changed from R-P310 to R-V221 (new in Genographic tree?)in December 2014 and now (January 2015) it is back to R-P310. It would be very helpful if you posted a current list of the most significant journal articles that document these recent discoveries that interested participants could track down and read. The project is a not-for-profit, five-year, global research partnership of National Geographic and IBM launched in 2005, which uses genetics as a tool to address anthropological questions on a global scale.
The National Geographic Society and IBM today launched a groundbreaking research initiative that will trace the migratory history of the human species.
The Genographic Project has three core components: field research, public participation and awareness, and the Genographic legacy project that will fund future field research and support education and cultural preservation projects among participating indigenous groups.
30, 2008)–The Phoenicians gave the world the alphabet and a love of the color purple, and a research study published today by Genographic scientists in the American Journal of Human Genetics (AJHG-D-08-00725R2) shows that they left some people their genes as well. Collaborating with 326 individuals from southeastern Puerto Rico and Vieques, the Genographic Project conducted the first genetic testing in the area with the goal to gain more information about their ancient past and learn how their DNA fits into the human family tree. Most surprisingly, we found that roughly 60% of Puerto Ricans carry maternal lineages of Native American origin. This stark difference has been seen in other former colonies (Brazil, Cuba, Jamaica), but the gender dichotomy appears strongest in the Spanish-speaking Americas. To help explain these frequencies in light of the maternal and paternal differences, I used basic math and inferred that it would take at least three distinct migrations of hundreds of European men each (and practically no European women) to Puerto Rico, followed by intermixing with indigenous women. Learn more about how DNA can inform you about your own personal past, and help us uncover some new secrets of world history by joining The Genographic Project.
Basically It states that I’m 81% European 12% Sub-Saharan African and 7 % East Asian, I figured The 81 percent is probably from Spain ,the African is know surprise but where would the Asian come from? Is there a chance that you have some Latin American ancestry, which would tie back to Native American and Asian? It’s as if there was never any migration across the narrow Atlantic, just across the much wider Pacific, like when the world was still flat!
No coincidence that the following year, 1492, Columbus got the financing to follow the Moors on their trade routes to the Caribbean and Virginia coastline. I have all the information i could get so here it is…my mother is Julia Lleras Melendez, born in Caguas, her mother (my grandmother) is Juana Gonzalez from Cayey.
We have worked with people from the mountainous regions of the island, as has a coleague Dr.
Have you notice that almost everybody that have Native American , have dna match with Finland?
Puertorricans genes are mostly from Europeans and Africans countries with a great variety of different admix and varieties of percentage in the mix. You can send your DNA to a place that’s ran by corporate America and expect them to give you the truth about who we are if they gave you the truth the would have to forfeit the lands and the riches of the ancestors. My paternal Y chromosome is Taino ,Ha, ha I did a Dna test like 10 years ago and found out!
DNA test has proven the majority of their DNA is European Mediterranean and the African and Native American is the lesser.
In this case the volunteers all proceed from a particular region of Puerto Rico (Vieques and southeastern PR). However, as was noted in the manuscript, we found that after sampling several hundred people we found that adding new people to the project was not adding new lineages. You painted the picture of Columbus discovering Puerto Rico in 1494… He claimed it for Spain in 1493. Unbiased history books teach that, and well done movies, like Roots, and historic novels, etc., too. The new Y tree was created in part through the help of the 300,000 male participants that have joined this one-of-a-kind project to trace their own ancestry and become citizen scientists. We wanted to outline how this new tree affects our understanding of our shared ancestry, and what it means for current and future project participants. The story begins with a common ancient ancestor that lived in East Africa more than 150,000 years ago. Participants can then choose to opt into Genographic Project scientific research to have their DNA results compared to those of thousands of other participants.
The number of branches nearly doubled from 667 to more than 1,200 on our new paternal tree.
However, more branches mean greater geographic specificity–helping us narrow down where specific lineages are found and when they originated.
Male results may have changed slightly since we gained greater insights into the paternal migratory paths and discovered new branch tips on the shared Y tree.
We are looking at the maternal ancestral tree right now and should have additional information featuring your input in the weeks to come.
So, thank you again, and please continue to reach out to us with your questions and your stories.
The result was MTDNA C, we celebrate our Taino heritage but for our surprise seven years later some Censo documents say my last MTDNA female in the 1830 and her husband where from Valencia Spain. I’m making this note rethinking the puertorican ancestors journey, it seem more admix that we have thought. I much prefer the results I received from Nat Geo than the results some friends have received from other organizations. The Geno 2.0 test, however, does look at the rest of the genome and can estimate the percentage of Native American markers in her DNA. The difference I observe with the Geno results is that they are not hesitant to indicate tribes and origins for ALL Earth’s peoples, back to the beginning in southeast Africa. People need to understand that this is a deep ancestry test, not something you do to identify family members (cousins.) For that you nee do test Y-STRs, preferably at least the 67-STR panels.
However, I notice that the R2, R1a and P2 haplotypes, being displayed in brown on the geographic map of the haplotypes cannot be differentiated.
However, since 2012 we have been able to give more specific stories and lineage definitions thanks to the new GenoChip.
The comparison chart I viewed did say that the results of the NG test could be passed into Family Tree, at no charge, but very little detail was forthcoming.
It was interesting to see my ancestral composition but it opened up lots of new questions and insights that I could not explore due to the secrecy behind the science of this project, and the restricted nature of what NatGeo allows you to see.
For example, the reference populations in the Balkans are Greece and Bulgaria, but Romania, Serbia, Albania and Macedonia are not listed. It was my favorite part of the results, and so I naturally wanted to see the heatmaps for other mtDNA and YDNA haplogroups. The article says that the project has now mapped the relatedness of over 1200 branches on the Y-chromosome, but all they’ve given us is a crude regional map and a chart with 37 branches, representing a meager 3% of the data treasure trove they have collected. The kit will be delivered to you and you have to send your DNA sample back with the instructions given in the kit. At the core of the project is a consortium of 11 global regional scientific teams who, following regional institutional review scientific protocols are responsible for sample collection and DNA analysis in their respective regions. The results, just published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology, paint a picture of vast historic complexity dating back some 5,000 years, to the first Caribbean peoples.
Native American ancestry, higher than nearly any other Caribbean island, originated from groups migrating to Puerto Rico from both South and Central America.


A look into the rest of the Puerto Rican genome using the Genographic Project’s custom genotyping tool, the GenoChip, sheds some light on what may have happened during Spanish colonial times to create this ancestral imbalance.
It also would necessitate the complete decimation of indigenous men (but not women), to account for those numbers. Those are the real ancestors, and where the racial mix began, in Spain and Italy, not on the island of Puerto Rico. So I must say National Geografic yiu were looking in all the wrong Places my family is from Arecibo one of the last Taino strong holds along with las Marias! My grand mother and her mother had plenty of Taino traits, especially my great grandmother wish I could post her picture here.
But since nearly all Puerto Ricans also carry European ancestry, there must have been some mixing with Europeans, too. To generalize the findings from these subjects to the entire population of Puerto Rico is a bit of a stretch. And we also found that the same lineages we found had been reported by other groups thoughout Puerto Rico, and were not specific to Southeastern PR and Vieques. La emigracion espanola fue de principalmente hombres, solo el 17% fue de mujeres, con prohibicion expresa de las mujeres solteras.
When comparing the DNA, Genographic scientists look for changes or mutations in participants’ results that help determine when new lineages may have begun. In particular, we gained a new understanding of internal branching patterns of the tree and of events that occurred between 10,000 and 60,000 years ago as humans moved to populate every corner of the earth. Testing her, or her closest direct relative with this test you may be able to start to answer that question. So, in effect, no matter what we all may look like on the outside, we are at heart, all one big family after all! For example, I am Ydna J1-Z1853, they say that 0.3% of all the participants are J1-Z1853, but only 5 of us have shared there story and we know nothing about the rest 2111, as to who they are(ethnic group), where they are from, The Nathional Geographic Genographic Project can at least give us that much information about the participants without jeopardizing their privacy.
However, R2, R1a and P are very different haplogroups, and with a more detailed map we would certainly separate those geographically. When I tried to find out how and why reference populations were created, I was told that it is done through a proprietary formula that is not available to the public.
I just want to have access to the complete findings of the project, and not just a few tiny bits that NatGeo thinks are relevant to me. Analysis of the Y Chromosome DNA found that no Puerto Rican men (0%) carried indigenous paternal lineages, while more than 80% were West Eurasian (or European).
These results are surprising and also shed light into a dark colonial past that, until now, had remained somewhat unclear. Recently, I found two cousins who are related to my great great great grandmother in Ponce…one is a male the other a female. What we found is that the Taino ancestry seems to be among nearly all Puerto Ricans and, in my opinion. I was told that my grandmas father my great grandfather was a very famous witch doctor in puerto rico. We just launched new work in Dominican Republic, and that will surely shed some light as to the pre-colonial and post-colonial relationships with Puerto Rico and the impact of Spanish colonization and the slave trade on Hispanola (the colonial capital). Which is almost impossible unless: 1- The person have Native American Genes from other country.
The Slaves and what was left of the natives were still going to be the in the losing end because they had an inferior culture. Are you suggesting that the Tainos mixed with Africans first, and then later on mixed with Europeans?
Basta leer los abundantisimos estudios de la emigracion europea, espanola principalmente a la America Colonial, recomiendo entre otros a Peter Boyd-Bowman “La emigracion espanola a America”, Jose Luis Martinez “Pasajeros de Indias”, Nancy O?sullivan-Beare “La mujer espanola en los comienzos de la colonizacion americana”,. During that expansion, these descendants acquired and maintained mutations or changes in their DNA that occurred at particular times and places. Since changes accumulate over time, a large number of differences between two DNA samples would indicate the two lineages diverged long ago.
For example, haplogroup C (a male lineage common in South Asians) now shows patterns of deep-rooted relatedness among East Asians, Aboriginal Australians, and Native Americans.
Which one would be suited for DNA testing, proving which region of Africa my ancestors could have come from? Most Spanish lived around the coast and I’m positive that you will see more Tiano blood in places like Utuado. 2- A big number of Tainos survive, male and female have a big population almost secluded and centuries later admix with the rest of the population.
We have also to considerate to the puertorrican admix, populations from others countries with a high component for Native American genes that may have impact our genetic pool. This has nothing to do with race is about culture and the Africans were selling their own kind into slavery. The new Y tree illustrates the progressions of these known mutational events showing the many ways all people are related. In my case, I could tell from my Europeans ancestors brought DNA and MTDNA from everywhere: from Africa, Asia , Middle east , the Siberian, Iceland, to Europe, again to the middle east, Jew , Arab, Canarias Island, Berebere . Is a fact with the autosomal test take for granted the coordinates from where the test is done. Also, mixing of people is not New, it has always happened since the first tribes conquered others.
Stop complaining about the USA and how unfair things are when there are more killings done know than colonial times and now is done by Puerto Ricans killing other Puerto Ricans. The new tree is particularly exciting if you are a male and a Genographic Project participant, since you will see that your own results are now even further refined!
Any information would be deeply appreciated, if not I still plan to do the actual swap test to dig a little deeper. Lastly, a lot of people in the Island have this Romanticized belief that aborigines lived in peace.
We have also to considerate that with the Cedula de Gracia 450,000 European Immigrants came to Puerto Rico. Some people want to believe all the Spaniards raped everyone and left all these children around wrong. News flash most of the unions were legitimate marriages of immigrants from Spain and other Catholic Mediterraneans and native or African women. Spain brought Christianity and advance western culture and the beloved language you all love and won’t give up for Englis.
Is Ironic the majority of people in these former Spanish colonies are Christians and hate Spain.
It is a god damned shame and there is no one to blame except yourselves for letting your home turn into a giant ghetto in the middle of the ocean. Your lucky the USA has not gotten rid of you as Spain did since there is nothing to gain for them except a bunch of disgruntle people who are not assimilating nor progressing even when they have so much more advantage than other islanders in the Caribbean. So if some of you want to be a Taino then go live butt naked run around with no shoes and live in a hut and see if you can survive.



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