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One hundred years ago, in 1914, National Geographic published its first article about the Himalayan kingdom of Bhutan: a compelling account of explorations and surveys by John Claude White, a British Raj administrator and an accomplished amateur photographer. When White was not with his noble host, he visited Bhutan’s temples, monasteries, forts, factories and farms.
In setting the record straight, White created a time capsule as fascinating for readers of 2014 as it must have been for those of a century ago.
Late Political Officer in Charge of Sikkim, Bhutan, and Such Parts of Tibet as Fell Within the Sphere of British Influence. It has been my good fortune to have had exceptional facilities for exploring the hitherto very little known, but most interesting, native state of Bhutan, which lies in the heart of the Himalaya Mountains, on their southern slopes, about 250 miles northeast of Calcutta. Cover of the April 1914 issue of National Geographic, featuring the magazine’s first article about Bhutan. Though naturally an unruly and turbulent country, there had been no raids into British territory for many years, owing to the good government and strength of character of the present ruler, now Maharaja Sir Ugyen Wang-chuk. He extended to me a most pressing invitation to visit his country, and when I was able to do so, a little later on, he gave me every possible assistance, and consequently during the several journeys I made there I was enabled to see everything of interest and to gather information otherwise impossible to procure. On another occasion I marched along the boundary between British India and Bhutan and from Dorunga across the Dangna-chu to Kanga and up the Kuru River. In 1907 a formal intimation was conveyed to the government of India that Sir Ugyen Wang-chuk, K. The fortress of Dug-Gye Jong, magnificently situated among ideal scenery, on a spur running into and commanding the valley.
It is impossible to find words to express adequately the wonderful beauty and variety of scenery I met with during my journeys, the grandeur of the magnificent snow peaks, and the picturesqueness and charm of the many wonderful jongs, or forts, and other buildings I came across; but I hope my photographs may give my readers some idea of what I saw.
My experience of the people is that they are universally polite, civil, and clean, and during the whole time I spent in the country I only saw one drunken man.
The clothes of the higher officials were always immaculate, their brocades and silks fresh and unstained in any way, and even the coolies were a great contrast to the usual Tibetan or Darjeeling coolie. The amount of labor expended on their irrigation channels shows that they are an industrious and ingenious people. In the courtyards we found retainers busily occupied in various trades, while the women of the household spin and weave and make clothes for the men-folk in addition to their ordinary duties. The men were cheery and jovial, always ready, at the end of a day’s march, when we had settled into camp, for a game at quoits, shooting at a target with arrows, jumping, etc. The mountain system may be most easily described as a series of parallel ranges running approximately in a southerly direction from the main ridge of the Himalayan range, where the peaks attain altitudes up to 24,000 and 25,000 feet.
In climate it varies enormously from the ice and snow of the higher altitudes to the damp, overpowering heat in the deep valleys, and in vegetation from the magnificent grazing grounds in the higher regions, covered with alpine flowers, surrounded by snow peaks, high pine forests, rhododendrons, magnolias, chestnuts, and oaks, to luxuriant tropical palms, ferns, and bamboos.
On my second journey I came across quantities of Cypripedium fairianum growing in masses on the magnesium limestone hills.
There are magnificent forests of Pinus excelsa, Abies brunoniana, and silver fir, many of the trees exceeding in size anything I have ever seen. In eastern Bhutan the hills are densely clothed with forests, but with practically no population, as it is too fever-stricken to allow of any one living there. On one of my visits in this section a magnificent tusker went up the valley ahead of me, and Ugyen Kazi, who pitched his camp higher up the valley, was obliged to move his tents, owing to the numbers of wild elephants making it too unpleasant for him to stay.
While I was examining some coal deposits a large tigress, with her cub, walked down the valley, and on my return I found her pugs (footprints), with the little one’s pug. My second journey opened with an experience of what bad weather can be at these altitudes, for on leaving Chumbi early in December we came upon an exceptionally severe blizzard. I had marched on to a small bungalow at a place called Goutsa, where although everything, even the tea and milk, froze solid, I could at least have a fire and some protection from the storm; but two of my party had camped out in the hope of shooting a “shau” (Cervus sinencis), news of which had been brought in.
The following morning was brilliant and we went on to Phari, where there is a fine old weather-beaten fort built by the Tibetans, the headquarters of a jongpen, a Tibetan military official. We had now reached Bhutan and, crossing the Temo-la (16,500 feet), we entered it in glorious weather.
The first place of interest we came to was Dug-gye Jong, a fort built to protect this route from a possible raid by Tibet.
I cannot describe Dug-gye better than Captain Turner, who had visited it 120 years before; the scene does not seem to have altered in the least.
A view of the interior of Dug-Gye Jong, showing shingle roofs kept in place by large stones. This view of Dug-Gye shows the round towers built to protect the covered way to the spring underneath the lowest tower. The Dug-gye armory is said to be the best in the country, and is contained in a fine room, with a large bow window facing south and looking down the valley—in the Tongsa Penlop’s opinion the best balcony in Bhutan. We remained as guests of the jongpen for two days in order to visit the famous Monastery of Paro Ta-tshang, which is situated on the opposite side of the valley, about 3,000 feet up. On reaching the top of the ridge we first came in sight of the monastery buildings, grouped on an almost perpendicular hillside in the most picturesque manner. Each building is two stories high and is painted, like all monasteries, a dull light gray on the lower story, with a broad band of madder red above, and shingle roofs, on the top of which are gilded canopies.
We appeared to be quite close, but were really separated from the buildings by an almost inaccessible gorge.
Across the gorge a rope of little colored prayer-flags was stretched, which fluttered out prayers for the benefit of those who had put them up, and this added to the picturesqueness of the scene.
On reaching the top of our ladder-like path a monk presented us each with a draught of beautifully ice-cold water in a gourd from a holy spring, and I can imagine it being much appreciated on a hot day.
The most holy shrine, the sanctuary round which all the other buildings have sprung up, was situated in a cave. They were supposed to be of holy origin and to be found among the solid rocks near the shrine; but I could see none, although the Bya-gha Jongpen’s son, a nephew of the Tongsa, had taken one away a few weeks previously.
In the center of the gorge, perched upon a tiny ledge, there was a hermit’s dwelling, which could only be reached by climbing a perpendicular notched pole about 40 feet high. From Dug-gye the route to Paro ran down the valley, with monasteries perched on every prominent hill. In the afternoon, while wandering round the camp, which was very well laid out, I watched the curious Bhutanese custom of feeding mules with eggs, which I had never come across elsewhere.
Gorina Monastery, surrounded by Lamas’ houses, situated on a spur running into the Paro valley.
Paro is a very large and striking building, protected on the one side by the River Pa-chu, spanned by a substantial bridge on the cantilever principle, covered with a roof to protect the timber. Crossing the foss, which separates the outer courts from the fort by a heavy drawbridge, we passed through a huge gateway and found ourselves in the eastern courtyard, in the center of which is the smaller of two citadels, equal in height and occupied by petty officials. The penlop’s rooms are situated in the southeast corner, on the floor above, and we entered through a long, low room filled with retainers seated in four rows, two on each side, facing each other—a scene which made one think of the old baronial halls in bygone English days. The penlop, or governor, received us in a large bay-window looking down the valley, but the visit was dull and uninteresting, as he seemed to know little of the history of his country, and what little information we did extract was vague and inaccurate. The fort is said to have been built toward the end of the sixteenth century, and does not seem to have suffered from the earthquake of 1897, which shattered Tashi-cho-jong and Poonakha.
It is a much larger room than the one in the Potala at Lhasa, where the Tibetan Treaty was signed, and all its decorations are good, a hanging lattice-work of pierced brass in front of the altar especially being very fine and quite unusual. The larger of the two citadels is in the center of the western courtyard, at the northwest angle of the building, and I noticed old catapults for throwing great stones, carefully stored in the rafters of the veranda.
The penlop’s (governor’s) private house, where he passes some part of his time, lies on the other side of the river and is the residence of his wives.
A fine example of chorten, or shrine, Agorina Monastery, surrounded by prayer flags.In front a venerable lama is telling his beads.
Tashi-cho-jong is an imposing edifice, in the form of a parallelogram, the sides parallel to the river being twice the length of the other two.


Unlike Paro and Poonakha, the bridge across the Thimbu Chu was not connected with the castle, and below the bridge was a wooden contrivance cleverly constructed to catch the timber floated down the river for the use of the castle.
The interior of the castle is divided into two unequal portions by a high wall, the larger section to the south containing the usual square tower, measuring about 85 feet each way, and in this are situated the chapel and private apartments of the Dharma Raja, the spiritual head of the nation. The original tower was destroyed by the earthquake of 1897 and the present structure was finished about 1902; but it has been badly built and the main walls are already cracked, while the interior showed signs of unequal subsidence.
In the southeast angle of the courtyard beyond are the public or living quarters of the Dharma Raja, and on the west front those of the Thimbu Jongpen, where we were hospitably entertained.
In the center of the inner courtyard is an extremely fine hall of audience or worship, 120 feet square and at least 50 feet high. To my readers who wish to study the subject of Buddhist religion in this part of the world, I cannot give better advice than to read Waddell’s “Lamaism,” as I have no intention of entering deeply into it, and will content myself by saying that in both Sikkim and Bhutan the religion is an offshoot of Buddhism, and was introduced into these countries from Tibet by lamas from different monasteries who traveled south and converted the people.
The form of worship has a curious resemblance in many particulars to that of the Catholic church.
View of Paro Jong, showing one of the outlying protecting forts on the hill and a stone embankment to keep the river in its proper bed and prevent its overflow. Another view of Paro Jong, giving some idea of its height above the river, and also showing a small temple built in a cleft of the rock on the river bank. Experience some of the earth's most sacred sites featuring artifacts from around the world.
The United States is home to followers of hundreds of religious faiths, yet few know much about their neighbors’ beliefs, practices or traditions.
Each year more than 330 million people around the world journey to sacred places as part of their religious commitments. Recreated places, spaces, and events will invite visitors to learn more about the history and beliefs that support spiritual practices that take place at home and within congregations.
The exhibit will come to life through the personal stories of children and families who participate in sacred journeys or practices. Among the artifacts featured in the 7,000-square-foot exhibition are fragments of the Dead Sea scrolls from Qumran, Israel, a large 1,300 pound stone from the Western Wall in Jerusalem, Jewish devotional objects taken into space by former astronaut David Wolf, the trunk Brigham Young carried from New York to Utah, a piece of the Kiswah (a gold-embroidered fabric, which drapes the Kaaba in Mecca), a throne built for the Dalai Lama’s U.S.
Creating the exhibit, staff of The Children’s Museum of Indianapolis worked closely with local religious leaders and a national panel of academic scholars, who are experts in the fields of humanities, theology, world cultures, and religious studies.
National Geographic is a global nonprofit membership organization driven by a passionate belief in the power of science, exploration and storytelling to change the world. The Children’s Museum of Indianapolis is a nonprofit institution committed to creating extraordinary learning experiences across the arts, sciences, and humanities that have the power to transform the lives of children and families. Hindu god Ganesh at The Children's Museum of Indianapolis as part of National Geographic Sacred JourneysAfter the statue of Ganesh is submerged in water, some believe the Hindu god grants worshippers good fortune.Gold embroidered Kiswah cloth is one of the artifacts on display at The Children's Museum of Indianapolis as part of National Geographic Sacred JourneysThe Islamic faith requires followers to complete the Hajj at least once in their lifetime.
Reach out to the author: contact and available social following information is listed in the top-right of all news releases. Behind is seen one of the beautiful embroidered banners, his mitre and scarf on the left, the paraphernalia of office on the table, including a double drum and bell. The two men developed a friendship and the king invited White to  his coronation and spent much time showing the visitor around his palaces, introducing him to the country’s arts and rituals, offering traditional food and ale (sipped from a bamboo mug called a choonga), sharing books and rare manuscripts from the royal library about the history of Bhutan. An engineer by profession, he was particularly interested in bridges, buildings and roads, and he marveled at the ingenuity of the irrigation systems. With open mind, curiosity, and willingness to observe and understand the people of Bhutan, he was the exemplar of National Geographic’s mission to explore and illuminate the diversity of cultures and places. By correspondence I had kept up the friendly intercourse begun by my predecessor and friend, the late Mr.
Sir Ugyen, his council, the Deb Raja, and all the lamas (monks) combined to make my visits both most interesting and enjoyable and treated me royally throughout. In the following spring I was sent by the government of India to present the insignia of a Knight Commander of the Indian Empire to the Tongsa Penlop, and to do this I traveled from my headquarters, the residency at Gangtok, in Sikkim, crossing the Natu-la Pass to Chumbi via Hah, Paro, Tashi-cho-jong to Poonakha, and on to Tongsa and Byagha, and on my return journey from Tashi-cho-jong northward up the valley of the Tchin-chu into Tibet. In the same year I also traveled from Dewangiri through Chungkar, Tashi-gong, Tashiyangtsi, across the Dong-la to Lhuntsi; Pangkha, Singhi-jong, and across the Bad-la into Tibet.
I had every opportunity of judging, as I entered numerous houses and temples in all parts of the country, and invariably found them clean and tidy.
A great part of the country is under cultivation, and they raise sufficient crops to support the whole population, including the lamas, who are a great burden to the State.
They are fond of their beer, but there is no great harm in that, and small wonder they are thirsty after toiling up the hills with their loads. This is the orchid of which one specimen reached England about 1860 in a consignment sent from Sikkim by Sir Joseph Hooker, but had since become extinct, and for which $5,000 was offered by orchid-growers.
If these forests, with the water power at hand on all sides, were properly worked, they ought to supply all the tea districts in India with boxes, and would then soon bring in some of the much-needed revenue to Bhutan; but European capital and supervision are absolutely necessary or otherwise the forests will be destroyed.
They are, however, the haunt of almost every kind of wild animal—elephant, rhino, tiger, leopard, bison, mythun, sambur, cheetah, hog-deer, barking deer, etc.
The wind rapidly became a veritable hurricane and the temperature dropped to -26° Fahrenheit.
The stag was reported to have a magnificent head, and as I have seen specimens with antlers measuring 64 inches, he was a trophy worth trying for.
The town is very dirty, the dirtiest I have come across, and the people living in it are also dirty; but it is difficult to keep clean at an elevation of over 15,000 feet, in such a climate, with no fuel except yak’s dung, with its accompaniment of acrid smoke. We traveled through wonderful scenery, crossing and recrossing torrents and surrounded by pine forests.
The fort is magnificently situated on a projecting spur in the middle of the valley, with high snow peaks on either side and lovely views looking down the valley. Around each of these towers, near the top, a broad ledge projects, the edges of which are fortified by a mud wall, with loop-holes adapted to the use of the bow and arrow or of muskets. This view gives a very good idea of the sloping architecture of the walls and the projecting roofs, made of split pine. The jongpen, who was appointed by, and is a staunch adherent of, the Tongsa Penlop, Sir Ugyen, and had been to Lhasa in the latter’s suite, received us cordially, and entertained us with a Bhutanese lunch of scrambled eggs and sweet rice, colored with saffron, accompanied by murwah (beer) and chang (spirit), also colored with saffron, fresh milk, and a desert of walnuts and dried fruits. A silversmith and a wood-turner were also at work, and in the inner courtyard were piles of shingles (pieces of flat wood) ready for reroofing the castle, which has to be entirely redone every five years. The road was reported to be very bad, and it certainly was, and I was glad I had not brought my own animals, but had borrowed mules from the jongpen for all our party. The main temple is erected on what is practically a crack in a perpendicular rock over 2,000 feet in height, and along the crack there are a few more subsidiary buildings.
The only approach was by a narrow path or series of steps, where a foot misplaced would precipitate you to the bottom, 1,000 feet below, then across a plank bridge, and up another series of little steps cut in the rock. The entrance, the surroundings, the way the trees are grown, is much more like a Japanese temple than anything I have seen elsewhere in Bhutan. The cave is not large; and in it was a gilded chorten filled with small images of Buddha in copper gilt, each seated on a lotus and many of very good design. My servants were very anxious to secure one of these treasures, and climbed to an almost inaccessible point in the rocks in search of them, but without success. Around us on all sides were spurs, with other monasteries and nunneries, but they were all more or less difficult of access and our time would not admit of further delay; so we were obliged to return, leaving them unvisited. All our mules, as well as those belonging to Ugyen Kazi and to the penlops, each had a ration of two or three raw eggs. The streak of white in the left-hand bottom corner is a string of printed prayers stretched across the gorge.
Prayer flags are dotted about on poles, and to the right of the main building is a “Gyantsin,” or circular sacred hanging. The only entrance is from the hillside above the third story, the lower stories being used entirely as storehouses for grain, etc. A series of rooms and verandas overlooking the river is built against the inside of the east and north outer walls, and a covered veranda, one story in height, occupies nearly the whole western front.
To add to this impression, the reception room was large and handsomely decorated, and the walls were hung with arms of all descriptions—shields, spears, matchlocks, guns, bows and arrows of every imaginable kind—all well kept and ready for use. According to the usual custom, I made him some presents, and shortly after took my leave, receiving permission to inspect the fort and to pay a visit to his private house across the valley.


On the first floor is the temple, the gompa, or public chapel, of which is a very finely proportioned hall, well lighted, and with galleries running round the main building.
At the other end of the west veranda is the private chapel of the Ta-tshangs, or state lamas, and there we were received by their head, the Abbot Lama Kun-yang Namgyel, who went to Lhasa with the Tibet Mission and exercised a good influence among the monks there.
In the northeast corner are the rooms for distinguished guests, and there is a guard-house in the parade ground beyond the drawbridge. No female is allowed to enter the fort, and at night the gates are closed and opened for no one. En route we camped under an immense “weeping cypress,” 51 feet in girth at 4 feet from the ground, and the latter part of the march before reaching the castle was most interesting, as we passed through country replete with historic interest connected with the different battles which had taken place between rival clans for its possession, fortunately now things of the past. The northern and smaller portion of the castle is occupied entirely by the Ta-tshang lamas and is not usually open to laymen.
It is well lighted and finely decorated with fresco paintings, and when the silken ceiling cloths and embroidered curtains and banners are hung it must look extremely well; but the lamas were absent at Poonakha, their summer quarters, and all the decorations were either carefully put away or taken with them. One of these was a splendid example of good Bhutanese art; its door-handles, of pierced iron-work inlaid with gold, were exceptionally beautiful. Most of the tenets of Buddha have been set aside, and those retained are lost in a mass of ritual; so nothing remains of the original religion but the name. On any of their high holy days the intoning of the chief lama conducting the service, the responses chanted by the choir, sometimes voices alone, sometimes to the accompaniment of instruments, where the deep note of the large trumpet strangely resembles the roll of an organ, the ringing of bells, burning of incense, the prostrations before the altar, the telling of beads and burning of candles, the processions of priests in gorgeous vestments, and even the magnificent altars surmounted by images and decorated with gold and silver vessels, with lamps burning before them, even the side chapels with the smaller shrines, where lights burn day and night, add to the feeling that one is present at some high festival in a Catholic place of worship. The forts are painted a dull light gray on the lower stories, with a broad band of madder red above, clearly shown in this photograph. Connecting with these experiences will allow visitors to learn how pilgrimage and revered artifacts reflect religious traditions and the cultures associated with those religions. The advisors shaped exhibit content to ensure that the most authentic artifacts, texts and other exhibit elements were selected and portrayed in the appropriate manner so they may be understood by families who come to the exhibit with diverse perspectives. You and your guide will plan a private day-and-a-half-long expedition wherever the six of you wish to explore. White’s enduring teaching is that Bhutan is a unique place of adventure and research, abundantly characteristic to merit special exploration.
A wooden shingle roof protects the timber from the elements and the ends are guarded by blockhouses. In many of the houses the floors were washed and polished, and the refreshments they hospitably pressed on me were served in spotlessly clean dishes. I have drunk many a choonga (bamboo mug) full of the mild ale myself and been none the worse for it.
I had been on the lookout for it for several years, and now, when I did find it, I was just too late, as it had been discovered during the survey of the Am-mo-chu Valley a few months before. The river beds are full of runs leading to the various salt-licks which occur in the hills.
It is an ideal place for shooting, but not easy to follow game, owing to the extreme steepness of the sandstone cliffs. A roaring torrent close to our halting place, which at first kept us awake, gradually became more and more silent as the cold increased, and by morning it was frozen solid.
They, however, saw nothing of him and, greatly to my relief, came in the next day none the worse for their rough experience. The roofs are reshingled every fifth year and are weighed down with tons of stones to withstand the fierce winds in these high altitudes.
His wife, who prepared the meal, was one of the cleanest and best-looking women I have seen in Bhutan; and her little boy, wearing an exact copy, in miniature, of his father’s dress, was a nice little chap.
The road to the top of the spur was very steep, with frozen, slippery patches, where it was shady and very hot in the sun. Every natural feature in the landscape had been taken advantage of, and beautiful old trees clinging to the rocks were in just the right position and, combined with the sheer precipices, made a magnificent picture. The native hospital assistant had accompanied our party so far, but this was too much for him.
The other buildings were for the most part ordinary temples, with frescoed walls and altars, with butter-lamps and incense burning, and in the principal one there was a very fine brass Buddha of more than life size, surrounded by his satellites.
378) and dreary and uninviting, with long icicles hanging from the roof, and we did not attempt to visit it.
It was a place that would take days to explore and would well repay the trouble, especially to an artist in search of the beautiful and unusual.
The chapel was gaily decorated with fresco paintings in good taste, while the hangings round the altar were overlaid with wrought brass open-work superior to anything that I had seen in Lhasa; but in sharp contrast the side altars were adorned with four gaudy green porcelain parrots.
The fort is protected on the side away from the river by several small outlying blockhouses. In this house the jongpen lives amicably with two wives, the younger one being the daughter of the elder woman by a former husband.
Instead of only one gate, it possesses two large gateways on the south, and another to the east, on the river face. The dividing wall is surmounted by a row of white chortens, or shrines, protected from the weather by a double roof.
It was said to contain 1,000 images of Buddha, and the number is very likely correct, as I counted over 600, while the pair of elephant’s tusks supporting the altar, which I have remarked as an essential ornament to the chief altar in every Bhutanese chapel I have visited, were larger than usual. With the support of its members and donors, the Society works to inspire, illuminate and teach through scientific expeditions, award-winning journalism, education initiatives and more. A replica of the Shroud is on display with this xray image at The Children's Museum of Indianapolis.Replica Shroud of Turin on display at The Children's Museum of Indianapolis as part of National Geographic Sacred JourneysSome believe the Shroud of Turin is an old linen cloth that bears the image of Jesus Christ in which he was wrapped and then buried.
He traversed Bhutan with the assistance of guides and bearers, sometimes using elephants and yaks to get himself and his heavy photographic equipment around.
E., the Tongsa Penlop, was about to be installed as gyalpo (king), or Maharaja of Bhutan, and this was accompanied by a pressing invitation that I should personally be present, and to my great gratification I was deputed head of a mission representing the government of India at the ceremony. The elephant in its wild state can go over or down nearly anything, and the tusker I mentioned I found had gone up a precipice 30 feet high at an angle very little short of perpendicular.
On the east side the rock is rough and steep, and close under the walls on the west is a large basin of water, the only reservoir I had seen in Bhutan. It ran in one place in a narrow path across a precipice, with a tremendous drop below, and in another became a series of steep stone steps. He said he had been in many bad places, but never such a bad one as this, and he turned back to where the mules were waiting.
There were also some unusually good specimens of dorjes (thunderbolts) and purpas (daggers), both of which are used in the temple services. We, however, climbed to the top of the precipice to visit the monastery of Sang-tog-peri, which was most picturesquely situated on a projecting spur, with a fine old oak overhanging the entrance. The Bhutanese always give this to their animals when they have any extra hard work to do, and say it keeps them in excellent condition; and certainly all their mules were in first-rate condition. On the ridge below we were greeted with salvos of artillery, fired from iron tubes bound with leather, and I wondered whether these could be the leather cannon of which we heard so much in the Chinese-Gurkha war. The elder woman was intelligent and had a great deal to say, but the younger one was shy and very silent.
The new exhibit reflects this diversity of religious and spiritual pilgrimage through immersive environments created with photography from National Geographic. Paul, and on meeting Sir Ugyen for the first time in the Chumbi Valley, at time of the Lhasa Expedition, our acquaintance ripened into firm friendship on both sides. The mission traveled through Phari, in the Chumbi Valley, across the Temo-la to Paro, and by my old route to Poonakha, and then leaving my escort and companions I returned by a new and unknown route via Bite Jong and Dungna-Jong to Jaigoan, in the plains of India.
It reminded me of some of the Japanese temples in Kioto, in the way the natural features of the ground had been utilized to beautify the entrance.
Families will be able to observe, discuss, and begin to understand some of the beliefs and sacred journeys made by people around the world.




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