The Amazon Basin in the north and the Paraguay River Basin in the south would become Atlantic inlets, wiping out Buenos Aires, coastal Uruguay, and most of Paraguay. Compared with other continents, Africa would lose less of its land to the ultimate sea-level catastrophe, but Earth’s rising heat might make much of it uninhabitable. Land now inhabited by 600 million Chinese would flood, as would all of Bangladesh, population 160 million, and much of coastal India. Predominantly desert, the continent would gain a new inland sea—but it would lose much of the narrow coastal strip where four out of five Australians now live. Like the Greenland ice sheet, the West Antarctic one was apparently much smaller during earlier warm periods. The last time Earth was free of ice was more than 34 million years ago, in the Eocene epoch. Core samples, tide gauge readings, and, most recently, satellite measurements tell us that over the past century, the Global Mean Sea Level (GMSL) has risen by 4 to 8 inches (10 to 20 centimeters).
There is enough water stored in the East Antarctic ice sheet to raise sea levels by 164 feet (50 meters). Ninety percent of the large predators in the ocean are gone and their populations have collapsed. Watch this video where Mel, the “very weird” fish, will show you how marine reserves can help fish populations recover, and why we need many more. Help protect the last healthy, undisturbed places in the ocean so we can learn how to help healthy reefs thrive, help unhealthy reefs recover, and better preserve the ocean. Explore the world's oceans, from their prehistoric beginnings to modern-day efforts to preserve their natural wonder.
Immerse yourself in the wonders of the deep through colorful maps, photos, and satellite images. The National Geographic Society’s freshwater initiative is a multi-year global effort to inspire and empower individuals and communities to conserve freshwater and preserve the extraordinary diversity of life that rivers, lakes, and wetlands sustain. In Manhattan, Sandy’s surging tide knocked out a Con Ed substation, darkening the city below Midtown. After a long day of organizing relief efforts, Brandon d’Leo, a surfer and sculptor, rests in his candlelit apartment in the Rockaway Beach neighborhood of Queens, New York. Go behind-the-scenes with our storytellers and join conversations about photography, art, and journalism.
These cypress trees in a marsh east of New Orleans probably succumbed to salty water seeping in from the Gulf of Mexico even before Hurricane Katrina hit in 2005. This abandoned channel, known as MRGO, was once a shortcut for ships to the Gulf of Mexico. The 11 diesel pumps housed in another new storm-surge barrier, this one south of New Orleans, can discharge 150,000 gallons of floodwater per second. A seawall now protects Maale, capital of the Maldives, an Indian Ocean archipelago that is the lowest, flattest country on Earth. Dangerously exposed to the next typhoon, squatter families crowd waterfront shanties in Manila, the Philippines. For nearly a thousand years the Dutch have been reclaiming land from the sea—and occasionally losing some. Small docks and communal walkways link the floating houses built on a lake in east Amsterdam. An abandoned house still stands on Tiengemeten Island in South Holland, where the government intentionally broke the dikes to create a rare slice of wilderness in a country shaped by humans.
The Latin name for great white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, literally means "ragged tooth," an understandable moniker.
Ice sheets surrounding the North and South poles make up 10 per cent of our entire planeta€™s surface, and ita€™s thought Earth contains five million cubic miles of frozen water - so what would happen if it all melted? National Geographic recently created a series of maps similar to Mr VargicA?s, demonstrating the catastrophic effect EarthA?s ice could cause if it melted and flowed into the oceans and seas. Scientists believe it could take around 5,000 years for temperatures to rise significantly enough to melt all the ice on the planet, but claim the planet is already seeing the beginnings of this.
The EPA claims that overall ice reduction depends on several factors, including the rate at which levels of greenhouse gases rise and how global temperatures react to this increase in gas.


The largest concentrations of ice on Earth are found in Greenland and Antarctica, pictured. This rise in greenhouse gases could be caused by humans, as National Geographic explained: a€?If we burn all the Eartha€™s supply of coal, oil, and gas, adding some five trillion more tonnes of carbon to the atmosphere, wea€™ll create a very hot planet with an average temperature of perhaps 80 degrees Fahrenheit instead of the current 58. In the east, parts of Asia, including China and Bangladesh would be completely flooded, wiping out around 760 million people based on current population levels.
The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. If we continue adding carbon to the atmosphere, we’ll very likely create an ice-free planet, with an average temperature of perhaps 80 degrees Fahrenheit instead of the current 58.
In California, San Francisco's hills would become a cluster of islands and the Central Valley a giant bay. The inundation of the Mekong Delta would leave Cambodia's Cardamom Mountains stranded as an island. It's vulnerable because most of it sits on bedrock that's below sea level.The warming ocean is melting the floating ice sheet itself from below, causing it to collapse. There are more than five million cubic miles of it, and no one really knows how long it would take to melt it all. The trend, linked to global warming, puts thousands of coastal cities, like Venice, Italy, (seen here during a historic flood in 2008), and even whole islands at risk of being claimed by the ocean. The reason for this is that we have taken too many fish out of the sea, and we keep taking more before the remaining populations are able to reproduce.
It was no longer a hurricane—but it was a thousand miles wide, with 80-mile-an-hour winds that drove the sea onto the coast in lethal surges. Private generators provided some light, including the blue glow of the new World Trade Center, whose base is three feet above sea level.
Like many of his neighbors, d’Leo lost electricity for a few days—and heat and hot water for more than two months—after Sandy pounded the community.
But when Katrina’s storm surge breached a nearby levee, it dealt a devastating blow to the rest of the marsh. Petersburg, Russia, from Baltic Sea storms, which have flooded it repeatedly over the past three centuries.
A catastrophic flood that killed more than 1,800 people in 1953 spurred the country to develop the world’s most elaborate and sophisticated system of dikes and other defenses. Dikes and continuous pumping keep more than a quarter of the country from reverting to swamp or open water.
Secured by sliding collars to steel pilings, the houses can rise and fall during floods and storms.
National Geographic has created a series of interactive maps demonstrating the catastrophic effect Eartha€™s ice could cause if it melted and flowed into the oceans and seas.
Over the past century, reports suggest the Earth's temperature has increased by around half a degree Celsius and, according to the U.S. If this happened again, the entire Atlantic seaboard in the U.S would vanish, wiping out Florida and the Gulf Coast.
Warming oceans are already melting the floating ice sheet in west Antarctica and since 1992, National Geographic reports the sheet loses around 65 million metric tonnes each year. But the planet slowly cooled as carbon dioxide rained from the air and was locked up in seafloor sediments. Over the past century, the burning of fossil fuels and other human and natural activities has released enormous amounts of heat-trapping gases into the atmosphere. Global warming drives that in two basic ways: by warming the ocean and by melting ice on land, which adds more water.
Along with an intersecting channel, the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, it funneled floodwater into the eastern parts of the city. Completed in 2011, the gates are part of a 16-mile-long flood barrier that also carries a new highway. The most critical structures are built to withstand a 1-in-10,000-year storm.?Here, rows of pilings along a Dutch beach trap sand and help build up the coast. This could cause sea levels to rise by 216 feet, devouring cities and even countries all the while drastically altering how continents and coastlines look, and wiping out entire populations.


In Europe, pictured, cities including London and Venice would be lost underwater, as would the whole of the Netherlands and most of Denmark. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this has already caused sea levels to rise by around seven inches. While the hills in San Francisco would become islands and San Diego would be lost foreverIf these sheets melted, it would create a knock-on effect for the rest of the world. National Geographic said: 'If we burn all the Earth's supply of coal, oil, and gas, adding some five trillion more tonnes of carbon to the atmosphere, we'll create a very hot planet with an average temperature of perhaps 80 degrees Fahrenheit instead of the current 58'In Africa, for example, Egypt, Alexandria and Cairo would be flooded but the continent wouldna€™t lose as much of its land to the rising seas. Continental ice sheets formed first in Antarctica, but over the past few million years they’ve repeatedly surged across northern continents too.
These emissions have caused the Earth's surface temperature to rise, and the oceans absorb about 80 percent of this additional heat. The largest concentrations of ice on Earth are found in Greenland and Antarctica but it is also found on exposed areas, on mountain tops and in other regions. In Europe, for example, cities including London and Venice would be lost underwater, as would the whole of the Netherlands and most of Denmark. In the east, China and Bangladesh would both be completely flooded, wiping out around 760 million people based on current population levels.The coastlines of India would also be reduced. National Geographic claims the Eartha€™s rising heat a€?might make much of it inhabitablea€™ though.
Thousands of years from now, in this catastrophic scenario, the Netherlands will have long since surrendered to the sea, and most of Denmark will be gone too.
Meanwhile, the Mediterranean's expanding waters will also have swelled the Black and Caspian Seas. About half of the past century's rise in sea level is attributable to warmer oceans simply occupying more space. Melting of glaciers and polar ice caps: Large ice formations, like glaciers and the polar ice caps, naturally melt back a bit each summer.
But in the winter, snows, made primarily from evaporated seawater, are generally sufficient to balance out the melting. Recently, though, persistently higher temperatures caused by global warming have led to greater-than-average summer melting as well as diminished snowfall due to later winters and earlier springs. This imbalance results in a significant net gain in runoff versus evaporation for the ocean, causing sea levels to rise. Ice loss from Greenland and West Antarctica: As with glaciers and the ice caps, increased heat is causing the massive ice sheets that cover Greenland and Antarctica to melt at an accelerated pace. Scientists also believe meltwater from above and seawater from below is seeping beneath Greenland's and West Antarctica's ice sheets, effectively lubricating ice streams and causing them to move more quickly into the sea. Moreover, higher sea temperatures are causing the massive ice shelves that extend out from Antarctica to melt from below, weaken, and break off. Consequences When sea levels rise rapidly, as they have been doing, even a small increase can have devastating effects on coastal habitats. As seawater reaches farther inland, it can cause destructive erosion, flooding of wetlands, contamination of aquifers and agricultural soils, and lost habitat for fish, birds, and plants.
When large storms hit land, higher sea levels mean bigger, more powerful storm surges that can strip away everything in their path.
In addition, hundreds of millions of people live in areas that will become increasingly vulnerable to flooding. Oceans will likely continue to rise as well, but predicting the amount is an inexact science. More dire estimates, including a complete meltdown of the Greenland ice sheet, push sea level rise to 23 feet (7 meters), enough to submerge London.



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