This report by the Ministry of Home Affairs on disaster management in India is the outcome of an in-house compilation and analysis of information relating to disasters and their management. The perception about disaster and its management has undergone a change following the enactment of the Disaster Management Act, 2005. There was a long felt need to capture information about all such events occurring across the sectors and efforts made to mitigate them in the country and to collate them at one place in a global perspective. India’s geo-climatic conditions as well as its high degree of socio-economic vulnerability, makes it one of the most disaster-prone country in the world. Disasters are sometimes classified according to whether they are “natural” disasters, or “human-made” disasters.
The eleventh five year plan document of Government of India gave impetus to mainstreaming disaster risk reduction as one of the priority programmes in the development planning process and disaster management. To achieve results in these key identified areas, the report suggests certain steps which should be integral to all stages of disaster management. Statistics provide hunting reminder that no country is without risk of being hit by natural disasters.
The Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004 killed over 220,000 people according to the United Nations and made millions homeless, making it one of the deadliest natural disasters in human history. From floods to earthquake to other natural disasters, the past century has seen devastating disasters. About 40% of the eartha€™s land area is threatened by desertification, a term used to define land degradation in which fertile land transforms into desert. As the victims of the Fukushima disaster left their homes and their lives, some of them never to return, the Japanese government slowly egged back to its old ways. The National Diet of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission (NAIIC), the first independent commission established by the parliament to investigate the accident, has shown clearly in its report just how much fault lay with the predicted natural disasters and how much of it was due to the operator's negligence and deceit. As a requisite to the revised anti-seismic guidelines introduced by nuclear regulator, Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC) in 2006, TEPCO submitted anti-seismic back-check reports for its 6 units in 2009 which clearly indicated the lack of several key safety installations and equipments in accordance with the guidelines. The final nail in the coffin, however, is the fact that the regulatory bodies, Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) and NSC, were aware of this non-compliance but chose to go along with it.
If Japan with its global reputation as a technology genius and engineering prodigy, suffered such a setback, what is to stop a similar fate from striking the likes of Indian plants like Koodankulam in Tamil Nadu or Jaitapur in Maharashtra.
The Japanese Nuclear Damage Liability Law allocates exclusive liability in case of a disaster to the operator. The definition of disaster is now all encompassing, which includes not only the events emanating from natural and man-made causes, but even those events which are caused by accident or negligence. A disaster is an extreme disruption of the functioning of a society that causes widespread human, material, or environmental losses that exceed the ability of the affected society to cope with its own resources. A more modern and social understanding of disasters, however, views this distinction as artificial since most disasters result from the action or inaction of people and their social and economic structures.
Floods, earthquakes and cyclones have wreaked havoc across Asia, killing people, wiping out homes, livelihoods and leaving economies in distress. The Tsunami which radiated on 26 December 2004 from the epicenter near the West coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra, slammed into the coastline of 11 Indian Ocean countries, demolishing everything which came in its path. It is estimated that every year about 12 million hectares of fertile land is turning into desert mostly due to deforestation and drought, according to the UN Convention to Combat Desertification.


Not only is China right next to Nepal, the 2008 Shichuan Earthquake happened in remote area as well. After having sworn off nuclear and shutting down all the 48 commercial nuclear plants in Japan following the disaster, the government has reversed track and declared nuclear as a key source of energy in its new 'Basic Energy Plan' introduced on Feb 25, 2014.
The plant operator, Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), has a history of cover ups and lies. None of these structural reinforcements were added to the plant at the time of the disaster.
They chose to grant TEPCO autonomous control on publishing seismic assessment reports, performing structural reinforcements according to the new guidelines and despite being aware that the station lacked proper counter measures in case of a tsunami, insisted that possibility of a total station blackout was very bleak and did not provide any instructions to address the issue. The proposed site for the Jaitapur Nuclear Reactor park is located in a Seismic Zone 4 region and is set to house 6 of the largest reactors in the world; the European Pressurized Reactors. Nuclear technology manufactures, in this case GE, Hitachi and Toshiba, are indemnified from any accountability. Enjoy this exclusive slideshows treat!SUVA: Fiji declared a state of natural disaster on Saturday as severe tropical cyclone Winston hit the South Pacific island country, the government-owned Fiji Broadcasting Corporation ( FBC) confirmed. According to data collected by the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED), human toll from natural disasters in the last 100 years has been staggering. The region occupies 30% of the world's land mass, but 40% of the world's disasters occurred in the region in the past decade, resulting in a disproportionate 80% of the world's disaster deaths.
Major economic losses in the region are predominantly due to earthquakes and tsunamis, the regiona€™s most destructive disasters which ironically also occur frequently. Desertification is aggravated by climate change and human activities and it is estimated that by 2030, water scarcity in some places will displace up to 700 million people.
However, bad weather and communications were hampering more helicopter sorties, said Ang Tshering of the Nepal Mountaineering Association.Fennecs. The plan not only allows for restarting of the plants once they meet the new safety standards, it also provides scope for building of new nuclear reactors, in line with the kind of plan of action such a resource-starved nation needs. In 2002, it was found that TEPCO had submitted falsified safety inspection reports, hiding critical cracks in the reactor vessels at Fukushima I and II. EPR reactors are not operational anywhere in the world which means there is no data available on safety or feasibility of these plants. In this matter, the Indian Nuclear Civil Liability Act was the first of its kind, having introduced a clause for Supplier Liability as well, if the accident takes place due to flawed equipment or poor service. But despite its calamitous force and obvious destruction, it was but a contributing factor to the debacle. As the graph indicates, draughtshave claimed more lives than any other natural disaster in Asia. During the last 10 years, according to the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, majority of deaths in Asia were caused by earthquakes.
On top of the casualties, many more people were reported missing, more than half a million people were left without a home as entire villages were destroyed. To put the financial losses for one year in perspective, in 2012 alone Asia lost US$15 billion due to natural disasters, according to data released by the Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED).
Nine Asian Development Bank member countries including China, India and Pakistan, have large land areas within the arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid zones and therefore, as the table shows, these countries remain most vulnerable to desertification.


Approx 100 dead with six+ in Nepal and rest in Sikkim which sustained extensive infrastructure damage including roads.
Because wasn't the disaster that led to the evacuation of 160,000 evacuees and rendered vast stretches of land uninhabitable for decades, the result of a 9.0 magnitude earthquake and a 10 m tall tsunami. The Mark 1 reactor design chosen for 5 of the 6 reactors at the Daichii Nuclear plant was found to be so flawed by the very designers who modeled it from General Electric; they resigned in protest, convinced that a devastating nuclear accident was inevitable. The quality of construction and safety of the complex at Koodankualm plant has been called into question by the very workers and contractors who worked on the site. If this Bill is diluted, the Indian Nuclear market will be blown wide open with contenders from all over the world tripping over in their haste to get here and set up more and more nuclear plants across the country. Try as it will, TEPCO will not be able to cover up the fact that the damage to the Daichii Nuclear Power Plant had started well before the earthquake ever reached its wall.
Since 1900, droughts have killed 9,663,389 people, floods 6,794,304, earthquakes 1,559,558, cyclones 1,242,150 and Tsunamis 261,915 people. Floods have killed 17,442 people while as cyclones were responsible for 13,368 deaths in the region. Besides devastating parts of Indonesia, the tsunami wreaked havoc in Sri Lanka, India and Thailand and in many other countries. This is a drop from 2011, when the region recorded a staggering $300 billion loss mostly due to Japana€™s tsunami and Thailanda€™s floods.
India with a total of 1,649,557 square kilometers of areas is topping the list of extremely vulnerable countries to desertification. Already, the country's nuclear capacity is set to increase to 63,000 MW by 2032 from the current 4,780 MW. The region remains exposed to more natural disasters and according to the Asian Development Bank, the regiona€™s economic progress will be undermined by the rising number of floods, landslides and other disasters.
As the graph shows, earthquakes have led to massive loss of human lives in China, Pakistan, Indonesia and India.
The unprecedented geographical scope and the number of people killed made the Tsunami one of the worst natural disasters in Asia.
If you look at the larger picture, disasters have taken a heavy toll on the regiona€™s economy in the last 100 years.
The table provides an overview of the total land area of Asian countries and land vulnerable to desertification. Both coasts where the two plants are located have a history of earthquakes and tsunamis of high intensities and frequencies.
That provides a stark reminder that Asiaa€™s many densely populated and expanding coastal cities will in particular remain vulnerable to weather-related disasters such as storms and floods.
The graph demonstrates that Indonesia was the hardest-hit country by the Tsunami, followed by Sri Lanka, India, Thailand and others.




Disaster planning principles 6th
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