Compared to olden times the occurrence of natural disasters is much less in terms of numbers and intensity, but with human settlements at almost every nook and corner, the need for better management has become acute. In the recent years The Bhuj Earthquake of 26 January 2001, Sumatran earthquake of December 2004 leading to destructive Tsunami which rocked the coastal towns of Indian Peninsula, Kashmir (Pakistan) earthquake of 2005 and Sichuan (China) earthquake of 2008 were some of worst natural disasters. Earthquakes are like Electro-Cardiograms (ECG) of the Earth and each earthquake has a different signature-like a different ECG of a heart patient. An earthquake can not be predicted but detailed post-earthquake damage studies are important for creating a data base that helps in forecasting at least what to expect in a particular type of earthquake.
Tsunami, earthquake, landslide and flood are some of the natural disasters that take a heavy toll of life. For example, the Himalayan states of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand are vulnerable at present for an earthquake of more than 7.5 magnitudes in Mercalli scale. Not only the Himalayan states but even the capital Delhi is very much vulnerable for a very strong earthquake. Although the seismologists do not agree with suggestions about pre-earthquake warnings, but some of the post earthquake investigations have revealed interesting facts. More and more data is pouring in now and the seismologists after turning the pages of information on post earthquake damage studies found that Rayleigh wave (R wave) damage from large magnitude earthquakes has a peculiarity. Our Disaster managers could take a note of these phenomenons some scientifically proven and some yet to be proven and make use of such information in smooth pre-disaster management.
Details of damages caused by Natural disasters by V K Joshi are thought provoking and the measures to be adopted to over come the effects of havocs are really looking to be useful for the future protection of properties and lives all over the world!
You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. Often, natural disasters aren't the main cause of poverty but instead contribute towards it. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Global Interdependence & Economic Transition section. This answer contains some very good explanations of the causes of poverty around the world and shows a sophisticated understanding of the role of history, politics and economics. Characterisation of contemporary forms of development could be perhaps the most significant contribution by 'dependentistas' to the theory of capitalistic societies.
If some particular event is not celebrated, those people of that particular territory will not be pleased, and feel as though they may be less or that the 'higher' people think so. Discuss the impact of the Afghanistan conflict on the economy, society, political and environment.
There is little water available, any refugees use local streams like in a camp near the Afghanistan border where 1000-2000 refugees use a small stream as their source of water for drinking, cleaning and washing. Russia has a huge nuclear weapons arsenal, and vast oil and gas reserves making it globally important. Piracy on the Indian Ocean, off the coast of Somalia, is also a major problem in progress towards development.
Created by teachers, our study guides highlight the really important stuff you need to know. The characteristic spiral banding of dense clouds and rains make cyclonic storms easy to identify.
Had a pre-disaster management exercise been done in the past hundreds of lives could have been saved!
The cardiologist examines the ECG and prescribes medicines or further tests to save the life of the patient. Amongst these an earthquake is the biggest killer, because it catches the population unaware. This scale is based upon how people perceive the magnitude of the earthquake and how it is felt.
Researchers predict that all buildings taller than 17 m in Delhi National Capital Region (NCR) could suffer heavy damage. For example, before Sumatran earthquake the sea surface temperatures (SST) had risen by 5 to 7 degrees Celsius for about a week or so before the occurrence of earthquake.
In 1985 during an earthquake in Mexico city an earthquake of 8.0 magnitude occurred with epicentre at a distance of about 550 km. The possible or rather probable epicenters of future earthquake in the Himalayas are as per the seismologists at locations which make tall structures at Delhi, Noida, Gurgaon, Ghaziabad, Jaipur and Agra are highly vulnerable.
In order to complete the picture the authorities must introduce strict norms of building designs and construction. By Vishal Here is your essay on Land Pollution?The land pollution is caused by solid wastes and chemicals. Emergency and disaster management is a field of study in which people would study the way to make. Afghanistan has a very low GDP per capita, less than $1000, as a result of a corrupt and unstable government, but more particularly war.
The Asian tsunami of 2005 devastated many countries in the Indian Ocean, many of which were already in poverty. However, it is unbalanced in that it gives very little consideration to the roles that natural disasters and lack of access to resources might play (which were key words in the question). It was foreseen how a general trend (industrial capitalism) creates concrete situations of dependency with features distinct from those of advanced capitalist societies.
The third Millennium Development Goal, to promote gender equality and empower women is said to have been achieved already in Thailand and Bangladesh, with countries such as Kenya, Malawi and India lacking behind. The bombings in Afghanistan have resulted with cities like Kabul becoming ruins with the majority of the infrastructure destroyed. Dozens of foreign ships bearing food aid have been waylaid and about 10 billion dollars has been collected through piracy in ransom money and cargo value. All Rights Reserved.Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Likewise it is the duty of the seismologist to study the Earth’s ECG and prescribe safety measures. Amongst such structures communication and electricity transmission towers and school and hospital buildings are most vital. Likewise now there is information availability about the ground shaking and possible damages in Dehradun, Kolkata, Jabalpur and Delhi. With the advanced technology now it is possible to get data on SST and land surface temperatures on hourly basis from satellite pictures. It was found that all structures above the height of 17 m were heavily damaged, while structures of less height remained intact.
If the disaster management teams start taking precautionary measures it can cause panic in the public. Below given is a professionally-written essay sample on the topic of Disaster Management Empirical Study. Poverty can defined in many ways, but one method globally accepted is the International Poverty Line.
After the original offensive against al-Qaeda and its supporters the Taliban, the war turned into a counterinsurgency effort, with the new Afghan government forming a coalition with NATO, in particular the USA and Britain. The disaster knocked the countries further back but it didn't cause their original poverty. Even if the author has strong opinions as to the real causes of poverty, it is still important that the answer should present this side of the argument before reaching a conclusion. Post-disaster damage studies act like post mortem and help in knowing a lot about the pulse of the earth. Such buildings are the places where either injured are hospitalized or school buildings are used as temporary shelters during a hazard emergency.
Data of anticipated ground shaking is being collected for other major earthquake prone towns in the country.
Studies have revealed that the temperatures of the epicentral region during Kashmir earthquake had risen by 8 to 10 degrees Celsius above normal temperatures a day before the earthquake. The finding of relation of R waves and damage to buildings of more than certain heights therefore calls for a revision of the code.
A country is said to be under the line if, on average, people earn less than US$1.08 per day, measured in terms of purchasing power parity. This has had huge repercussions for the country, not just the financial implications of fighting off the insurgent groups, but also the destruction caused to infrastructure, which has effectively ground the Afghan economy to a stand still. There were other more significant factors causing the poverty (such as those mentioned above). Spatial extent upto which the effect of a disastrous event could be felt may easily be classified into small, medium and large scales. Many people died, several lost their homes and the entire state was thrown into chaos as there was an outbreak of epidemics and a breakdown of law and order, with gangs going around looting houses and shops.Unfortunately the disaster management left much to be desired.
Linkages between environment, natural disasters and development need to be clearly established to mitigate disasters and to improve environment.(2) The main thrust should be shifted from Disaster Relief to Disaster Mitigation.
In addition in case the earthquake occurs during the school hours, as it did in case of Sichuan earthquake the loss of lives could be stupendous if the structures are weak or wrongly located.
This further confirms the observation of some of the scientists that temperatures in the epicentral region considerably rise before the occurrence of an earthquake. The R wave damage in Gujarat in areas beyond 150 km from the epicenter and less than 550 km affected structures more than 17 m high, and tall buildings in Ahmedabad about 320 km from the epicenter suffered heavy damage. These precursors though not yet accepted by the seismologists are often sure shot indicators of the impending disaster.
Therefore public awareness is a must and constant programmes in the television, radio and news reports can help in making the masses aware about the earthquake hazard and also learn dos and don’ts. Everyone knows well that a house on the river bank will be flood prone, but no one seems bother and maps for such dwellings are cleared.
Free disaster papers, essays, and research papers Resilience and Vulnerability in Urban Disaster Management - In recent years, the term resilience. Although natural disasters are particularly competent at causing huge scale destruction, it is difficult to support the claim that they are the main cause of poverty as the USA, arguably the most developed country in the world, has had a troubled past in regards to major disasters.
The phenomenon extending from a few kilometers to a few tens of kilometers are termed as small scale.Growing industrialisation and unjustified exploitation of natural resources have brought our echo system to a verge of non-reversibility and imbalance. Though its form may be varied, it has been a challenge for society across castes, creeds, communities and countries. If proper measures had been taken it would have considerably lessened the casualties and damage.
All developmental projects in vulnerable areas should be linked with and used to the maximum extent possible for disaster mitigation. The earthquake had triggered a large number of landslides, which blocked the roads and snapped the communication and power lines.
Similarly during the Kashmir (Pakistan) earthquake a ten story building in Islamabad was collapsed completely. In China before the last major earthquake it was seen by the people that frogs began to leave the ponds hours before the earthquake.
Involving school children in such awareness programmes will not help the present generation but also create an aware and hazard educated future generation.
Similarly, although a lack of resources can be a strain on a developing country, there are more important explanations for poverty, such as colonialism, unfair trade, war, political instability and AIDS. Having an abundance of natural resources is a huge benefit for developing countries, such as the huge fortune that the OPECs are reigning in from oil wells.
The latest development which has been discovered in the World Disaster Reports recently is that the disasters have increased in frequency and intensity.People are becoming more and more vulnerable to disasters of all types, including earthquake, flood, cyclones, landslides, droughts, accidents, plane crash, forests fire, etc. In December 2004, many parts of Asia, including India, were devastated by a massive tsunami.People taking their morning walks on the Marina beach in Chennai and those who had come for morning mass at the Velankanni shrine in Nagapattinam met a watery grave.
Similarly during an earthquake of 6.25 magnitude at Bhutan in 2009 a tall building at Guwahati tilted by about 5 degree.
The most significant cause of global poverty is colonialism, in particular that which occurred during the late 19th century. These are less significant than the political factors, as often they are caused by political decisions, such as trading patterns and debt, and they have less severe consequences.
However, at the same time, the middle east is the centre of an increasingly large number of conflicts with many countries concerned with the future of their energy security. In the eventuality of an earthquake damage in the epicentral areas in these states would be of an astronomical order. Apart from animals even abnormal human behavior prior to major earthquake too has been recorded.
From 1450 European powers began invading and colonising countries, culminating in the 'scramble for Africa' in the 1870s.
That is not to say that they aren't important, Aids has huge implications and is currently wreaking havoc throughout Africa.
A lack of resources and natural disasters are both less significant than some of the other factors mentioned above, such as colonialism and political instability, however they are strong contributing factors. Unless sufficient advance notice is available, evacuation of the population likely to be affected cannot be undertaken.There are two aspects of early warning system. When they occur they surpass all preparedness and eagerness of society and pose bigger challenge to them. It is reported that prior to Latur, Bhuj and Andaman earthquakes there was a sudden spurt in the rate of deliveries by five to seven times than daily average. Disaster management essay topics Find some interesting essay topics, essay format examples and sampleRead more Concept of Disaster Management New Orientation … Coping with Disaster - Coping with Disaster This paper will discuss Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Management that are. Download white papers and thought leadership papers to help emergency managers and first responders.
An estimated 50million people have the disease and it is causing millions of child-headed families.
One is the availability of an effective technique to forecast the disaster with its extent and the other is effective communication of the same to the civil authority responsible for rescue operations.In some phenomena, such as cyclones, flood, etc. Yet another phenomenon noticed by radio buffs is that prior to an earthquake Radio transmission gets affected.
As the children have to work to support their brothers and sisters, they can't gain an education and thus can't get improve their standard of living and earn a good wage. It is important to note that poverty is never caused by a single one of the factors mentioned above. The floods in UK, France, and heat wave in Europe, particularly in France in 2003, claimed more than 35000 lives. A before the Haiti earthquake on 12 January, 2010 radio communication was heavily affected and at times even blocked. Poverty is caused by a combination of factors, but as some are more significant than natural disasters and a lack of resources, it is clear that I disagree with the statement in question. In the year 2006, America had to face bigger disaster in the form of tornadoes and other cyclones.
Disaster has been defined in … Direct delivery of the courses can reduce downtime involving low productivity and helps to eliminate travel costs.
On the contrary, in earthquakes no proven methods has yet been evolved to give any prior warning and so post-hazard mitigation is the only alternative.Role of Communication For a developing country like India, the role of communication in disaster mitigation is extremely critical. All these are sufficient to prove that technological mechanisms are inadequate.There is a direct correlation between higher human development and higher preparedness.
These include earthquakes, cyclones, flooding, etc.Man-made disasters mostly involve train accidents or gas leaks in factories (example, Union Carbide tragedy). Natural disasters come in many forms such as earthquakes, tornados, floods, blizzards, fi Topics.
The countries which have lesser human development are more vulnerable to risks of disasters and damage.
Bioterrorism, pandemics, radiation emergencies and terrorist attacks like the recent Mumbai incidents also are man-made disasters.
These can neither be provided in a short span of time available for mitigation nor are there resources to do so.We have to depend on existing links, many of which completely break down during the disaster.
Of all the disasters, floods are the most common followed by wind storms, droughts and earthquakes. As the pressure to exploit marginal lands heightens and more people migrate to urban areas, the potential for future disasters only goes up.The national policy for disaster management seeks to address concerns like preparedness for disaster, loss of lives, damage to property and economic disruption. But the drought is the deadliest disaster which accounts for 48 per cent of all deaths from natural disasters. In any disaster, arrangements have to be made to rescue people from the disaster area and move them to safe locations. The only effective communication which is likely to remain completely or partially unaf­fected is the satellite link.This assumes that the earth stations at the two ends are suitably located to remain unaffected. Example Essay on Disaster Management Reflections: The earth has been affected by the natural hazards over a long time as man emerged.
Example Essay on Disaster Management Reflections The earth has been affected by the natural hazards over a long time as man emerged into picture the picture Management Essays - Emergency Planning - The basis of this paper deals with the emergency planning techniques of both the private and the federal sector.

Experience has shown that it remains completely unaffected under the severest cyclonic condition.
Its long coastline, snowclad high peaks, high mountain ranges, the perennial rivers in the north all combine to add to this problem. This may include providing new homes and alternate jobs for them (in case their livelihood has been affected).In India, the role of disaster or emergency management is performed by the National Disaster Management of India, a government agency under the Ministry of Home affairs.
Essays - largest database of quality sample essays and research papers on Simple Essay On Disaster Management Check out our top Free Essays on Disaster Management to help you write your own Essay Emergency management is a broad term that is used to define accident or disaster preparedness in an organization, or institutions. India, which has only two per cent the total geographical area, has to support 16 per cent of total world population. Earlier there was a government-centered approach but now the focus is on decentralized community participation.Recently, the Government has formed the Emergency Management and Research Institute (EMRI). Naturally, there is a tremendous pressure on the natural resources, which directly or indirectly lead to the occurrence of disasters, namely floods, droughts, landslides, earthquakes, etc.Like human population, India has to support large cattle population, which also heavily depends on biomass and graze into forest area.
A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts. The only addition required is the missing link between the nearest earth station to police headquarters. The forest cover with more than 0.4 densities is 12 per cent of the land area, though forest, at present, is 23 per cent. Natural disasters cause immense losses in terms of human lives and the destruction of both property and livelihoods, especially. Due to overgrazing the quality of soil is also degrading resulting in soil erosion, silting of rivers, and removal of fertile soil and heavy silting of cultivable land. It has provided emergency management training for first responders (a first in India), created a single emergency telephone number, and established standards for EMS staff, equipment and training. The earth has been affected by the natural hazards over a long time as man emerged into picture the picture that the natural occurrences. We see heavy rainfall during the monsoon, sometimes 100 cm rain in 36 hours or getting the whole monsoon rain two to three days like the ones in Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Kolkata. From the region wise analysis, it is clear that northern region of India is faced with problems of avalanches, landslides, floods, drought and earthquakes because this region fall under the seismic zones III to V.The Eastern region is confronted with the heavy floods in the perennial rivers of Brahmaputra, Ganga, etc. According to this theory, when the molten mass that was the earth billions of years ago cooled down, the crust that was formed was not one homogenous piece but broken into about a dozen large plates and several smaller ones with their thickness ranging from 30 km down to the lithosphere at depth of about 100 km or so.The plates are in incessant motion, with speeds of about 1 cm to 5 cm a year. Drought, heat wave, hailstorm, cyclone, heavy wind and earthquake are also common in this region. This mobile jigsaw puzzle is what is termed as the continental drift, which results in the formation of mountains, midoceanic ridges, ocean trenches, volcanoes and seismic energy build­up.
The Northeastern region faces the natural disaster in the form of flood, landslides, wind outrage, earthquake as most of this part of the country comes under the seismic zones IV and V.The Western region is widely known for severe drought, wind erosion of land and soil, flood and cyclone.
The increase in unpredictable natural disasters events for a decade has led to put the disaster preparedness as a central issue in disaster management. Where two places converge or collide, a deep trench forms and one plate is deflected downwards into the asthenosphere which lies below the crust and the lithosphere.When two thick continential plates collide, rocks on the land are relatively light and too buoyant to descend into the asthenosphere.
Below given is a professionally-written essay sample on the topic of Disaster Management: Empirical Study. The Southern region, particularly the coastal region is vulnerable to cyclones, sea erosion, tsunami, landslides. And this is how the Himalayas have emerged or, in fact, are continuing to emerge.As the deformation of the plate margins goes on, energy builds up in rocks in the form of elastic strain which continues till it exceeds their elastic limits and the rocks give way. The islands of Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep are confronted with the problems of sea erosion and tsunami.
The sudden release of stored elastic energy causes earthquakes.Earthquakes in India are caused by the release of elastic strain energy created and replenished by the stresses from the collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate. Indian coastal areas faced some of the severest cyclones both in Eastern coast and Western coast. The most intense earthquakes occur on the boundaries of the Indian plate to the east, north and west.In the Indian plate, faults are created when this rubs against the Eurasian plate.
One of the natural disasters, namely the volcanoes is in the barren island in Andaman group of islands which periodically become active.In recent times, it was active in 2005.
Among all the disasters, tsunami is the latest phenomena, which was never seen or heard earlier. The majority of the earthquakes occur along plate boundaries.)Earthquakes are also caused by volcanic activity. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Essay.
A few recent disasters faced by India include Uttar Kasha earthquake in UP in 1991, Later earthquake in Maharashtra in 1993, Chama earthquake in Gujarat, super cyclone in Orissa in 1999, Buhl earthquake in Gujarat in 2001, Tsunami in 2004 and Mumbai-Gujarat flood in 2005. 327 Words Short Essay on the … Disaster management (or emergency management ) is the creation of plans through which communities reduce vulnerability to hazards and cope with disasters.
Besides, India has a bad experience of technology-related tragedy in the form of gas tragedy in Bhopal in 1984. India also faced the problem of Plague in Gujarat.The direct or indirect impacts of disasters, either natural or technological, are always damage, destruction and death. The occurrence of maximum number of earthquakes in this region is due to four ideal conditions—(i) Junction of continental and oceanic margins(ii) Zone of young folded mountains(iii) Zone of active volcanoes(iv) Subduction zone of destructive or convergent plate boundariesMid-Continental Belt:Also called the Mediterranean Belt or Alpine-Himalayan Belt, it accounts for about 21 per cent of the total seismic shocks. At the occurrence of disaster, everything goes haywire in view of the destruction of lifeline support systems, namely communication, power supply, water supply, drainage, etc. This belt represents the zone of moderate and shallow focus earthquakes—the reason for this being the creation of transform faults and fractures because of splitting of plates followed by their movement in the opposite direction.Based on seismic data and different geological and geophysical parameters, the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) had initially divided the country into five seismic zones. In 2003, however, BIS redefined the seismic map of India by merging zones I and II.Thus India has four such zones now—II, III, IV and V. Life almost comes to a standstill.The impact is almost same, in case of man-made disasters like riots. Of the five seismic zones, zone V is the most active region and zone I shows least seismic activity.The entire north-eastern region falls in zone V. Besides the North- East, zone V includes parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Rann of Kachch in Gujarat, northern Bihar and the Andaman and Nicobar islands. DISASTER MANAGEMENT PREPEREDNESS Get access to Disaster Preparedness Essays only from Anti Essays. The psychological traumas caused by the disasters are sometimes so severe that they span the whole of life of the victim. Besides other rehabilitation works, psychological rehabilitation is of great importance.In some natural disasters like cyclones, tsunami and earthquake, it is the building structure which becomes the cause of destruction and death. It is due to this fact that in building construction, building codes are not followed property. Only at Essay on flood disaster management Free disaster papers, essays, and research papers.
In developing countries only 30 per cent of built infrastructures are constructed as per the building codes, while semi-permanent and other buildings do not follow the plan. Resilience and Vulnerability in Urban Disaster Management - In recent … Disasters can take a serious.
Besides, the low quality of building material, liberal flouting and lack of master plan are some of the major constraints in this regard.The UNDA with Government of India has jointly prepared an action plan for cities and towns vulnerable to earthquakes. APA's Disaster Resource Network is a group of approximately 2,500 licensed psychologists across.
The need in the vulnerable zones is that the existing buildings be technically assessed and evaluated and individual owners and group housing authorities should be informed about the weaknesses in their construction.
Presently, in India, it is estimated that around 10 lakhs buildings which are constructed every year, an equal number of them get damaged as a result of disasters. These waves, like sound waves, travel longitudinally by alternate compression and expansion of the medium, like the movement of the bellows of an accordion.
Example Essay on Disaster Management Reflections: The earth has been affected by the natural hazards over a long time as man emerged into picture the picture that the. Somewhat slower are the secondary, or S, waves which propagate transversely in the form of snakelike wriggles at right angle to the directions of travel.These cannot travel through liquids or gases.
The slowest earthquake waves are the long, or L, waves which cause the most extensive damage as they move along the earth’s surface. It, with proper coordination with various ministries, extends all required support and helps to the states, namely defence services, air dropping, rescuing, searching, transport of relief goods, availability of rail and ferry services, health personnel and medical support, etc.
Examples of disaster essay topics, questions and thesis satatements Essay on natural disaster - The Leading Research Paper Writing and Editing Website - Get Help With High-Quality Writing Assignments With Benefits Quality Paper. In the State, the Relief Commissioner or Disaster Management Secretary is the specific authority responsible for handling and management of the disaster.At the state level there is a State Level Disaster Management Committee consisting of senior secretaries of various departments and representatives of the NGOs.
Custom Disaster Recovery plan essay paper writing service Buy Disaster Recovery plan essay paper online Did your task to write an essay on disaster management turn into a catastrophe? They rise to 100 feet or more and cause damage when they break on habitated coasts.All three kinds can be detected and recorded by sensitive instru­ments called seismographs. At national level, there is a Crisis Management Committee headed by the Cabinet Secretary and secretaries from major departments of governments.
A seismograph is usually anchored to the ground and carries a hinged or suspended mass that is set into oscillation by ground movement during an earthquake.The instrument can record both horizontal and vertical ground movement in the form of wavy lines on paper or film. In 1999 a high powered Committee on Disaster Management was set up by the Government of India to look into the existing disaster management system in the country and to suggest measures to improve it. From the record, called a seismogram, it is possible to find out how strong the quake was, where it began and how long it lasted.The location of the epicentre of a quake is determined from the time of arrival of the P and S waves at the seismographic station. Besides, a Calamity Relief Fund has been constituted with contribution in ratio 3: 1 between the Centre and the respective State Government. Since P waves travel at a speed of about 8 km per second and S waves at 5 km per second, it is possible to compute the distance of their origin from the seismic record.
11,000 crore for the period spread over five years, while the Twelfth Finance Commission has also recommended a Rs 23,000 crore assistance for the states.Rehabilitation is an integral part of disaster management. When disasters occur administrative measures are terribly inadequate and perhaps this is the most difficult period for a victim.
The magnitude is a measure that depends on the seismic energy radiated by the quake as recorded on seismographs.The intensity, in turn, is a measure that depends on the damage caused by the quake. Devised by the American seismologist, Charles Francis Richter, in 1932, the Richter scale is not a physical device but a logarithmic scale based on recordings of seismographs, instruments which automatically detect and record the intensity, direction and duration of a movement on the ground.The scale starts at one and has no upper limit.
In this context it is very important to note that disasters are non-routine events that require non-routine response.
Government cannot rely on normal procedures to implement appropriate responses- the rescue teams require learning special skills, technologies and attitudes in dealing with disasters.Disaster Management has assumed great importance in recent times.
Historical Trends in Emergency Management … Natural Disaster Essays and the Search for Ideas. Richter magnitude effects are confined to the vicinity of the epicentre.The Richter scale has been immensely modified and upgraded since it was introduced. It remains the most widely known and used scale for measuring the magnitude of an earthquake.For measurement of the intensity of an earthquake, the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale is used.
The 12-point Mercalli scale measures the intensity of shaking during an earthquake and is assessed by inspecting the damage and interviewing survivors of the earthquake. As such, it is extremely subjective.Furthermore, because the intensity of shaking varies from one place to another during an earthquake, different Mercalli ratings can be given for the same earthquake. Order ' Emergency Disaster Management ' term papers for final exams & order APA format essay samples for doctorate term papers over ' Emergency Disaster Management '. Unlike the Mercalli scale, the Richter scale measures the magnitude of an earthquake at its epicentre.What are aftershocks?Aftershocks are earthquakes that often occur during the days and months that follow some larger quake. Aftershocks occur in the same general region as the main shock and are believed to be the result of minor readjustment of stress at place in the fault zones.
While most disasters can't be prevented, they can be managed with careful planning and preparation. Generally, major quakes are followed by a larger number of aftershocks, decreasing in frequency with time.Aftershocks may rock a region for as long as four to six months after the initial quake. But a small chance of them being stronger in magnitude cannot be ruled out, in which case the first and aftershocks become known as foreshocks.How frequently do quakes occur?Earthquakes occur every day around the world. Each day there are about 1,000 very small earthquakes measuring 1 to 2 on the Richter scale. In spite of some breakthroughs— the notable example being the prediction of the 1975 Haicheng earthquake of China (7.3M)—there is yet no reliable system to predict an earthquake. For, just a year later in 1976, the seismologists could not predict the Tangshan earthquake.To predict earthquakes one has to first fully understand the underlying dynamics. For example, even though it is known that this intense seismic activity is a result of the north-northeastern movement and under thrusting of the Indian plate, it is not known what fraction of the strain energy is being released by earthquakes along the belt.Aside from such dynamic imputs, an empirical basis of prediction can be founded by recognising, monitoring and interpreting observable and decipherable precursory phenomena. Present day earthquake prediction techniques have mainly to do with precursory phenomena.The parameters that are normally looked at include electrical resistivities, geomagnetic properties, variation in the ratio of compressional to shear wave velocities, etc. Such earthquake precursors include abnormal tilting of ground, change in strain in rock, dilatancy of rocks which could be measured by a change in velocities, ground and water levels, sharp changes in pressure, and unusual lights in the sky.The behaviour of some animals is also believed to undergo a distinct change prior to an earthquake. Some lower creatures are perhaps more sensitive to sound and vibrations than humans; or endowed with what one may call prescience. Another approach is to estimate the probabilistic occurrence of an earthquake statistically by relating the past occurrences to weather conditions, volcanic activity and tidal forces.There have been some notable Indian efforts too in developing prediction models in the Himalayan-belt context. One relates to the so- called seismic gaps, which postulates that great earthquakes rupture the Himalayan arc whose total length is about 1700 km.
Proponents of this model have postulated that the entire Himalayan detachment would rupture in 180-240 years, the rupture being caused by a 8.0 M plus earthquake.
This hypothesis forms the basis for the apprehension of the Tehri dam being subjected to earthquakes of this magnitude.Some scientists have noted that certain cycles of low and high seismicity characterise the Alpide belt. These beams are shot from an observatory to a geostationary satellite in space.On hitting the satellite, the waves are reflected back to the observatory. A substantial difference in the time taken by the laser beams to travel between the two points is an indication of considerable tectonic plate movement, and perhaps an imminent earthquake.A recent study of Indonesian reefs showed that corals record cyclical environmental events and could predict a massive earthquake in the eastern Indian Ocean within the next 20 years. Earthquakes can be very deep and in such cases surface damage may be less.The extent of damage also depends on how populated and developed an area is.
The last one is the one feature that is most effective in ensuring the integrity of enclosures like a rigid box.For masonry construction, the BIS has specified that materials to be used should be well-burnt bricks and not sun-dried bricks.
In this technique, thick, columns of concrete and steel are inserted 10-30 metre deep into the soil beneath the regular foundation. During a quake, the rubber absorbs the shocks.In high-rises, enlarged structures on the top floors should be avoided. Horizontally it extends from 500 to 1000 km and vertically from the surface to about 14 km.Severe tropical cyclones cause considerable damage to property and agricultural crops. Rainfall up to 20 to 30 cm a day is common.The highest ever sustained winds recorded in the case of tropical cyclones are 317 kmph. The highest sea level elevation in the world due to continued effect of storm surge and astronomical high tide occurred in 1876 near Bakerganj, where the sea level rose by about 12 metres above the mean sea level on that occasion.Tropical cyclones over the Bay of Bengal occur in two district seasons, the pre-monsoon months of April-May and the post-monsoon months of October-November. On an average, in fact, almost half a dozen tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea every year, out of which two or three may be severe.Out of these, the stormiest months are May-June, October and November.
Compared to the pre- monsoon season of May, June, when severe storms are rare, the months of October and November are known for severe cyclones.
The IMD has published the tracks of the cyclones since 1891 and updates them every year in its quarterly scientific journal, Mausam.As 90 per cent of the deaths in severe cyclones all over the world occur in high storm surges accompanying them, the only feasible method to save the lives of human beings and animals is to evacuate them to safe inland cyclone shelters as early as possible after the receipt of advance cyclone warnings from the IMD.
The evacuation of people is difficult in flat coastal districts as in Bangladesh where the tides of six to 10 metres above the sea level submerges offshore islands and travels inland for considerable distances.Tropical cyclones are by nature devastating mainly because of their place of birth, namely, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). This is a narrow belt at the equator, where the trade winds of the two hemispheres meet.It is a region of high radiation energy which supplies the necessary heat for the vaporisation of sea water into the air. This moist unstable air rises, generates convective clouds and leads to an atmospheric disturbance with a fall in surface atmospheric pressure. This causes a convergence of surrounding air towards this region of low pressure.The converging mass of air gains a rotary motion because of what is known as the Coriolis force caused by the rotation of the Earth.
However, under favourable circumstances, such as high sea-surface temperatures, this low pressure area can get accentuated.The convective instability builds up into an organised system with high-speed winds circulating around the low pressure interior. It can even be as much as 50 km.Given the existing scientific knowledge about cyclones, it is not yet possible to physically dissipate the buildup of a massive cyclone. For example, while seeding by sodium iodide crystals has been attempted in some parts of the world— with marginal success—a more effective prescription proposed sometimes is a nuclear explosion.
Obviously, that would be trading one disaster for an even greater one.Accepted technology, therefore, only provides the capability to detect and track cyclones with sophisticated satellite imagery and ground- based radar systems.
Atmospheric science, for example, is not yet in a position to unambiguously predict the motion and behaviour of a cyclone more than 24 hours ahead of its arrival.
So all that is possible in that brief span is to warn the vulnerable sections of the population of the imminent danger and adopt measures to move them to safer cyclone withstanding structures.The frequency, intensity and coastal impact of cyclones varies from region to region.
Interestingly, the frequency of tropical cyclones is the least in the north Indian Ocean regions of the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea; they are also of moderate intensities. But the cyclones are deadliest when they cross the coast bordering North Bay of Bengal (coastal areas of Orissa, West Bengal and Bangladesh).This is mainly due to storm surges (tidal waves) that occur in this region inundating the coastal areas.

Over the last two-and-a-half centuries, 17 of the 22 severe tropical cyclones—each causing loss of more than 10,000 human lives—took place in the North Bay of Bengal. While gales and strong winds, as well as torrential rain, that usually accompany a cyclone can cause sufficient havoc to property and agriculture, loss of human life and cattle is mainly due to storm surges.If the terrain is shallow and shaped like a funnel, like that of Bangladesh—much of the exposed land is just about at the mean sea level or even less—storm surges get enormously amplified. Coastal inundation due to a combination of high tide and storm surge can cause the worst disaster.India has an efficient cyclone warning system.
Tropical cyclones are tracked with the help of (i) regular observation from weather network of surface and upper air observation stations, (ii) ships report, (iii) cyclone detection radars, (iv) satellites, and (v) reports from commercial aircraft.Ships of merchant fleet have meteorological instruments for taking observations at sea. A network of cyclone detection radars have been set up along the coast at Kolkata, Paradip, Visakhapatnam, Machilipatnam, Chennai, Karaikal, Kochi, Goa, Mumbai and Bhuj. Evacuating the population just 24 hours before would require an army of high speed boats, an unfeasible proposition for a resource—poor country. Earlier, it used to be done by a conventional method—gauge to gauge or discharge correlation by which future gauges at forecast points are estimated on the basis of gauge discharge observed at some upstream station. Nowadays, computer-based hydrological models are being used for inflow and flood forecasting.The basic information required for flood forecasting is rainfall data of the catchment area of the river. Due to poor communication and inaccessibility, complete information is not always available. However, with sophisticated high-powered S-band radars, it is now possible to estimate the rainfall in an area of up to 200 km around the radar site.This system is used extensively in the US for estimating the rainfall potential in the catchment areas of major rivers an issue of flood forecast warning.
The use of radar for the precipitation estimate is based on the principle that the amount of echo return from a volume of cloud depends on the number and size of hydrometeros in it.
The empirical relationship between the echo return and the rainfall rates has been developed for various types of rain.Using fast switching digital circuits, the return video is digitised, integrated, normalised and contoured into standard six or seven rainfall rates. Observations taken every ten minutes can be cumulatively added and averaged to give 24-hour rainfall prediction over the region.
Through appropriate modes, the information from a number of radar sites can be sent to a central office where powerful computers process the data and yield the overall rainfall potential of the weather system.The advantage of using radars for hydrological work lies in the fact that the information over the inaccessible region is available without actual human intervention.
Of course, there are many assumptions which do not always hold good, thereby introducing large errors in the result.But with suitable calibration with actual gauge measurements correction factors could be applied.
This has not helped much as population has moved into areas where flooding used to occur and has been controlled due to structure. Whenever flooding level is higher than what the structure can hold, the result is devastating.The non-structural approach calls for removing populations from the flood plains. Afforestation in the catchment areas, along the river banks, helps in maintaining the effective river volume.The National Flood Commission (NFC) was set up specifically to deal with the problem of floods.
But it is evident that, over the last four decades or so, flood control efforts have proved counter-productive because they have not included adequate planning for conservation of watersheds.As a result the increasing siltation of rivers is accelerating their rate of flow in flood, eventually forcing even well built embankments to give way. As is well known, embankments increase the force of the river by channelling it over a narrow area instead of permitting it to spread.
The danger of relying too heavily on the system of embankments for flood control has been well documented.Apart from the depletion in forest cover, overgrazing contributes greatly to soil loss in the catchment areas. Even in the mountainous areas, where efforts have been made to plant trees on steep slopes to reduce the soil loss during rains, mountain goats have impeded the process of regeneration. Cattle and goats also destroy the plant cover that springs up after the rain which is crucial for holding down the soil.Human activity is yet another factor. Quarrying, road construction, and other building activity in sensitive catchment areas add to the soil loss.As a result of all these factors, the silt load of many rivers has increased greatly.
The siltation level of dams, which has generally been underestimated at the time of construction has had to be revised by 50 to 400 per cent in some cases.
Siltation reduces the capacity of reservoirs.Consequently in order to save the dam, unscheduled and panic releases of water are resorted to often without giving adequate warning to people downstream who live in the path of the released water.
Thus ironically dams built partly to assist in flood control, are today contributing to the devastation caused by floods.The phenomenon that really ought to engage the minds of planners is how and why the flood-prone area in the country is increasing each year. The waves of very, very long wavelengths and period rush across the ocean and increase their momentum over a stretch of thousands of kilometers. Some tsunamis may appear as a tide but they are not tidal waves in reality.While tides are caused by gravitational influences of the moon, sun and the planets, tsunamis are seismic sea waves. Tsunamis are usually a result of earthquakes, but may be at times caused by landslides or volcanic eruption or, very rarely, a large meteorite impact on the ocean.The tsunami can be understood at the basic level by looking at the series of concentric ripples formed in a lake when a stone is thrown into it.
A tsunami is like those ripples but caused by a disturbance much greater in magnitude.Tsunamis are shallow-water waves different from the wind-generated waves which usually have a period of five to twenty seconds which refers to the time between two successional waves of about 100 to 200 metres.
Tsunamis behave as shallow-water waves because of their long wave­lengths.They have a period in the range of ten minutes to two hours and a wavelength exceeding 500 km. So they will travel at high speeds in deep waters and travel great distances as well losing little energy.A tsunami that occurs 1000 metres deep in water has a speed of 356 km per hour. It travels at different speeds in water: it travels slow in water that is shallow and fast in deep water. Then there is the piling up or lowering of sea surface as water moves in varying speeds in the direction that the wave form is moving.These processes together create propagating waves. A tsunami can be caused by any disturbance that displaces a large water mass from its equilibrium position. An undersea earthquake causes buckling of the sea floor, something that occurs at subduction zones, places where drifting plates that constitute the outer shell of the earth converge and the heavier oceanic plate dips below the lighter continents.As a plate plunges into the interior of the earth it gets stuck against the edge of a continental plate for a while, when stresses build up, then the locked zone gives way.
In the instant after the quake, the sea surface shape resembles the contours of the seafloor.But then gravity acts to return the sea surface to its original shape.
Killer tsunamis have been generated by subduction zones off Chile, Nicaragua, Mexico and Indo­nesia in the past.
There were 17 tsunamis in the Pacific from 1992 to 1996 which resulted in 1,700 deaths.During a submarine landslide, the equilibrium sea-level is altered by sediment moving along the floor of the sea.
Again, a marine volcanic eruption can generate an impulsive force that displaces the water column and gives birth to a tsunami. Above water landslides and objects in space are capable of disturbing the water when the falling debris, like meteorites, displace the water from its equilibrium position.As a tsunami leaves deep waters and propagates into the shallow waters, it transforms. Sometimes, the sea seems to at first draw a breath but then this withdrawal is followed by arrival of the crest of a tsunami wave. Areas can be flooded inland to 305 metres or more; when tsunami waves retreat, they carry things and people out to sea. Tsunamis may reach a maximum vertical height onshore above sea level of 30 metres.The size of the tsunami waves is determined by the quantum of deformation of the sea floor.
The Pacific among the oceans has witnessed most number of tsunamis (over 790 since 1990).One of the deadliest tsunamis occurred in Asia on December 26, 2005. It was in 1965, that the international warning system was started.It is administered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The member states of the NOAA include the major Pacific Rim countries in North America, Asia and South America, Pacific Islands, Australia and New Zealand. Each gauge has a very sensitive pressure recorder on the sea floor in which can detect the change in the height of the ocean it even if it is by just one cm. The data is transmitted acoustically to a surface buoy which then relays it over satellite to the warning centre. There are seven DART gauges deployed at present and four more are being planned.PTWC has improved its performance rapidly as high-quality seismic data has been made available to it.
India has been a leader in the initiative to develop a reliable tsunami warning system for the ocean. It has decided to set up a sophisticated system for detecting deep sea movements and develop a network with the countries in the Indian Ocean region for sharing information on tsunamis.The Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting System (DOARS) will be set up six kilometers deep under the sea. The sensors will be linked to the satellite that will relay information to the earth station. Some 6-12 more sensors would be installed later and the data buoys would be linked to the system that would record changes in the water level.The Indian government plans to set up a network with Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand which would calculate the magnitude and intensity of tsunamis from the data available to it. DART-type gauges will be installed by the government and it will join 26 countries in a network that warn each other about tsunamis.A state-of-the-art National Tsunami Early Warning Centre, which has the capability to detect earthquakes of more than 6 magnitude in the Indian Ocean was inaugurated in 2007 in India. Set up by the Ministry of Earth Sciences in the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), the 125-crore tsunami warning system would take 30 minutes to analyse the seismic data following an earthquake.
Going beyond the historical focus on relief and rehabilitation after the catastrophe, there is a need to look ahead and plan for disaster preparedness and mitigation. So, the development process needs to be sensitive towards disaster prevention, preparedness as well as mitigation to ensure that periodic shocks to development efforts are minimised.About 60 per cent of the landmass in India is susceptible to earthquakes and over 8 per cent is prone to floods.
It was prepared in the backdrop of the Orissa super cyclone (1999) and the massive Gujarat earthquake (2001). Later the Tsunami in the Indian Ocean which devastated coastal communities in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Puducherry and Andaman in 2004 became the tipping point for initiating a series of steps by the government.
India became one of the first countries to declare a national commitment to set up appropriate institutional mechanisms for more effective disaster management at the national, state and district levels. The Disaster Management Bill was subsequently adopted unani­mously.The Plan devoted a separate article to disaster management and made a number of important prescriptions to mainstream disaster risk reduction into the process of development. Policy guidelines at macro level to inform and guide the preparation and implementation of development plans-across sectors.II.
Operational guidelines for integrating disaster management practices into development plans and programmes, andIII. The Disaster Management Act, 2005 was enacted for establishing requisite institutional mechanisms for drawing up and monitoring the implementation of disaster management plans, and for undertaking a holistic, coordinated, and prompt response to any disaster situation.ii. Setting up of the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) as an apex body responsible for laying down of policies, plans and guidelines on disaster management so as to ensure timely and effective response to disasters.iii. The guidelines on management of earthquake, chemical disasters, and chemical (industrial) disasters were finalised during the Plan period.iv.
Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Mizoram, Puducherry, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh have constituted State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs). An eight battalion-strong National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) was set up comprising 144 specialised response teams on various types of disasters of which around 72 are for nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) Revamping of the civil defence set-up to strengthen local efforts for disaster preparedness and effective response.
Inclusion of disaster management in the curriculum of middle and secondary school education.
The subject has also been included in the post-induction and in-service training of civil and police officers. Modules have also been identified to include disaster management aspects in the course curriculum for engineering, architecture, and medical degrees.ix.
The National Institute for Disaster Management (NIDM) was established as the apex training institute for disaster management in India.x.
Model-building by-laws for town and country planning legislations, land use zonation, development control legislations were finalised.xi. The Bureau of Indian Standards issued building codes for construction of different types of buildings in different seismic zones in India. The National Building Code was also revised, taking into consid­eration the natural hazards and risks of various regions of India.xii. Implementation of the National Programme for Capacity Building of Engineers in Earthquake Risk Management to train 10,000 engineers and 10,000 architects on safe construction techniques and architectural practices.xiii. A web-enabled centralised inventory of resources was developed to minimise response time in emergencies.
To assist the Planning Commission in appraisal of projects, broad and generic guide­lines which are not disaster or theme specific have to be adopted.Conceptualisation of hazard scenarios and associated vulnerability and risk assessments in a given situation will necessarily have to depend on available maps, master plans and building and land use regulations, National Building Code of India, and the various Safety Standards and Codes of the Bureau of Indian Standards. All schemes for generating basic input data for hazard and vulnerability impact analysis to be made operational.v.
Mainstreaming disaster reduction into already approved projects in sectors of education, housing, infrastructure, urban development, and the like.
Design of school buildings under the programme would include hazard resistant features, in multi-hazard prone (earthquake, cyclone, flood), high-risk areas.
These people carry humanity in their hearts; they fight for the truth, strive for perfection and collectively face the challenges that present before the country. A great nation not only rises collectively to save the unfortunate and recover from the damage but also conveys to the world of its invincibility, even in the face of nature’s rage. All these factors contribute towards mobilising the people into selfless service towards the distressed and the devastated.
The nature wreaks havoc at the first place and the man by his misadministration adds to the devastation, in his words “Inversion of excellences, absence, a great defect, addiction or affliction constitutes a calamity”. The disasters in form of earth quakes in 1991 at Tehri, 1993 at Latur and 2001 at Gujrat, super cyclone in 1991 that hit Orrisa, Tsunami in 2004, Kosi floods of 2008 in Bihar and the latest in the series being the Uttarakhand tragedy, all these account for more than a lakh deaths and more than 28 lakh people displaced.
It was only after the Tsunami of 2004 that we decided to raise the NDMA (National Disaster Management Authority) having the responsibility of Preparedness, Rescue, Recovery and Mitigation. The NDRF battalions (National Disaster Response Force) were raised as a specialised force knitted and kitted to respond to both natural and manmade disasters. Whatever be the crisis and which ever be the force created to tackle such a challenge, it has finally been proved that there exists no better organisation in India other than its Armed Forces in living up to the expectations of our country men.
On 26 Dec 2004 a deadly Tsunami struck the Eastern shores of Tamil Nadu, Andaman Nicobar Islands and other littoral countries in South East Asia, which left 3 lakh dead and another 6 lakh people displaced.
The very same day Indian Navy deployed 19 ships and 11 helicopters, this commitment later rose to 32 naval ships, 7 aircrafts and 20 helicopters, conducting relief and rescue in Tamil Nadu, Andaman Nicobar islands, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Indonesia. The ability of the Indian nation to take a call and undertake disaster relief at such a large scale was noticed by the Asian and Western powers and thus we re-established our credentials as a major regional power. The political strength, military robustness and its operational readiness were displayed during this crisis.
China has recently witnessed two major disasters, first the earth quake of 2008 and later the floods of 2010 and Pakistan had to deal with the earthquake of 2005.In China an earth quake hit South Western Sichuan province that killed 2,40,000 people. The fastest growing economy in the world, having strong central leadership soon realised the deficiencies of the military and undertook measures to overcome them.
What was unusual, disturbing and alarming to the regional security was the inclusion of the Jihadi groups in the relief efforts.
Out of the known 24 militant organisations, Lashkar-e- Toiba and Jaish-e-Mohamad took a lead role in carrying out the relief and rescue, thus they virtually established themselves parallel to the state. Post Tsunami of 2004, NDMA was created under the noble thought of creating a structure which would make our country better prepared, with all the necessary tools and instruments available at the time of crisis. It would not be incorrect to say that this new setup called the NDMA has failed our nation; it is probably yet another bureaucratic organisation that we are suffering with. Our political leaders representing the legislature failed miserably, since their focus was more towards garnering brownie points and exploiting photo opportunity displaying utter disregard to the national sentiments.
The state government and the administration turned a blind eye to rampant destruction of ecology in the name of development. The NDMA failed to map the disaster prone areas of the country and also proved inadequate in monitoring the functioning of the State Disaster Management Authority.
Had the vast ex-servicemen population, tapped by the government in creating a potent disaster relief force, which would come really handy to the state in this crisis, many lives could have been saved.
Over politicised Indian society, rampant institutionalised corruption over a prolonged period of six decades is probably the result of this decay.The callousness of our leadership was responsible for delayed requisitioning of the army, had a timely decision been taken, many homes would have been saved from agony and irrecoverable losses. The time tested Indian Armed Forces proved their worth once again; they carried out one of the largest rescue operation ever in such inhospitable terrain. This is not only shameful for the civil administration but also a subject of mockery in a democratic society.Whatever be the reason, the world has witnessed poor and shoddy preparedness and response of the Indian nation in this crisis. The regional leadership of India SE Asia today stands questioned, shameless record breaking scams, dwindling economy, fractured polity, week and feeble administration, invisible leadership are some of the factors that may lead to such a conclusion. This drought of leadership and statesmanship has manifested in a number of cases, be it the response after beheading of Indian troops on the LOC or our response to the Chinese intrusion in Ladhak. Same is the story when it comes to a response to the Naxal threat or the general law and order issue prevailing in the country.To regain the respectability in the international environment and simultaneously restore confidence of the state in its public, India needs to strengthen various response mechanisms and bring into play hard core professionals to head the organisation like the NDMA rather than create bureaucratic institutions one after the other. The civilian administration ,the IAS did not do their homework for disaster management nor do they have any clue on post trauma strategy also.The work carried out by the ranks now should be furthered by genralmanship . Preparation and response mechanism to such calamities is what has been covered in this article including some innovative ideas.
We all know the consistency of failure of civil administration in times of crisis since independence. But what has been missed is its failure in delivering even in normal times & situations.
Unless the civil administration increases its efficiency in normal times , it will never be able to deliver in crisis. The Armed Forces are able to deliver every time in times of crisis irrespective of the situation, because they try to achieve perfection and deliver with high efficiency even in day today situations. On April 6, the Border Roads Organisation (BRO) opened a new road to one of India's most remote villages, near the frontier with China (Tibet).

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Rubric: Emergency Preparedness Survival


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