In Executive Order 13159 of June 21, 2000, the President found that this same risk constituted an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States and declared a national emergency to deal with that threat. In the Executive Order I have issued today, I find that the risk of nuclear proliferation created by the accumulation in the Russian Federation of a large volume of weapons-usable fissile material continues to constitute an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States. A major national security goal of the United States is to ensure that fissile material removed from Russian nuclear weapons pursuant to various arms control and disarmament agreements is dedicated to peaceful uses, subject to transparency measures, and protected from diversion to activities of proliferation concern. The HEU Agreements provide for the Russian Federation to receive money and uranium hexafluoride in payment for each shipment of LEU converted from the Russian nuclear weapons.
The executive branch and the Congress have previously recognized and continue to recognize the threat posed to the United States national security from the risk of nuclear proliferation created by the accumulation of weapons-usable fissile material in the Russian Federation. Payments made to the Russian Federation pursuant to the HEU Agreements are integral to the operation of this key national security program.
Accordingly, I have concluded that all property and interests in property of the Government of the Russian Federation directly related to the implementation of the HEU Agreements should remain protected from the threat of attachment, garnishment, or other judicial process. The effect of this Executive Order is limited to property that is directly related to the implementation of the HEU Agreements.
The NRC’s regulations include requirements intended to prevent serious nuclear plant accidents from occurring and to mitigate one should it happen.
The NRC’s regulations require owners to develop formal procedures, accompanied by periodic training, for workers to use in monitoring plant parameters and classifying emergency levels. The matrix for classifying emergencies at Hatch is accompanied by considerable procedures and training to flesh out the cryptic nomenclature.
The Emergency Response Organization consists of an Emergency Director who oversees efforts at the Technical Support Center (TSC), Operations Support Center (OSC) and Emergency Operations Facility (EOF). Workers in the Technical Support Center monitor plant conditions, assess trends, and make recommendations to the control room operators.
Workers in the Emergency Operations Facility handle surveys of air, water, and soil around the nuclear plant and perform radiation dose assessments. Communications between emergency responders is vitally important due to the large number of changing conditions that are often involved. The emergency plan consists of voluminous documents and extensive training to assist responders adapt to so many variables. Emergency plans are intended to protect plant workers and the public from harm caused by exposure to radiation. Workers are protected by measures such as limits on how much radiation exposure they can receive during an emergency.
The emergency plans protect people living around a stricken nuclear plant in different ways.
The NRC’s inspectors periodically evaluate the emergency plans as part of the Reactor Oversight Process. And at least once every two years, a large-scale exercise of the emergency plan is conducted. A few years ago, the NRC invited me to observe one of the biennial emergency exercises from its Operations Center at its headquarters offices in Rockville, Maryland.
Emergency plans supplement the protection workers and the public receive from the NRC’s regulations intended to prevent serious nuclear plant accidents.
Periodically testing the effectiveness of public notifications: The biennial exercises evaluate how well the plant owner interfaces with local, state, and federal authorities to protect the public from radiation released during simulated accidents. Periodically rotating the “keyhole” and expanding the 10-mile emergency planning zones: It is assumed that existing emergency plans can be readily and easily expanded as necessary to handle changing conditions. Emergency plans are a valuable element in the defense-in-depth approach to nuclear plant safety. The UCS Nuclear Energy Activist Toolkit (NEAT) is a series of post intended to help citizens understand nuclear technology and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s processes for overseeing nuclear plant safety. Dave Lochbaum, director of the UCS Nuclear Safety Project, is one of the nation's top independent experts on nuclear power.
The harrowing 8.9 earthquake and ensuing tsunamis that hit Japan today have caused massive damage and destruction across the northern parts of the country, including a fire and failed cooling system at a nuclear plant. Here at Inhabitat, we have discussed the benefits of nuclear energy as a clean power source, but unpredictable disasters like this are a brutal reminded that nuclear power is a very volatile and potentially scary resource. Japanese officials are treating the situation as an emergency, but Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano said that there was not an immediate danger of radiation leak from the plant. Since 1973, nuclear power has been a national strategic priority for Japan as the nation is heavily dependent on imported fuel and oil for its energy needs. Please note that gratuitous links to your site are viewed as spam and may result in removed comments.
Ship board nuclear reactors, ones used by the US Navy, have an inherent redundancy built in. 1703(b), I hereby report that I have exercised my authority to declare a national emergency to deal with the threat posed to the United States by the risk of nuclear proliferation created by the accumulation in the Russian Federation of a large volume of weapons-usable fissile material.


The United States and the Russian Federation had entered into a series of agreements that provide for the conversion of highly enriched uranium (HEU) extracted from Russian nuclear weapons into low enriched uranium (LEU) for use in commercial nuclear reactors. I therefore declared a national emergency to address this threat and to continue the blocking of all property and interests in property of the Government of the Russian Federation directly related to the implementation of the HEU Agreements.
The money and uranium hexafluoride are transferred to the Russian Federation executive agent in the United States. This threat is the basis for significant programs aimed at Cooperative Threat Reduction and at controlling excess fissile material.
Uncertainty surrounding litigation and the possible attachment, garnishment, or other judicial process that could impede these payments could lead to a long term suspension of the HEU Agreements, which creates the risk of nuclear proliferation. Such property will be clearly defined by the regulations, orders, directives, or licenses that will be issued pursuant to this Executive Order. Because these measures, even if fully and faithfully implemented, reduce rather than eliminate the chances of a serious accident, the NRC’s regulations also include requirements to protect the public from radioactivity released during an accident.
But the matrix illustrates the concepts intended to reduce subjectivity and apply an appropriate response level hierarchy.
An Unusual Event, the lowest emergency classification, is invoked when power from the offsite electrical grid to essential in-plant electrical circuits is lost for longer than 15 minutes. Because emergencies are not scheduled in advance, the NRC’s regulations include provisions for the minimum staffing levels needed to handle the initial response to an unscheduled emergency.
Hatch’s plan requires 26 on-shift personnel capable of being augmented by 17 others within an hour for a total of 43 individuals.
As emergency levels increase, additional personnel are notified and directed to go to onsite or offsite locations to augment the response capability.
The Emergency Director, a senior manager within the company owning the nuclear plant, is also the point of contact with local, state, and federal authorities who get notified during the emergency. The TSC staff also conducts research at its own initiative on to answer questions raised by the operators. If a ventilation system problem causes the temperature inside a room containing sensitive electrical equipment to rise, the OSC staff will likely pursue parallel paths to fix the ventilation system and install portable fans to limit the temperature rise in the interim period. The EOF staff also coordinates with the company’s public information staff to communicate with the media about the emergency. This table from Hatch’s emergency plan illustrates the guidance that is available to responders. The emergency plans assume that the “keyhole” population—people living within two miles of the plant and up to five miles directly downwind from it—will require evacuation (see the dotted figure in the center of Fig. It’s not merely one, two, or even three inspections, but a suite of inspections that cover the various elements of the emergency plan. The NRC’s inspectors are onsite to observe how well plant workers perform their assignments under the emergency plan while the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) grades how well local, state, and federal authorities discharge their response duties.
It would be useful to demonstrate this flexibility through periodic testing, particularly when expansion brings a new county, large city, or state into the mix.
To help maintain a healthy, respectful discussion, please focus comments on the issues, topics, and facts at hand, and refrain from personal attacks.
UCS respects your privacy and will not display, lend, or sell your email address for any reason. After the quake hit, the plant’s backup generation system failed, resulting in the loss of water supply to cool the reactor. He added that they launched the emergency measures to be prepared to deal with the worst case scenario. The country has 54 reactors that provide 30 percent of the nation’s energy needs, and they plan to increase nuclear power to account for 40 percent of energy needed by 2017. Two massive natural disasters, in a area prone to them, and a failure of almost all of the safety measures are causing this to happen.
Such designs are "inherently" stable (any issues affecting the cooling system causes temperatures to rise which, in turn, causes the fuel rods to deform which halts the fission process, no mechanical or electrical intervention necessary). Elena Bodnar was brought in to treat victims of radiation poisoning and to study the consequences of radiation exposure. There were concerns that payments due to the Russian Federation under these agreements may be subject to attachment, garnishment, or other judicial process, in the United States, which could put implementation of such agreements at risk.
The HEU Agreement provides for 500 metric tons of HEU to be converted to LEU over a 20-year period. The HEU Agreements are essential tools to accomplish these overall national security goals.
This is an unacceptable threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States. I have delegated to the Secretary of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary of State, the authority to take such actions, including the promulgation of rules and regulations, and to employ all powers granted to the President by IEEPA as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of the order.
While the specific details of this plan vary a little from plans for other nuclear plants in the United States, the general framework applies to all plans.


NRC’s regulations require at least two onsite backup sources of power to essential electrical circuits.
In other words, when four Unusual Event conditions and only one Site Area Emergency condition are applicable, neither majority rule lets the emergency be classified as an Unusual Event nor averaging permit it to be an Alert.
Remember the infamous “Fukushima Fifty?” But Hatch’s total excludes quite a few security personnel. For example, if cooling of the spent fuel pool has been lost, the TSC staff will estimate the decay heat load from irradiated fuel stored in the pool’s racks and calculate how long it will take for the pool’s water to heat up and boil. It shows the relative value of sheltering options for protecting people from radiation exposure as a radioactive cloud passes by them.
NRC inspection findings, if any, fall under the Emergency Preparedness cornerstone of the Reactor Oversight Process while FEMA issues an exercise report documenting its findings. The picture shows a portion of the Operations Center during the biennial exercise conducted April 29, 2014, for Fermi Unit 2 near Monroe, Michigan. It’s not anticipated that periodic expansions will be showstoppers, since local and state authorities routinely coordinate with each other during real non-nuclear events.
Four nuclear power plants closest to the quake’s epicenter have been safely shut down, and eleven other were automatically shut down in the affected areas. The only "containment" necessary is that of the heavy water moderator but, even if the heavy water or tritium to leak out it would have a relatively short half life (~12.5 yearis iirc). In Executive Order 13159, the President therefore ordered blocked all property and interests in property of the Government of the Russian Federation directly related to the implementation of the HEU Agreements so that it would be protected from the threat of attachment, garnishment, or other judicial process. The resulting LEU is shipped to the United States for fabrication into fuel for commercial reactors. All agencies of the United States Government are directed to take all appropriate measures within their authority to carry out the provisions of the order.
That minimum complement is defined by the NRC-approved security plan and is not specified because it could help bad guys figure out how many to include in any sabotage attempt.
But workers cannot be directed to perform a task during an emergency that would expose them to greater than 25 rem unless they volunteer to do it. People living outside of the “keyhole” but within ten miles may also require protection either in the form of evacuation or sheltering depending on numerous factors. Nearly 3,000 people have been evacuated from the area and a nuclear emergency situation has been declared. A fire also broke out in a turbine building of the plant, which is separate from the reactor.
The most recent Site Area Emergency was declared on February 20, 2006, after workers at the LaSalle nuclear plant were unable to initially verify that three control rods had fully inserted into the Unit 1 reactor core following an automatic shutdown. If that sole backup source is also lost, the emergency level escalates further to a Site Area Emergency.
An individual inside a wood frame house receives only 90 percent (0.9) of the radiation exposure that he or she would receive if outdoors. The emergency plans provide for sampling crops, cattle, water supplies, and other food sources out to 50 miles from the plant to protect the public from the ingestion of radioactivity.
Plant workers along with local, state, and federal authorities have to be trained and periodically rehearse their emergency planning roles while the untrained public is assumed to be 100 percent reliable without any practice.
Now I'm not too clear on the whether they exist in modern land based reactors, they do help in reducing the possibility of an accident.
When the plant experiences a prolonged loss of both offsite and onsite electrical power, a General Emergency is declared.
If able to go down into the basement of a wood frame house, the person receives only 60 percent of the radiation exposure received outdoors. Because wind directions change and wind does not stop after 10 or 50 miles, these emergency plan boundaries are supposed to be starting points rather than boundaries. Those same members of the public must be instructed how to fasten a seatbelt on an airplane or don a life vest on a passenger ship, yet are assumed capable of grasping the proper response to a nuclear plant disaster without any prompting or coaching or preparation whatsoever. This guidance, coupled with projections about timing of releases of radioactivity from the plant and time needed to evacuate downwind communities is factored into public health recommendations. The “keyhole” will rotate and the 10-mile plume-exposure pathway will accordion outward if necessary.
They would answer key questions like would the NRC publicly air its disagreement with the Governor?



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