This device is described in a non-technical format so anyone can understand the concepts, it is an improved version of the Ecklin generators.
Using more powerful neodymium magnets and amorphous coils, I designed the system in such a way as to allow the flux to circulate in a magnetic loop while incorporating magnetic shielding. Once the apparatus was assembled I proceeded to move the metal strips in and out of the air gap between the magnet and the transformer which has produced an AC pulse in the stationary coil.
This method is unique in that it produces electricity with greater efficiency due to both the magnets and coils being stationary, brushes and a commutator in this design are not needed and it requires very little startup torque.
I worked part time in a machine shop in Calgary Alberta in the summer of 1986, this is where I built the components and tested the first Interference Disk Generator. You will also see high quality photos of the actual machines during several stages of development and the original description. The Interference Disc electrical generator is made of a stator (114) consisting of an array of even number parallel mounted bar magnets (112) arranged and supported (114) in a circular fashion equidistant from each other, where the polarity of the magnets (112) are alternating when viewed at either end. Also in the stator (102) there are twice the number of coils (111) as bar magnets (112) wound in pairs on U-shaped cores (110).
The interference discs (109A or 109B) are separated from each other such that they can rotate in the air gaps between the magnets (112) and the coils (111). The arrangement and size of the openings are such that when the discs (109A or 109B) are rotated by an outside motive force, they open the magnetic field between adjacent bar magnets (112), and the opposing coils (111) at both ends of the stator (114) simultaneously, hence inducing an alternating electric current in the coils (111). By opening and closing the magnetic influx to the core (110) of the coils (111), an alternating current will be generated in the coils (111) in a retro-order to the rotational direction of the interference discs (109A or 109B). A variation of this option I or option II generator has been constructed by mounting two sets of magnets (113) of the stator (115) on magnetically susceptible rings (119) such as soft iron. Adjacent to one ring of the magnets and separated by an air gap are parallel mounted induction coils (111A) corresponding to and aligned with the magnets (113). The rotor (109A or 109B) and it’s configuration is the same as in the first variant (see*), and the induction of AC current, occurring in the same manner and in the same order as described before.
No back emf is noted upon the spinning balanced interference disc while the coils are loaded. Take a look at the drawings provided, look at the interference disc, one has 11 fins, and the other has 10. Each and every time I changed the disc on the generator it involved a complete dismantle and reassemble to continue the experiments. I used 14 gauge magnet wire to wind the early coils and I wound several of the coils with approx.
The efficiency of the unit would vary greatly depending on the speed of rotation, the width of the air gap, the strength of the magnets, and the materials used to construct the coils. The Interference Discs Generators in this document has the potential to produce over unity. Less energy is needed to spin the rotor while causing a moving magnetic field in the coils, It is easy to visualize the advantages this design has over conventional generators and motors. The interference discs will need to be constructed stronger while using rare earth neodymium magnets high permeability steel would be a good choice. The characteristics of using the 11 finned disc to balance the rotor disc will have the same effect of reducing start up torque regardless of the type of magnetic material used. Remember to use high permeability high strength steel as the metal of choice for constructing the discs for durability and closer tolerances and less cost. There is plenty of room for improvement in this design while the operating principal remains the same. Non magnetic and non-conductive materials should be used to construct the generator frame supports to eliminate the eddy currents. I am sure that you could come up with some real good ideas and improvements of your own with this concept. Many improvements were adopted in the next much larger #2 version of the Interference Disc Generator. Large aluminum E bars were used to support the magnet frame support and the coil frame support with no noticeable eddy current losses. Using the more powerful neodymium magnets created some problems with the interference discs. The effect was a reduction of magnetic flux reaching the coils that reduced the power output. The wiring circuit can be constructed by known engineering methods to rectify the output current, as well the coils are stationary which makes it easy to harness AC power directly from the coils without brushes. Financing had been exsausted with the development of the two Interference Discs Generators.
I have several machines on the go and I can only complete one at a time, this release is so others can make a contribution to the cause and have a starting point of where I left off with this machine if you choose. I wish you good fortune and success in developing your own Interference Disc Generator if you chose to take on this challenge.
I would like to thank my wife Jan and family for their patience and support with the development of all my machines (Inventions) and vapor carburetors to date. Permanent Magnet Synchronous and Brushless DC Motor DrivesPermanent Magnet Synchronous and Brushless DC Motor Drives ??? ?41,950Permanent-Magnet DC Machine Simulation using CST EM STUDIOPermanent-Magnet DC Machine Simulation using CST EM STUDIOAdhesives for use in permanent magnet motors. The electric motor as we know it was first designed by Nikola Tesla and then vastly improved for commercial use by George Westinghouse with many improvements along the way.  Today’s motors follow two dominating designs called permanent magnet and induction that are descriptions of the rotating assembly inside the case that delivers the twisting force of energy. An electromagnetic field induction motor is somewhat more complex in understanding, yet can also be quite inexpensive to manufacture.  There are wide variations depending on expected use, available current such as single phase or three phase, and choices in how the motor would be started. Currently, most of the rare earth minerals to make reliable long life magnets are coming from China, which give some reason for pause, as a single element embargo would have worldwide market stopping effects. EVs are capable of operating over a much wider speed range than typical fixed-speed industrial motors, necessitating new materials, sophisticated electronic controls and some clever design variations.  The Chevrolet Volt will use a permanent magnet design. Induction motors do not suffer proportionate losses as size increases, and the design makes them capable of generating high power by operating at high speeds.  The motor in the Tesla Roadster spins up to 14,000 rpm. Most likely this will be done during maintenance checkups where the mechanic will have the proper tool available to look for roughness in the bearings signature – the way it is done industrially. To have independent analyzers will be a bit difficult and expensive while providing little additional information.
This article although very informative for the general public does not deal with the complex issues regarding the electric motor type selection process for an electrified vehicle (of which there are many types). I’ve recently started a blog, the information you provide on this site has helped me tremendously.

GM is drumming up interest for its American-manufactured automotive electric motors including the powerful permanent magnet design for the pending 2013 Spark EV. The advantages offered by electrification will be incorporated into a number of vehicles, GM said, and the Spark EV with a motor built in White Marsh, Md. The Korean-made, gasoline-powered 2013 Spark will make use of a tiny 1.2-liter four-cylinder with 83 horsepower and approximately 80 pound-feet of torque.
GM has said its first battery electric car since the EV1 really scoots, and is presently validating and testing equipment and processes at its Wixom, Mich. This news about the motor also adds credibility to the speculation that the limited-production Spark EV could be at least partially assembled in the U.S. Already known is the Spark EV’s Michigan-made A123 batteries will be mated to the White Marsh-produced motors.
So, would it make sense for GM to build electric powertrain components in the U.S., then ship them to Korea only to re-import the vehicle back to America?
While the company is yet holding out on this question, it did recently invite members of the media to tour its Wixom facility to see how progress is going with development of permanent magnet and induction motors. These will be used for more than just traction motors, as conventionally powered vehicles require a variety of electric motors to power seats, windows, windshield washers and other uses.
One could surmise these will be for plug-in vehicles, but GM also noted that it uses electric motors as part of the propulsion system in nine of its vehicles. GM vehicles using electricity as go-power are: the Chevrolet Volt, Chevrolet Malibu Eco, Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid, Buick Lacrosse eAssist, Buick Regal eAssist, GMC Sierra Hybrid, GMC Yukon and Yukon Denali Hybrid, and Cadillac Escalade Hybrid. The cool this is for electric motors, you can do a lot of changes of performance through software.
Those old fashioned ICE gearheads cannot forget that there are many electrical motors and solenoids (which are electrical motors in a way) that assist the modern gas engine and perform many functions that were mechanical before (or didn’t exist).
This list doesn’t cover the other electrical motors and solenoids that affect driver comfort and security (over twenty others). GM is a leader in electrical motors for many years, and they developed the Magnequench motors that drove their Sunraycer to a win in 1988. I will try to make the web-chat today, but I’m wrapping up a bunch of stuff before heading to New Orleans for 4 days. 2) Are there any plans to increase the efficiency of the motor at high RPMs and eliminate the need to couple to the ICE? 3) Is there any isues due to the availability of rare-earth materials, and permanent magnet motors?
Following the same tread, I ask why doesn’t GM increase the DC voltage in present vehicles to 36 volts?
Replacing the old fashioned lead-acid wet battery with a modern lithium-ion battery also reduces weight. Then GM should use the belt-driven starter, and convert that starter to also become the generator, saving more weight by eliminating the heavy starter and using a lighter flywheel. Bonaire: Electric motor tuning can become boring and less manual-labor intensive than ICE engine tweaking. As far as automotive, us hands-on types were heavy into alternator, generator and starter rebuilding. As an EE, and a handyman, I have repaired plenty of electrical motors whenever it was possible instead of replacing them.
Another failures I find were open armature or stator windings, due to heat or poor manufacturing, especially where the wiring attaches to the brushes on DC motors.
So, for anyone who would wonder what can happen to an electric motor, only mechanical failures are possible if the motor can avoid overloads with breakers or fuses, and can avoid overheating with thermal fuses.
I bet Nikola Tesla would be very impressed with this motor – split magnets angled to vector fields with smaller magnets placed to further shape the fields. I think most of us would agree that better performance can make the difference between which vehicle I would want to buy. Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Optimisation of the Association of Electric Generator and Static Converter for a Medium Power Wind Turbine Daniel Matt1, Philippe Enrici1, Florian Dumas1 and Julien Jac2[1] Institut d’Electronique du Sud, Universite Montpellier 2, France[2] Societe ERNEO SAS, France1. Table 5 shows the results obtained.The deterioration of the current form engendered by the rectifier has two important consequences. It is a DIY design for the purpose of generating electricity at very low speeds, driven by a Wind Turbine, either horizontal (HAWT) or vertical (VAWT) axis.
Using this principal and refining the design I built a mechanical device incorporating magnetic shielding into the design. Wesley permanent magnet motor from 1879, the magnet motor does seem to produce over unity but it is not connected as a self-runner yet.
Wesley permanent motor that I have constructed is not exactly the same, for I used two large very powerful neodymium horseshoe magnets that are incorporated into the design. One half of the coil pairs mounted at one end of the bar magnets (112) in the same circular fashion, each corresponding to and aligned opposite to a pair of bar magnets (112) and separated from it by an air gap.
The interference discs (109A or 109B) have a number of equidistant opening, either more or less in number than the number of the bar magnets (112).
Refining the device with tighter tolerances and correctly selected materials and incorporating internal magnetic balancing will add to the success of this unique generator design. PermabondPermanent MagnetsNational High Magnetic Field Laboratory Audio Dictionary Precision Torque Control Inc.
At the end of Wikipedia’s page there are links to the other designs in detail plus a link to an Italian educational site with an interactive motion shown. Permanent-magnet motors generate less rotor heat than inductive types, which aids efficiency.
It is worthwhile to point out that as of the summer of 2010 every hybrid vehicle in production uses an internal magnet type PMAC synchronous motor for traction (known as an IPM).
In contrast, the electric car will kick out 85 kilowatts (114 horsepower) and instant torque – GM is not divulging the torque figure, but it is sure to be sufficient. Keep in mind also that refrigerated shipping of batteries which are considered hazardous materials is anything but inexpensive.
While sharing a bit more about the Spark, GM said “other future vehicles” will be equipped with White Marsh traction motors. Somehow people think that electrification should be free, and they think that all the extra cost of the Volt must be in the leather seats and On-Star navigation system.

I am really surprised at the detail in the construction of their permanent magnet motor for the Spark.
A higher voltage will permit lower amperage, lower wire gage (less copper) and less weight. There is actually no need for an ICE as any generator (fuel cell etc) could be substituted. Most electrical motors fail at the bearings, especially those exposed to moisture, or to a loss of lubrication. IntroductionThis chapter shows the ways of optimising a medium power wind power electromechanical system, generating anything up to several tens of kilowatt electric power. 1 and 4.The three structures compared are of a similar cylindrical design and overall size.
In the first place, the appearance of harmonics and the dephasing of the current with the EMF leads to a significant increase in the RMS value of the current for any given power, the output passes from 87% with an active rectifier to 76% with a diode rectifier. Be aware that 6 Neodymium Magnets are needed which cost from $300 to $600 each, depending on the quantity purchased. On the other end of this pair of bar magnets (112) there are another set of coils (111) aligned likewise. But as the motor’s size grows, magnetic losses increase proportionately, reducing efficiency. Also GM if your going to sale this vehicle to the public I think you should either use these videos or state of the art computer tech to demonstrate how the Spark’s electric motor works and performs. Other manufacturers are still under the illusion that electric motors are a commodity product, and there is little that can be done to improve them. Once you get over 10k RPMs or so, its a problem again because you get into the realm of bearing failure. They would have to increase the motor HP slightly to compensate for the ICE being coupled at high power need. I have repaired many washer pumps just because the exposed part of the rotor would rust up. The only failure that I can never repair were burnt windings, since the insulation fell off and sometimes the wire was weakened to the point of uselessness, and I don’t have the equipment to rewire, so a replacement is the only solution.
The generator which we are going to study in this comparison is a commercial model which is very similar in scale to the two already studied. They are designed to supply an electrical output of 10 KW for a rotation speed of 150 rpm.4. It is entended for direct drive and does not need pulleys or gears to make it operate at higher speed. Plus GM you should also educate the public as well of how torque has advantages over horse power as in take for example if you told the public that an electric car can out speed a conventional gas car and by proving them wrong on a demonstration video by out racing the gas car for a short period of time than maybe they won’t think of electrics as dumb go karts as they all think of in there heads when it comes to these types of vehicles.
As they build electric cars, they find out that the electric motor can be very large and heavy for the amount of power output (prime example is BYD, but also to a lesser extent, Fisker). Thirty six volts will still be safe enough to touch with bare human hands and feel no discomfort or danger across the skin.
This can cause severe noise pollution.For a wind turbine generating several kW of electric power, the best solution, without a shadow of a doubt, is to use a permanent magnet electromagnetic generator. Operation using a conventional synchronous generatorThe first permanent magnet generator studied is a classic design. While it is operating in moderate winds, generates significant power, able to power an average Home and provide surplus power for profit.
Gear heads will come to argue the merits of various electric motors just like they do now about cam profiles, fuel injection methods, variable valve timing, headers, Atkinson cycle etc.
This type of generator has obvious advantages in terms of reliability, ease of operation and above all, efficiency. However, if it is to be used for Micro Hydro Electric generation, a method will be needed to increase the drive speed.
I take the opportunity to polish up the commutator contacts, too (where the brushes make contact). Despite problems concerning the cost of magnets, almost all manufacturers of small or medium power wind turbines use permanent magnet generators (Gergaud et al.
The armature of this machine has a three-phase pole pitch winding with a large number of poles of which we will list the precise characteristics.
Medium power wind turbines are often situated near to residential areas so this torque ripple problem can be very disturbing. The objective is to demonstrate that only a judicious choice of the configuration of the permanent magnet synchronous generator, amongst the different options, will allow us to satisfy the criteria required for optimal performance. An effective way of remedying the problem would be to augment the parameter Ls of the generator, but this would reduce efficiency even further. Another consequence of this angle is the limitation of the harmonics of the electromotive forces which, as a result, are practically sinusoidal.The optimisation of the mass-power ratio of this machine is achieved by using as many poles as possible in order to obtain a high electrical operating frequency.
Therefore, the type of generator presented does not work well with a passive rectifier.The result presented is obtained with a voltage source load, Eb. The winding, however, cannot have more than 36 poles because of the high number of slots (108).
This is possible thanks to the synchronous inductance of the generator which smooths out the output current.
Description of the electromechanical conversion systemThe chosen electromechanical conversion system is represented in Fig. Further filtering, through the inductance L1, is often added, if only to limit ripple current load when Eb is an accumulator, or to smooth out the output voltage in the case of a load on a capacitive bus.The waveforms obtained with an inductance L1 of 20mH are shown in Fig. This phenomenon is a major structural drawback for conventional low speed designs.This generator is sold as a kit, only the active parts are supplied. The stator comprises the armature, magnetic circuit and windings, inside an aluminium tube; the rotor is made up of a steel tube to which are attached the magnets. Operation of a Vernier permanent magnet synchronous generatorThe Vernier synchronous generator, using magnets, is an interesting and viable alternative to the last configuration.
Vernier permanent magnet synchronous generatorThe design of the Vernier generator is similar to the example previously studied ( Fig 5), but with the Vernier machine the component used in the magnetic field results from the coupling between the field system magnets and variation of reluctance due to the armature slots.

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