With our recent addition of Ismael Cordero to the Gradian team as our new Biomedical Service Manager, this is the first (of hopefully) a number of new blogs regarding biomedical safety and more technical issues involving the UAM. Most of the diagnostic, treatment, and life support devices used in healthcare require electrical alternating current (AC) of consistent quality in order to function properly. Common power quality disturbances include surges, spikes, swells, sags or brownouts, noise and outages. Spike – an extremely high increase in voltage with a very short duration measured in microseconds.
Noise – a disturbance in the smooth flow of electricity often referred to as electro­magnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI). Voltage Stabilizers- also known as automatic voltage regulators, automatically maintain a constant voltage level and protect equipment against voltage surges, voltage swells, and voltage sags.
Surge suppressors – reduce or eliminate potentially damaging short­duration power spikes or surges and electrical “noise.” Plug­in surge suppressors are used at each individual piece of equipment or can be integrated into a surge suppressing power strip.
Power conditioners – provide protection against surges in power, just as a surge protectors do, but also can filter out electrical noise. Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) – a battery-powered device that senses when the incoming AC voltage drops to an unacceptable level and temporarily provides power until it is restored.
Appropriate content for those of us in places where power supply is not constant and variations are on a minute by minute basis. There are places where Instutions have installed Voltage Stabilisers, but these have not been a solution as they still have equipment succumbing to power variations. Take this weekly quiz to test your knowledge of the 2014 National Electrical Code requirements.
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Reliability and availability of medium-voltage equipment is critical in virtually all applications; any failure will generally disable a relatively large portion of the plant.
The energy released during an arc flash event can result in severe damage to personnel, equipment, and property. Our replacement 2001 Oldsmobile Bravada comes with a standard 1-year manufacturer warranty and guarantee to fit. If you can't find here the part(s) you are looking for, please try our Auto Parts Locator service! Our replacement 2010 Mercedes Benz C300 comes with a standard 1-year manufacturer warranty and guarantee to fit. Our replacement 2006 Chevrolet Tahoe comes with a standard 1-year manufacturer warranty and guarantee to fit.
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Our replacement 2000 Mercedes Benz C230 comes with a standard 1-year manufacturer warranty and guarantee to fit. Our replacement 1998 Buick Regal comes with a standard 1-year manufacturer warranty and guarantee to fit. AC power supply grids in infrastructure-poor countries can be extremely unreliable with frequent power quality disturbances and power outages. All of these power disturbances can cripple the equipment and place the care of the patients at risk.
Surges often are caused when high power demand devices such as air conditioners turn off and the extra voltage is dissipated through the power line. Spikes are often caused by lightning or by events such as power coming back on after an outage. A swell can lead to stressed or damaged electronic components, which cause premature equipment failure.
A sag typically is caused by simultaneous high power demand of many electrical devices such as motors, compressors and so on. Noise can be caused by motors and electronic devices in the immediate vicinity or far away. Outages are caused by excessive demands on the power system, lightning strikes and accidental damage to power lines.


Most power strip surge suppressors sold at retail electronics stores offer very limited protection against disturbances. The more sophisticated and expensive types of power conditioners can also feed a continuous voltage (automatic voltage regulation) to the equipment during a brownout.
UPSs generally also provide power conditioning to protect against other disturbances such as spikes and noise. However, if you experience low voltages then the equipment would not be protected by a step-down transformer and in fact you could end up with very low supply voltages.
If done correctly, PPGB is by far the most effective means of protecting workers from electrical shock. Either way, take our new trivia challenge and test your knowledge about some pretty random stuff! Stainless steel cable ties provide a durable method of bundling, identifying and fastening cable in severe and harsh conditions.
UNLIKE MORE EXPENSIVE ITEMS FROM YOUR DEALER, THE BRAND NEW PARTS WE OFFER ARE THE MOST ECONOMICAL IN THE MARKET AND ARE THE PERFECT REPLACEMENT FOR YOUR OLD, BROKEN OR DAMAGED OEM PARTS. Additionally, suboptimal electrical installations in the medical facilities themselves, including poor wiring and grounding, compounded by poor electrical safety practices, contribute greatly to these problems.
Since sensitive electronic devices require a constant voltage, surges stress delicate components and cause premature failure. The effect of a sag is to starve electronic equipment of power causing unexpected crashes and lost or corrupted data. Noise can affect performance of some equipment and introduce glitches and errors into software programs and data files.
In addition to shutting down all types of electrical equipment, outages cause unexpected data loss. Many inexpensive power strips can be damaged after one voltage spike and fail to protect equipment after the first incident often leaving the user unaware that their equipment is unprotected. Users should be aware that the typical power conditioners used in homes and offices for computer systems do not commonly include voltage regulation. More sophisticated and expensive types of UPSs can also provide automatic voltage regulation during brownouts and will only go into battery backup mode in the event of a power outage. In countries like India where the power is generally made available for users at 220V some times the voltage may exceed 220 significantly damage the instrument.
If done incorrectly, however, it can precipitate arc flash events of unimaginable magnitude. Users should look for power strips that offer a test circuit and a diagnostic light that indicates if the unit is working properly. For example, in devices containing motors, they could easily overheat with low supply voltages.
Wait a few minutes after power is restored before turning it on and then turn on one device at a time.
Surge suppressers are rated according to the size of voltage spike that they can handle, so only units with a high enough “Joules” rating to protect the equipment should be used.
In fact, HV circuits can induce voltage and current on conductive surfaces even several yards away from energized conductors. It is vitally important to recognize that the grounding system is only as good as the weakest connection. In other words, having high-quality grounding cables but undersized grounding heads will render the system ineffective in protecting workers. Like grounding cables, the grounding heads must be rated to withstand the available fault current for the duration of the fault event. The data in the Table identifies the withstand ratings of one manufacturer's grounding products. On metal-enclosed power switchgear (MEPS) the connection to the earth is usually through a grounding bus, which is a metal bar that is, in turn, connected to another grounding electrode. Care must be taken to ensure the grounding bus is effectively connected to the earth via an effective grounding electrode. Regardless of the type of tester used, the main point to remember is that the meter must be properly rated for the voltage of the system on which it will be used.


The grounding mat is essentially a tarp with aluminum strands braided into it in a crosshatched pattern. The aluminum is only installed on one side of the mat, so that side must obviously be facing up — to ensure the worker is standing on the aluminum grid. The primary considerations when selecting grounding cables is their withstand rating for fault current and their length. A 3-point test consists of testing the voltage tester on a known energized source to verify it is working properly (Test No. Finally, test the voltage tester on the same energized source as was used in Test No.1 to verify the tester is still working properly (Test No. Caution: There have been fatalities when workers attempted to move or remove the ground connections while the jumpers were still connected to the phase conductors. Many arc flash accidents have occurred when workers improperly applied grounding cables and the systems became energized. For example, the procedure for installing grounds in a substation with exposed overhead conductors is quite different from installing grounds in an MEPS lineup sitting in an industrial facility. A grounding mat is especially constructed to be conductive rather than an insulator, such as a rubber mat. Although the grounding mat protects the worker standing on it, it represents a potential hazard to anyone stepping on or off of the mat. Should the system to which the grounding mat is connected become energized, a difference of potential (voltage) will likely exist between the mat and the earth in the vicinity of the mat.
Although the probability of the system becoming energized while a worker has one foot on the mat and one foot on the earth is quite remote, it warrants mention here, because it's a legitimate hazard.
Suffice it to say that care should be taken not to work on the grounded equipment, unless the worker is standing completely on the grounding mat.
If the door opens to the left, for example, the worker should install the first ground on the left-most conductor, then ground the center conductor, and finally the right-most conductor.
This information allows the worker to adequately size their grounding cables for the job at hand and wear the proper level of flame-resistant clothing. The reclosing relays may be physically disabled on the switch itself (mostly in overhead or substation installations) or the relay may reside inside the substation relay house along with the other relays. Clearly, HV work exerts a severe penalty on anyone who fails to completely follow safe work procedures. The second person should also assume a position outside the arc flash protection boundary, so that he will not be injured in the event of an arc flash. This usually occurs in conjunction with a human error, because, if proper procedures are followed for testing the circuits, the probability of the circuit becoming energized while the grounds are being installed is remote. However, many workers have mistakenly installed grounds on energized circuits as the following case study from an actual accident illustrates. His next task was to go around the backside of the switchgear lineup to install the grounds, because the conductors connected to HV switches were located on the backside of the switchgear. His burns were exacerbated because the HV switchgear was fed by a recloser, which is a device intended to automatically reset itself (i.e. So the worker actually suffered three arc blasts as the circuit repeatedly re-energized itself. The flash associated with the fault was so intense that the outline of the electrician's body was burned into the wall some 6 ft behind where he was standing. He received third and fourth degree burns to the majority of his body and died three weeks later in the hospital. It illustrates one of the rather unique issues associated with HV work, namely that HV switches sometimes have the actuating mechanism located some distance away from the place where temporary grounds are installed. This configuration is commonly found in electric utility substations or locations where switches may be controlled with supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. While this may seem like an incredibly careless mistake, it happens with much greater frequency than you might expect.



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Rubric: Solar Flare Survival



Comments

  1. JXL
    Take to avert or remove damage to the.
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