Hard X-rays can penetrate solid objects, and their largest use is to take images of the inside of objects in diagnostic radiography and crystallography. The roentgen (R) is an obsolete traditional unit of exposure, which represented the amount of radiation required to create one electrostatic unit of charge of each polarity in one cubic centimeter of dry air. The rad is the (obsolete) corresponding traditional unit, equal to 10 millijoules of energy deposited per kilogram. The sievert (Sv) is the SI unit of equivalent dose, which for X-rays is numerically equal to the gray (Gy). X-rays are generated by an X-ray tube, a vacuum tube that uses a high voltage to accelerate the electrons released by a hot cathode to a high velocity.
In crystallography, a copper target is most common, with cobalt often being used when fluorescence from iron content in the sample might otherwise present a problem.
X-ray fluorescence: If the electron has enough energy it can knock an orbital electron out of the inner electron shell of a metal atom, and as a result electrons from higher energy levels then fill up the vacancy and X-ray photons are emitted.
So the resulting output of a tube consists of a continuous bremsstrahlung spectrum falling off to zero at the tube voltage, plus several spikes at the characteristic lines. In medical diagnostic applications, the low energy (soft) X-rays are unwanted, since they are totally absorbed by the body, increasing the dose.
To generate an image of the cardiovascular system, including the arteries and veins (angiography) an initial image is taken of the anatomical region of interest. A specialized source of X-rays which is becoming widely used in research is synchrotron radiation, which is generated by particle accelerators.
The most commonly known methods are photographic plates, photographic film in cassettes, and rare earth screens.
Before the advent of the digital computer and before invention of digital imaging, photographic plates were used to produce most radiographic images. Since photographic plates are sensitive to X-rays, they provide a means of recording the image, but they also required much X-ray exposure (to the patient), hence intensifying screens were devised. Areas where the X-rays strike darken when developed, causing bones to appear lighter than the surrounding soft tissue.
Contrast compounds containing barium or iodine, which are radiopaque, can be ingested in the gastrointestinal tract (barium) or injected in the artery or veins to highlight these vessels.
An increasingly common method is the use of photostimulated luminescence (PSL), pioneered by Fuji in the 1980s.
The PSP plate can be reused, and existing X-ray equipment requires no modification to use them.
For many applications, counters are not sealed but are constantly fed with purified gas, thus reducing problems of contamination or gas aging. Some materials such as sodium iodide (NaI) can "convert" an X-ray photon to a visible photon; an electronic detector can be built by adding a photomultiplier.
Generally speaking, wea€™re all introduced to shielding from the point of view of ionizing radiation.
The very first thing we need to clarify is that MRI shielding is not one type of shielding, but is two separate types. In X-ray (and nuclear medicine, and radiation therapy), the shielding is designed to keep the ionizing radiation from leaving the room. You see, MRI scanners work by detecting and triangulating on very faint RF signals that the subjecta€™s tissues release during the scanning process, and it is from those faint signals that the scanner is able to construct an image.


RF shielding is most typically made from copper foil, stretched over conjoined frames, or thin sheets of steel clamped together at the joints. Unlike RF shields, which need to wrap the entire room of an MRI scanner, passive magnetic shielding can be applied to discreet areas. Magnetic shielding can also be used (though with limited and variable effectiveness) in a manner similar to RF shielding. One of the problems with magnetic shielding is that MRI scanners operate best with no magnetic materials in the immediate vicinity.
Particularly in new construction, magnetic shielding can often be avoided by simply making the MRI scanner room slightly larger. As a part of siting MRI systems, the interrelationship between the building, MRI scanner, and the shield assembly is one of the most important pieces of the puzzle. The moral of this story is that MRI shields hold very little in common with any other radiology or nuclear medicine shield types.
This process produces an emission spectrum of X-ray frequencies, sometimes referred to as the spectral lines.
The intensity of the X-rays increases linearly with decreasing frequency, from zero at the energy of the incident electrons, the voltage on the X-ray tube. A second image is then taken of the same region after iodinated contrast material has been injected into the blood vessels within this area. The contrast compounds have high atomic numbered elements in them that (like bone) essentially block the X-rays and hence the once hollow organ or vessel can be more readily seen. In modern hospitals a photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP plate) is used in place of the photographic plate.
We want mass and density to stop the X-rays from punching through the walls and striking people in the areas beyond. By contrast, in MRI the RF shielding is designed to keep stray radiofrequency energies out of the scanner room!
If spurious radio waves in the same frequency range happen to wander into the room during scanning, we cana€™t be sure if wea€™re detecting RF signal from the patient, or from the outside source. Any good electrical conductor would work, though there are logistical difficulties with aluminum that make it an infrequent choice. If the concern is only the penetration of the magnetic field through an end-wall of the MRI scanner room, it is possible to apply magnetic shielding to just that wall, though the introduction of magnetic shielding will distort the otherwise symmetrical magnetic file and may necessitate shielding to a€?returna€™ on the side walls a short distance in order to contain the reshaped field. Just as there can be RF a€?pollutiona€™ that can disrupt the MRI scan, so too can there be magnetic field a€?pollutiona€™, called electromagnetic interference (EMI), that can disrupt the scanner.
Obviously thousands of pounds of passive magnetic shielding runs counter to this objective. There is a false notion that squeezing the dimensions of a new MRI scanner room saves construction dollars, but we have repeatedly seen MRI scanner rooms reduced in size (saving $10,000 in construction cost), only to wind up so small that they need passive magnetic shielding to contain the 5 gauss line (adding $20,000 or more back into the construction cost). It is an oft-repeated mistake to leave any one of these considerations to the last minute, leaving it to builder or to the equipment vendor to address issues that ought to have been coordinated months prior. They are distinct, even from themselves, and deserve careful front-end consideration to minimize their cost and potential disruption to the MRI service. The spectral lines generated depend on the target (anode) element used and thus are called characteristic lines.
These two images are then digitally subtracted, leaving an image of only the iodinated contrast outlining the blood vessels.


Photographic film largely replaced these plates, and it was used in X-ray laboratories to produce medical images. In the pursuit of a non-toxic contrast material, many types of high atomic number elements were evaluated. After the plate is X-rayed, excited electrons in the phosphor material remain "trapped" in "colour centres" in the crystal lattice until stimulated by a laser beam passed over the plate surface.
Electrons accelerate toward the anode, in the process causing further ionization along their trajectory. When it comes to radio isotopes for nuclear medicine, or even the gargantuan shielding needs for radiation therapy or proton beam facilities, these are essentially magnifications of that initial model of a€?containmenta€™.
Clear and consistent MR images require RF shielding all the way around the rooma€¦ floor, ceiling, every wall, window, and door. The shielding material and means of assembly should be determined early on in the design process, because there are consequences to the design of the building to most effectively integrate the RF shield type in with the suite construction. This means that 5 mm of lead, or 300 mm of concrete is absolutely meaningless for the containment of a magnetic field.
The radiologist or surgeon then compares the image obtained to normal anatomical images to determine if there is any damage or blockage of the vessel. In more recent years, computerized and digital radiography has been replacing photographic film in medical and dental applications, though film technology remains in widespread use in industrial radiography processes (e.g. For example, the first time the forefathers used contrast it was chalk, and was used on a cadaver's vessels. This process, known as a Townsend avalanche, is detected as a sudden current, called a "count" or "event". It is with this basic principle engrained that many of us are first introduced to MRI shielding, so ita€™s perfectly understandable that we get it horribly wrong.
Copper, our preferred RF shield material, is also invisible to magnetic energies, though the thinness of galvanized steel sheets typically used for RF shielding means that it, too, is ineffective for containing magnetic energies. Sometimes insuring the proper operation of an MRI scanner may require magnetic shielding even if there isna€™t a concern with magnetic field containment.
When the film is developed, the parts of the image corresponding to higher X-ray exposure are dark, leaving a white shadow of bones on the film. When magnetic containment is needed, a secondary passive magnetic shield made of built-up sheets of steel, or steel plates, is required. Photographic plates are mostly things of history, and their replacement, the "intensifying screen", is also fading into history. The metal silver (formerly necessary to the radiographic & photographic industries) is a non-renewable resource.
Thus it is beneficial that this is now being replaced by digital (DR) and computed (CR) technology. Where photographic films required wet processing facilities, these new technologies do not.



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