The threat of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosives (CBRNE) events is a global challenge. In order to enhance and sustain Canada's resilience to CBRNE events, all levels of government within Canada have collaborated to develop the Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosives Resilience Strategy for Canada (hereafter referred to as "The Strategy"). The Strategy promotes the vision of an integrated capability across Canada by framing a scalable, responsive, dynamic, sustainable and evidence-based approach for all contributors to CBRNE events.
The Strategy is based upon five key strategic objectives that have been agreed upon as fundamental if Canada is to achieve sustainable resilience to the risks and threats of CBRNE events.
Capability-based Planning - to inform policy, program and investment decisions based on the principles of capability-based planning. Information and Knowledge Management - to develop effective information, knowledge and intelligence managements systems and mechanisms across all jurisdictions and contributors.
An Action Plan, which is an integral part of this Strategy, sets out actions and timelines for CBRNE programs and activities over a five-year period.
The consequences of natural and human-induced hazards and disasters have become more widespread due to increasingly urbanized and globallyinterconnected societies. The terrorist events of the last decade changed perceptions and priorities with respect to international threats and risks. The prevalence of CBRNE materials in Canadian society for use by industry, in scientific research and medical diagnostics, among other purposes, creates a significant risk of diversion or exploitation by terrorists or criminals. Coordinated investments to improve Canada's activities in advance of, during, and after CBRNE events, based on risk assessments, are a key component of developing national resilience to such events.
In today's complex global environment, Canada must invest in its relationships with international partners in order to facilitate the exchange of information and intelligence, enable mutual assistance and scientific cooperation, and counter the proliferation of CBRNE materials. Participation in selected international fora, such as the United Nations (UN), the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Group of Eight (G8), the Quadrilateral Group on CBRN Counter-Terrorism, the Global Health Security Initiative (GHSI), Regional Emergency Management Advisory Councils and other bilateral and multi-lateral partnerships is essential to Canada's national security and global stability. The risk of proliferation of CBRNE materials further complicates the international security environment in which Canada operates. Canada is committed to complying with its international commitments on CBRNE and will continue to be a leader amongst its international partners in managing the global CBRNE threat. In 2005, the federal government released The Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Strategy of the Government of Canada.Footnote 7 This strategy served as important guidance towards fulfilling the federal government's responsibilities with respect to CBRN events. The CBRNE Research and Technology Initiative (CRTI), was launched by the federal government in 2002 as part of its security agenda. The purpose of the Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosives Resilience Strategy for Canada (hereafter referred to as "The Strategy") is to provide the policy framework that guides the creation and maintenance of sustainable capabilities, common standards and steers investments in CBRNE policies, programs, equipment, and training in a common direction.
In order to be effective, efforts to build CBRNE resilience must span all four of these components in a comprehensive, balanced, and ongoing fashion.
The Strategy supports the vision of a comprehensive and integrated capability, across Canada, which ensures sustainable resilience to the threats, risks and potential consequences of CBRNE events. The Strategy frames a scalable, responsive, dynamic, sustainable and evidence-based approach for contributors Footnote 10 to CBRNE events, which takes into account the changing nature of the threats, vulnerabilities, and the varying contributions and capabilities related to CBRNE events in Canada.
The Strategy recognizes Canada's integrated approach to dealing with the threat of domestic and international terrorism.
Authority: In the event of a complex CBRNE event in Canada, there is no single agency at any level of government that has the required authority and expertise to act unilaterally. Time and Space: Risks, circumstances, and consequences of CBRNE events vary geographically and over time.
CBRNE and Hazardous Materials: The Strategy recognizes the integral relationship between hazardous materials response (HazMat) and CBRNE response that has been established over time. The Strategy recognizes that there are shared responsibilities and contributions across various levels of Government, sectors and specializations for CBRNE. This Strategy does not intend to be prescriptive or to set any priority order across those areas of shared responsibility. Emergency management is a shared responsibility and a component of a sustainable, prosperous and disasterresilient society. It is the responsibility of SOREM to ensure the overall implementation of the Strategy on behalf of the Deputy Ministers and Ministers Responsible for Emergency Management. This Strategy recognizes that the SOREM lead for each jurisdiction is responsible for ensuring that other areas of core capability (generally categorized as those involving fire services, environment, public safety, specialized scientific community, public health, emergency health and emergency medical services, military and defense, security intelligence and law enforcement) are consulted and engaged, and their roles, responsibilities and capabilities are recognized through the implementation of the Strategy as required.
The SOREM CBRNE Sub-Working Group supports the Strategy's implementation through monitoring of the action plan and by undertaking initiatives within the plan to enhance cross-sectoral coordination on CBRNE issues. To support an incremental approach and inform leaders in the decision-making process, the CBRNE Sub-Working Group, on a yearly basis, recommends to SOREM a list of tasks to be addressed from the Action Plan. The Action Plan encourages and guides the development of jurisdiction-specific CBRNE action plans.
Governments and contributors to the Strategy need to be resilient and have competent, robust business continuity plans to the extent practicable. Governments and contributors to the Strategy recognize the relevance and applicability of cooperative agreements, commitments and conventions that may be in place between the various governments, across jurisdictions and internationally. Figure 1 depicts the relationship between the various bodies which provide governance to the Strategy and Action Plan. Contributors have recognized the need to clarify and strengthen leadership roles, and to coordinate contributions, in the development of CBRNE policies and programs. The relationships between various levels of government, and with international partners need to confirmed, and in some cases, developed. Clearly defined roles, responsibilities and contributions, appropriate representation, and the networking of contributors with their colleagues will guide the development and sustainment of CBRNE policies and programs. Policy and program decisions with respect to CBRNE should be made in the context of a wider all-hazards risk management approach. Once the risks from all sources are clearly understood, capability-based planning can be used to reduce the risk for CBRNE. Capability-based planning is a structured planning process that informs policy and program decisions, including investment decisions. By recognizing and applying the principles of capabilitybased planning, contributors will develop a scalable, optimal, and sustainable multi-agency CBRNE capability that respects jurisdictional authorities.
The outcomes of capability-based planning, which include effective planning, integrated concepts of operation and functional interoperability, are key components of CBRNE resilience. An effective workforce must be developed, resourced, and sustained in order to contribute to CBRNE resilience. Consistent and interoperable procedures and plans, such as integrated Concepts of Operation, must be developed and used.
Together, effective and interoperable people, tools, equipment, technology and procedures ensure that the desired level of resilience is reached. In light of the special characteristics which define CBRNE, such as the criminal or terrorist nature of the event, the risk of responders being specifically targeted, and the hazards associated with a response, a priority focus on safety is critical for the workforce to contribute fully to CBRNE resilience. Effective information and knowledge management are essential to developing CBRNE resilience. While the Strategy provides a strategic policy framework for all levels of government, it does not attempt to catalogue and assign all responsibilities and actions required. The Action Plan, which is an integral part of the Strategy, sets out actions and timelines for CBRNE programs and activities over a five-year period. To be effective, the Strategy must be backed by appropriate commitment, adequate plans, arrangements, instruments and capabilities at all levels of government and by all contributors, which are exercised regularly. The success of the Strategy will be measured by the deliverables and timelines described in the Action Plan. An ongoing and coordinated interagency communications plan will convey achievement on the Strategy, toward enhancing awareness and bolstering public confidence with respect to CBRNE threats and risks. All levels of government are working together to monitor the implementation of the Strategy and support the assessment of programs and activities targeted at enhancing CBRNE resilience in Canada. The Strategy will be reviewed and revised every five years, or more frequently if necessary. An approach that recognizes that the actions required to mitigate the effects of emergencies are essentially the same, irrespective of the nature of the event, thereby permitting an optimization of scarce planning, response and support resources.


An approach involved in planning, prioritizing and choosing response capabilities that are flexible and interchangeable, based on a detailed assessment of identified threats and risks. The expansion of the term CBRN to incorporate certain high-yield explosives (E) into the broader term CBRNE signifies the new reality of this threat due to the weaponization of hazardous and dangerous goods. A CBRNE event involves a potential, perceived, or actual act with chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive materials that are, or are suspected to be, used in a deliberate or intentional way to cause harm.
In most instances, in the absence of clear evidence to suggest an intentional event, the response to a CBRNE event commences as a HazMat response.
Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear material or certain explosives used deliberately or intentionally by terrorists or criminals to cause harm. A concise description of how an organization is to operate in order to achieve specific goals. Essentially a social phenomenon that results when a hazard intersects with a vulnerable community in a way that exceeds or overwhelms the community's ability to cope and may cause serious harm to the safety, health, welfare, property or environment of people; may be triggered by a naturally occurring phenomenon which has its origins within the geophysical or biological environment or by human action or error, whether malicious or unintentional, including technological failures, accidents and terrorist acts. A present or imminent event that requires prompt coordination of actions concerning persons or property to protect the health, safety or welfare of people, or to limit damage to property or the environment.
Recovery: to repair or restore conditions to an acceptable level through measures taken after a disaster, for example return of evacuees, trauma counseling, reconstruction, economic impact studies and financial assistance. A health care worker that assists the victims of a CBRNE event (including contagious individuals) after a potential exposure, but prior to their admission to a hospital. A potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation. A HazMat event refers to an event caused by human error or natural or technological reasons.
Technical interoperability is the ability to communicate and exchange information and to integrate equipment and technical capabilities. The capacity of a system, community or society to adapt to disturbances resulting from hazards by persevering, recuperating or changing to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning.
The combination of the likelihood and the consequence of a specified hazard being realized; refers to the vulnerability, proximity or exposure to hazards, which affects the likelihood of adverse impact. The concept that sound emergency management decision-making is based on an understanding and evaluation of hazards, risks and vulnerabilities. The use of policies, practices and resources to analyze, assess and control risks to health, safety, environment and the economy. A sustainable approach is one that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The presence of a hazard and an exposure pathway; threats may be natural or human-induced, either accidental or intentional. The conditions determined by physical, social, economic and environmental factors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards.
4 For example, the Sarin gas attacks on the Tokyo Subway system by the Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo in 1995 or the Anthrax letter attacks within the United States in 2001. 6 NATO's Comprehensive, Strategic-Level Policy for Preventing the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and Defending against Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Threats, September 2009. 7 The "Explosives" (E) component was not part of The Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Strategy of the Government of Canada. Steven Bice currently leads the Medical Emergency Preparedness and Response unit for MacAulay Brown (MacB), Inc. Performing as senior consultant in the hepatitis treatment and prevention program for the World Health Organization. Terrorist attacks are increasingly focused on western interests and Canada has been specifically identified as a target by terrorist organizations. Its purpose is to provide the policy framework that will guide the creation of sustainable capabilities and common standards in CBRNE policies, programs, equipment and training. The threat and risk posed by chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosives (CBRNE)Footnote 1 events is a global challenge. NATO has developed a strategic level policy on CBRN Footnote 6 which helps inform this Strategy and through it, Canadian activities.
In recognition of the threat of terrorists gaining access to ColdWar-era weapons and materials of mass destruction, the G8 launched the Global Partnership Against the Spread ofWeapons and Materials of Mass Destruction under Canada's leadership.
The CRTI program has proven to be an effective model for bringing together Canada's national science and technology (S&T), security, and consequence management communities and applying their collective knowledge and capabilities towards common goals. The Strategy recognizes that taking preventative actions in advance to address CBRNE threats and risks will help to prevent and reduce the effects of future CBRNE events.
It outlines the processes and mechanisms to facilitate an integrated, "all-hazards" federal response to an emergency and to eliminate the need for individual departments to coordinate a wider Government of Canada regional or national response. In many cases, a CBRNE event will cross jurisdictions and will require regional or national coordination amongst contributors in addition to a well-defined transition between security measures and consequence management measures. A CBRNE event may produce major consequences that could quickly overwhelm response capabilities, particularly if multiple locations are affected; or if impacts are progressive or prolonged. Resources and assets applied to the management of CBRNE events are made up, in part, by personnel and equipment used for HazMat events. It recognizes that there are differences in the specific roles and tools used in particular circumstances by all contributors. The Strategy respects each government's jurisdiction and legal frameworks, and does not derogate from this authority. Nevertheless, it is crucial to the success of this Strategy that each jurisdiction ensures that the requisite sharing of information, consultation, and determination of specific roles, responsibilities and contributions is undertaken.
The Strategy is predicated upon the principles outlined in An Emergency Management Framework for Canada.
Each member of the CBRNE Sub-Working Group is responsible for engaging and informing their respective, jurisdiction-specific constituents as the Strategy is implemented.
SOREM will approve those tasks to be completed, as well as identify the lead organization for each task.
It is expected that the collaborative approach established in the Strategy remains evergreen and strengthens coherency of action among all levels of government and contributors.
Aligning CBRNE planning with business continuity planning ensures the continued availability of critical services and assets during the response to and recovery from CBRNE events.
These objectives are to be interpreted as comprehensive and balanced across all four components of Emergency Management, and must be integrated in an ongoing fashion.
In this way, contributors are coordinated, optimizing their impact, thereby fostering and promoting CBRNE resilience.
In a complex, modern society, there are numerous potential sources of risk, many of which vary over space and over time.
This robust approach to risk management will ensure that CBRNE policy and program decisions are evidence-based, which increases resilience through targeting limited resources to areas of highest priority. A workforce must achieve interoperability horizontally across training, tools, equipment, technology, and procedures.
They must be developed and supported by a modern, dynamic and responsive training infrastructure, according to their specialized roles, responsibilities, and contributions. For example, detonation of a radiological dispersal device (such as a "dirty bomb") could contaminate large sections of a city, with tremendous impact not only on the local economy and environment, but also on the perceptions of safety and confidence held by the public. Implementation of the Strategy and specific responsibilities are described in the Action Plan, which forms the basis for resource allocation by respective organizations. The Action Plan is based on the five strategic objectives identified in this Strategy as being core to developing CBRNE resilience. Plans must recognize the multi-jurisdictional nature of CBRNE events and seek an appropriate level of coordination. The Strategy is successful when the performance indicators set out in the Action Plan are met. It is expected that the collaborative approach established in the Strategy will remain evergreen and strengthen coherency of action among all levels of government and contributors. The intention of all-hazards generic planning is to employ generic methodologies, modified as necessary by particular circumstances.


Capabilities-Based Planning answers the following question: Do we have the right mix of training, organizations, plans, people, leadership and management, equipment, and facilities to perform a required emergency task?
For the purposes of this Strategy, the term CBRNE has been adopted as it represents the science and practice worldwide in the current threat environment.
These acts are considered criminal acts and are often acts of terrorism, as defined by the Criminal Code of Canada and the Security Offences Act. HazMat is a core capability that is required to respond to a CBRNE event, along with other capabilities (such as investigation and tactical Emergency Medical Services). Frequently this set of related activities is referred to as the Four Components of Emergency Management. There is a strong relationship between long-term sustainable recovery and prevention and mitigation of future disasters. Note: This assistance will usually be given at the first receiver's normal place of work (less often at the scene of the CBRNE event). Specifically, it is the ability of different jurisdictions or disciplines to provide services to and accept services from other jurisdictions or disciplines in a coordinated manner, and to use those services to operate more effectively together at an emergency. It is the ability of systems to provide dynamic interactive information and data exchange among command, control, and communications elements for planning, coordinating, integrating, and executing response operations. Resilient capacity is built through a process of empowering citizens, responders, organizations, communities, governments, systems and society overall to share the responsibility to keep hazards from becoming disasters. SOREM is a committee comprised of senior officials responsible for emergency management who represent the federal, provincial, and territorial governments.
It is a measure of how well prepared and equipped a community is to minimize the impact of or cope with hazards.
For an example of a document referencing terrorist use of CBRNE materials, see the Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, United States Government Printing House, July 2004.
Bice has spent many years working as a top director and supervisor for the Centers for Disease Control and the Department of Health and Human Services. Canada is also at risk from domestic sources such as radicalized individuals, extremists and criminals.
As Canada operates within the international community, it is not immune from world events which could have a profound effect on the Canadian economy, society, and way of life. Canada also participated in the recently completed UN review of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism. Based on this foundation, the present national strategy expands on the 2005 federal strategy by including the responsibilities of all levels of government.
Through this collaborative, coordinated initiative, the federal S&T community and its partners are working to enhance Canada's capability and capacity to prevent, prepare for, respond to and recover from CBRNE events. These security-focused activities form an integral part of the wider all-hazards emergency management approach based on the Four Components of Emergency Management. Such an event can have implications on national security, public safety, public confidence, the economy, the environment, and international relations. HazMat is one of the core capabilities required to respond to CBRNE events, and is therefore reflected in this Strategy. Contributors are encouraged to develop and coordinate their own strategies and action plans to implement this Strategy, but may take action on this Strategy directly in the absence of jurisdictional strategies or plans. Public Safety Canada is accountable for coordinating the activities of federal departments and agencies in support of this Strategy.
Through these objectives, existing plans, programs, and initiatives are leveraged, and new ones coordinated.
The risk posed by CBRNE must be evaluated together with the risk posed by other hazards, be they human-induced or natural.
Access to appropriate tools and equipment, according to capability levels, is also required.
These systems must address the needs of all contributors, from the exchange of intelligence in a secure and timely fashion, to expert reach-back for first responders during a CBRNE event. Developing community-level preparedness, including building and maintaining public confidence with respect to CBRNE, are important aspects of community-level resilience.
Going forward, future investment in CBRNE in Canada must support the Strategy and further the items identified in the Action Plan.
CBRNE events have additional dimensions that will complicate all aspects of emergency management. These are generally referred to as Dangerous Goods (DG) or Hazardous Materials (HazMat) events. From a practical perspective, operational interoperability means that personnel from different jurisdictions or services perform as a team under a common command-and-control structure. Resilience minimizes vulnerability, dependence and susceptibility by creating or strengthening social and physical capacity in the human and built-environment to cope with, adapt to, respond to, and recover and learn from disasters. Bice received his BA in English from Occidental College and a graduate teaching credential from California State University, Los Angeles. This threat, aggravated by the prevalence of potential CBRNE materials normally used for industrial and scientific purposes, requires coordinated action by many contributors. All levels of government will work collaboratively to monitor the implementation of the Strategy and Action Plan. Additionally, Canada is a signatory to the Biological and ToxinWeapons Convention (BTWC), the ChemicalWeapons Convention (CWC), is a signatory to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, and supports the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources.
Both of these documents provide guidance to all levels of government in dealing with the response to CBRNE events that exceeds local, regional, provincial, or territorial capacity or capabilities. All of these contributors are expected to work collaboratively to implement the Strategy in a comprehensive and cost-effective manner, and where applicable, leverage existing programs and initiatives. In this way, jurisdictional CBRNE strategies, action plans and activities contribute to building national CBRNE resilience in an integrated fashion.
These principles reflect the essence of emergency management in Canada and frame the key underlying beliefs and goals of emergency management. Efforts to realize these strategic objectives will assist contributors in achieving long term resilient and sustainable capability with respect to CBRNE. Recovery strategies are needed to address the potentially farreaching psycho-social implications of a CBRNE event. They are intended to maximize fear and disruption and may have elements designed to direct harm at first responders and first receivers, which in the case of specialists may have significant consequences on the capability to deal with the event itself. An event involving hazardous materials can occur by accident, negligence or subsequent to a natural occurrence, such as violent weather, or seismic activity. The committee's initiatives are supported by various working groups and sub-working groups. They aim to support the design, implementation and ongoing improvement of frameworks, programs, procedures, guidelines and activities, which taken together comprise the emergency management systems of Canada. Robust hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment methodologies must be used to generate a coherent understanding of the risks for all hazards, including CBRNE.
These systems and strategies will increase coordination, reduce duplication, and ensure effective communication.
Further, deliberate acts will require the event scenes, which may be large and dispersed, to be managed as potential crime scenes, which creates specialized challenges in already complicated situations. HazMat events are accidental, yet due to their nature require a very precise and specialized response. Through information and knowledge management, both contributors and the public will be informed to the greatest possible extent, allowing them to take appropriate action as events require.



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Comments

  1. sonic
    Just write concerns for those space beneath my house. "OK" button.
  2. ROCKER_BOY
    Did say Cheyenne where we will post couple of articles out there that discuss what emergency supplies.