Please note that JavaScript and style sheet are used in this website, due to unadaptability of the style sheet with the browser used in your computer, pages may not look as original.Even in such a case, however, the contents can be used safely. NEC has solutions that cover the various sensors needed in gathering information on disasters and emergencies, such as surveillance cameras, water level gauges, rain gauges, and seismometers.
In situations involving public safety, many organizations need to work together and they need to access diverse types of up-to-date geospatial information in a timely manner. The MSP has developed modern Web mapping services for partners such as 9-1-1 emergency centers and emergency managers.
When dealing with the full cycle of emergency and disaster management (planning, mitigation, preparation, response and recovery), public safety organizations have multiple needs in terms of geospatial information management. In recent years, we have seen the convergence of open source software (OSS), open standards from the OGC and the philosophy of Software as a Service (SaaS). Freely and publicly available – They are available free of charge and unencumbered by patents and other intellectual property.
Non-discriminatory – They are available to anyone, any organization, anytime, anywhere with no restrictions.
Vendor neutral - They are vendor neutral in terms of their content and implementation concept and do not favor any vendor over another. The OGC's open standards are specifications for interfaces and encodings that enable interoperability between geoprocessing systems from different developers, whether employed by proprietary product vendors, independent integrators, application developers or active in open source projects. Open source encompasses two related concepts regarding the way software is developed and licensed. In 2005, the MSP set out to find the best and most innovative solutions to improve geospatial information services within the organization.
UMN MapServer was selected for its effectiveness, degree of maturity, interoperability, free availability and openness to both the Windows and Linux environments.
In 2011, the open source software TinyOWS was selected for a pilot project to provide online editing in the main Web-based geospatial application at the MSP. To serve those geospatial datasets to its internal users and its partners outside the organization, the MSP had to determine which open standards and protocols to implement.
Interoperability enabled by WMS gave the MSP’s services a huge boost in terms of use. On the MSP's servers, providing tile-based maps is almost ten times faster than using WMS without tiling. Apart from the capabilities described above, a SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) Web Services (WSDL: Web Services Description Language) service has been developed to provide text searches of government database records, such as street address, point of interest, mileage and other specific locations, including geohazard risks, needed in disaster management situations. The MSP oversees the local 9-1-1 emergency centers all across the province of Québec.
After this first phase of development, most of the 9-1-1 emergency centers expressed the need to both have access to the Web service (not only the Web application) and be autonomous in terms of Internet connection (not having to always connect to the MSP network). Each 9-1-1 emergency center is now able to use either the Web services or the Web mapping application installed on the main autonomous server, or both of them.
With access to open standards interfaces and encodings, primarily from the OGC and W3C, all mapping systems in 9-1-1 emergency centers were able to connect easily to the Web services offered by the MSP. The combination of open standards and open source software has proven to be of great value to organizations whose role involves coordinating the diverse information systems of diverse organizations to provide public safety.
NEC's Earthquake & Tsunami Observation System promptly analyzes earthquake and tsunami information and predicts the intensity of the earthquake secondary big wave and the height of the possible tsunami for spontaneous announcement to the public. NEC's Disaster Information System categorizes and analyses various disaster-related information and data gathered to governmental emergency operation centers and displays the necessary information and data on large screens to assist in decision making by government officials. Dublin Safety Solutions is reputable Company for providing quality consulting services for clients' safety needs. Emergency Management is an ongoing process with four mutually dependent and overlapping components. Regardless of community size or the nature of the disaster, local government leaders are responsible for overseeing all four phases of emergency managementa€”preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation (see Figure 1).
Preparation and responsea€”half of the emergency management cyclea€”generally get the most attention, particularly in high-risk areas. Local government leadersa€”particularly those who have been through a major community disastera€”recognize that preparing for long-term disaster recovery demands as much attention as preparing for short-term response. Brett Kriger, director of the Institute for Building Technology and Safety's (IBTS) Disaster Management Group, says the recovery process begins even before the response stage is complete because decisions made while responding to the emergency can affect the recovery process (see Figure 2). Kriger, who has worked in numerous disaster response and recovery operations with and for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), says actions taken during the response phase can have an impact on overall results once the community moves into recovery.
Marcy Douglas, city administrator of Northwood, North Dakota, a community of 1,000 that was leveled by a category 4 tornado on August 26, 2007, believes that a commitment to recovery from the first day of the emergency has helped that tiny community rebound.
When a crisis occurs, the needs are vast and the humanitarian response relatively proportional. Long-term recovery involves more than debris removal and restoring power, which are considered short-term recovery actions.
In this guide, FEMA also urges a significant focus on mitigation as part of long-term recovery to prevent or at least minimize similar damage in the event of another disaster.
The Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG), which serves 109 cities and counties in the San Francisco, California, area, has developed a program designed to help cities and counties be better prepared for long-term recovery in the event of a disaster.
In other communities, when significant damage is confined to one area, local leaders must balance ongoing public service expectations with urgent long-term recovery needs while ensuring that the vision for "new normal" keeps the community together. The following sections highlight long-term recovery approaches and lessons; they draw on the direct experience of managers who have been there. Most managers who have experienced disasters recently say getting the local economy working again is vital to launching a successful comeback.
A willingness and capacity of business to reopen quickly if facilities aren't severely damaged or to rebuild in the community. Large employers with business continuity plans who can get up and running quickly to launch the economic comeback.
Bruce Moeller, city manager of Sunrise, Florida, says open communication with the business community is essential.
Because Florida experiences frequent hurricanes, Moeller says both government and businesses learn with each disaster and get better prepared for the next one.
Kyle Hayes, city manager of Beaumont, Texas, which was hit by Hurricane Rita in 2005 and more recently by Hurricane Ike, notes that businesses ramped up quickly in both cases, which helped sustain the local economy. Hayes explains that the massive devastation sustained in Louisiana and Mississippi from Hurricane Katrina only a few weeks before Hurricane Rita occurred helped Beaumont and other cities in Texas get ready. In Biloxi, Mississippi, where 35 percent of city operating revenue comes from taxes on the gaming industry, the city had purchased a business interruption insurance policy at the beginning of the 2005 hurricane season. In Northwood, North Dakota, city officials met with all the local businesses right after the tornado to identify needs and figure out how to encourage local rebuilding. A 2001 study published by the Public Entity Risk Institute (PERI) looked at factors that affected the ability of small businesses and not-for-profits to recover from natural disasters and thus contribute to long-term local economic health.
The availability of convenient substitute goods and services that can replace the business while it is trying to rebuild.
Prepare a clear plan for enabling employees to participate in response and recovery by helping them meet family needs in advance.
Establish a disaster housing plan for essential first responder employeesa€”police, fire, emergency operations center staff, shelter workers, and damage assessment and repair teams. Maintain the necessary financial relationships to ensure that employees' paychecks are issued and a backup plan for delivery when direct deposit is not used. Ensure that employees and their families have guidance on developing a personal support kit and family disaster plan.
Establish expectations of all employeesa€”both essential first responders and all other employeesa€”in personnel policy and labor agreements, with options for dealing with failure to meet those expectations.
Establish a clear communication method for employees onlya€”an 800 number, a radio station, an e-mail system, a meeting place for information, or other meansa€”to provide up-to-date information about employee expectations and public service needs. In Greensburg, Kansas, where recovery was difficult to envision on May 5, 2007, the day after one of the strongest tornadoes on record leveled the town, City Administrator Steve Hewitt led the immediate response and helped coordinate development of an ambitious recovery plan.

Cedar Rapids, Iowa, is still in the early stages of recovering from massive flooding in June 2008 that completely submerged the downtown. But the role of the manager in sustaining the momentum and helping the community weather the ups and downs of long-term recovery is essential. Prosser points out that Cedar Rapids was lucky to have already carried out a visioning process well before the flood as part of a change in government structure.
After the devastating tsunami of December 2004, ICMA's CityLinks program provided disaster recovery, mitigation, and preparedness assistance to two coastal cities in southern India.
A team made up of ICMA staff, officials from the three Florida cities, and representatives of the India-based Urban Management Centre provided pro bono, hands-on technical assistance, capacity building, and focused exchanges. Because mapping is a crucial element in disaster preparedness and planning, the team also completed computer-aided design (CAD) base maps for the two Indian cities and showed municipal staff how to update them. Although the CityLinks program came to an end, it left in place sustainable improvementsa€”and an international partnership between local government professionals in Florida and in Indiaa€”that will continue for years to come.
Financing long-term disaster recovery poses significant and often frustrating challenges for local leaders who must rely on the state and federal government as major sources of disaster recovery funds.
Knowledge of federal resources and the rules governing access to those resources is essential to maximize funds to support long-term recovery. Adopt a repair and reconstruction ordinance to facilitate use of FEMA public assistance dollars. Frances Edwards says a long-term recovery plan should include strategies for dealing with the psychological impact of a disaster and the pace of recovery. In Florida, with each hurricane, local leaders focus on refining their long-term recovery processes. Keeping an eye on the pulse of the communitya€”and on the pulse of local government employees who are leading the recovery processa€”is important for sustaining the momentum and preserving the community spirit. In the immediate wake of a disaster, life and safety issues take priority, but as the immediate crisis passes, governments and businesses turn to rescuing the records on which their functions depend. Remove hard drives and place in airtight plastic bags to prevent hard drives from drying out. This last point is important because responders may mistakenly believe that they have no alternative but to destroy wet records. Stabilize the environment by lowering the temperature and humidity and increasing air circulation as much as possible.
Instead, carefully pack the damaged materials in either plastic milk-carton-type crates or cardboard boxes lined with plastic trash bags. Daylight saving time begins in the United States on the second Sunday in March and ends on the first Sunday in November. The Fairfax County, Virginia, Office of Emergency Management also reminds county residents to use the beginning and end of daylight saving time as a reminder to check and restock emergency supply kits.
One gallon of water per person per day for at least three days, for both drinking and sanitation. Battery-powered or hand-crank radio and a NOAA weather radio with tone alert and extra batteries for both. Dust mask, to help filter contaminated air; plastic sheeting and duct tape to shelter in place. Important family documents such as copies of insurance policies, identification, bank account records, and Medicare cards, all in a waterproof, portable container.
Learn about the benefits of joining ICMA and receiving PM magazine as part of your benefits package.
In particular, cities that are located in seismically active regions are vulnerable to earthquakes and volcanoes, while others are vulnerable to hurricanes, typhoons, floods, or tsunamis.
All these data can be fed to a command centre that is able to acquire and process the data in a timely fashion. The MSP's open, autonomous, on-demand, service-oriented architecture and vendor-independent development model is supported by open Web services standards.
These services integrate hundreds of distributed geospatial resources through client and server implementations of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. When working with partners who have different cultural backgrounds and who use diverse information systems and workflows, a set of common protocols enables better collaboration and reduces time spent analyzing and responding to a particular situation related to public safety. This convergence, along with other progress in communication technologies, has made possible the use of geospatial datasets and Web services distributed at different locations.
The consensus group remains in charge of changes and no single entity controls the standard. As the main national public safety organization in Québec, the MSP works to find innovative ideas to ensure that partner agencies have the information they need to prevent loss of life and property.
At the outset, the main standard selected to publish layers information was the OGC Web Map Service (WMS) Interface Standard, which is widely implemented in the industry. The Web Mapping Server – Cached (WMS-C) road map shown above was generated on the Google projection and it can be reused, very much as OpenStreetMap tiles can be used. WMS, TileCache, etc.), source code, open source software expertise, architecture oriented services and Web mapping applications, providing a cooperation network of geospatial professionals and projects. On December 31, 2010, a new regulation came into effect to identify a standard operational protocol in all aspects of 9-1-1 (police, fire department, ambulance) in the province of Québec.
In the spring of 2010, the SAG-9-1-1 (Autonomous Geographic Service) project was started to offer all 9-1-1 emergency centers of the province of Québec a way to integrate the different Web services needed without having to depend on Internet access. Because different 9-1-1 emergency systems used different GIS that were already integrated into their computer-aided dispatch (CAD) systems before the MSP pilot project, the MSP solution had to be flexible and standardized as much as possible. Currently, five 9-1-1 emergency centers have implemented SAG-9-1-1 within their IT infrastructure.
Our clients know that whatever their safety needs may be, Dublin Safety Solutions is the resource that can provide them with the knowledge, experience and safety equipment that they need. They happen in cities and towns and counties of all sizes where citizens look to their local government managers and elected officials to lead the immediate response, guide the longer-term recovery, and reassure them that life will be normal again . Federal and state governments play a supporting role in the immediate aftermath and in providing funding and guidance for long-term recovery and mitigation. Preparing to respond usually involves significant training and practice to ensure that key local employees and supporting resources are ready to jump into action quickly and that local residents understand their roles and responsibilities in preparing for and responding to disasters. After a major disaster, the recovery process takes months and even years to bring a community back to a "new normal" and as strong as or better than before the disaster. As the humanitarian community provides for the vulnerable population, the crisis fades away.
In small communities like Northwood, North Dakota, and Greensburg, Kansas, tornadoes damaged or destroyed everythinga€”homes, businesses, municipal buildings, schools, recreation facilities, and more. Because 35 percent of Beaumont's revenue comes from sales tax, the rapid recovery of retail businesses was essential to community recovery. The policy guaranteed $10 million in income if the gaming industry were shut down because of a disaster. Edwards, "Businesses Prepare Their Employees for Disaster Recovery," The Public Manager, Winter 2006.
A clear vision, a well-defined plan, broad and diverse funding to finance the recovery, a supportive and involved business community, and effective partnerships at the federal, state, and local levels all contribute to successful long-term recovery.
With floodwaters still rising, City Manager Jim Prosser created a recovery and investment coordinating team that has led the charge from immediately after the flooding, beginning with response and moving now to recovery.
It was just something Prosser knew he needed to do quickly to bring the community together. The CityLinks team helped the cities rebuild damaged parks and playgrounds and improve municipal services. The maps identify geographic features, low-lying areas vulnerable to flooding, public infrastructure systems and facilities, land uses, and important structures. Those challenges are exacerbated in the heat of a crisis when funding is urgent, not optional or negotiable That's why incorporating a framework for financing long-term recovery improves the odds of success when disaster strikes. Lower than expected allocation of community development block grant (CDBG) funding to the state has left the city far short of the federal funding it had hoped for.

Even when there's no real news, having some news is important to assure a tired community that there is a light at the end of the tunnel. Broward County, for example, has created a "vulnerable population registry" to help local leaders pinpoint those most in need after a disaster. The records were essential to Mahner's real estate business, and she was fortunate to be able to dry them and remove enough mud to make them useful again.
Safeguarding such records in advance of disaster is the best strategy, but no amount of planning will rescue every record. Certainly, disasters can affect records in many ways: they can be burned, carried off by strong winds, buried by a muddy landslide.
Records professionals sometimes arrive on the scene to find that there are no records left to recover. The tips here will help you rescue damaged records, and these suggestions apply equally to electronic and paper records (except where noted). High temperature and humidity, and stagnant air, contribute to mold growth, a major long-term threat to records. Your state archives can providea€”or point you toa€”experts who can give advice tailored to your specific disaster.
Wet records are especially vulnerable to greater damage and should be treated as if they are fragile. Separate wet items, especially bound volumes, with wax or freezer paper and freeze within 72 hours. Identifying information such as box and binder labels can become separated from the records they identify, making recovering that much more difficult.
Extremely wet paper will stick together and begin to mold within 48 hours; inks will run and feather.
Such oversized materials as maps, plans, blueprints, and ledger books should be transported using bakers' trays, pallets, or plywood covered in plastic sheeting. Carpets, ceiling tiles, wooden shelves, and other surfaces can harbor mold long after cleanup from a disaster has been completed.
Therefore, emergency and disaster management, which consist both of pre-emergency and post-emergency measures, are important components of maintaining safety and security.
If an evacuation is needed, an announcement utilizing different communication channels can be made from the command centre, involving different agencies, such as police, fire brigade, the army, hospitals, and the like to save people’s lives. Québec has many developers who have been active in OSGeo (Open Source Geospatial Foundation), and thus the MSP can draw upon a pool of power users and service providers to support the needs of the local community.
Besides being widely implemented and well-documented, WMS was selected because of its small bandwidth demands, dynamic connection to always up-to-date data, and the option it provides of publishing a layer as a transparent image. UMN MapServer is the main Web mapping server at the MSP, which is used to serve the 300 layers in WMS. Most of the partners' external products and solutions, either open source or proprietary, were able to connect to these standardized services without major changes in operational protocols or interfaces. But to establish good foundations and effective linkages to longer-term development, the recovery from the crisis needs to start as early as possible. For those communities, deciding to rebuild was a first step, followed quickly by engaging the entire community to ensure that their hometowns would come back, and then bringing other resources to the table. Hurricane Katrina shut down the gaming industry, but the payment from the business continuity insurance policy provided some financial breathing space as city leaders launched the city's recovery.
The team includes representatives of every sector of the community and has met regularly to guide long-term recovery.
He says the broad team has been an effective resource for leading the recovery and coordinating diverse activities. Agency for International Development, created a partnership between Cuddalore and Nagapattinam in Tamil Nadu state and three hurricane-prone Florida citiesa€”Palm Bay, Oldsmar, and Port Orange. They undertook flood mitigation projects to improve the cities' ability to respond to natural disasters, plan for seasonal weather, and mitigate recurring flooding in low-lying areas through improved drainage systems.
Later the Tamil Nadu state government purchased CAD mapping software for cities in the state to sustain the commitment to mapping as a vital disaster preparedness and planning tool.
On the Gulf Coast, since Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and, more recently, Ike and Gustav, recovery has been an ongoing processa€”almost a way of life.
During a recovery from a major flood in San Jose, Edwards explains that the city's large Cambodian community was particularly affected because the flood brought back memories of traumas in their home country. The first thing to remember, then, is that even badly soaked and dirty records may be salvaged. Stabilizing the environment will prevent further deterioration until the records can be removed from the disaster area and treated.
There are many options for recovering wet records, so the sooner a professional arrives on the scene the better the chances of recovery become. Even identifiers written directly on boxes can wash or fade away unless they are written in permanent, non-soluble ink, so record the original location of records before removing them from the area. Even electronic storage media may continue to function if they have become only slightly damp and not dirty. Or in an emergency, you can use bleach to treat water by using 16 drops of regular household liquid bleach per gallon of water. This coordinated response requires inter-agency collaboration between different parts of government. Some of the MSP's partner organizations use proprietary software, but many use open source solutions provided by the MSP, and all of these software systems interoperate through open standards.
These freedoms enable open source software development, a public, collaborative model that promotes early publishing and frequent releases. Because base maps (road maps, aerial-photo, topographic maps, etc.) need to be quickly accessed and the WMS was not fast enough, a solution was devised in which WMS tiles generated from the UMN MapServer are held in cache and served using the open source software, TileCache. The MSP was involved in a pilot project to assess all the relevant Web services and datasets owned by the government and local authorities to provide enhanced and standardized 9-1-1 emergency services. This complete Web mapping application was tested in urban and rural regions and was based on the philosophy of Google Maps: It is fast and easy to use, as well as combining the best up-to-date multi-source official information. As can be seen from the diagram, the transition phase overlaps both the relief and development phases. Records that survive fires, floods, landslides, and even tornadoes are likely to be damaged by water.
Freezing paper stops the deterioration process so that decisions about recovery can be made carefully over time.
Be certain the environment that houses the records is actually clean before returning the records to their storage location. NEC has a suite of solutions that facilitate such collaboration, enabling governments to swing quickly into the recovery stage following a disaster. The Open Source Initiative has developed a set of 10 requirements of any software license that is to be considered an open source license under the Open Source Definition. During the project, emergency call responders were logging events when they were not taking calls, and they tried to locate and spot all incidents. As an autonomous server, the hardware infrastructure was located within the 9-1-1 emergency building center.
Water can quickly obliterate hard drives and other electronic storage devices; fortunately, water is often less damaging to paper records than people think. Involved throughout the project, emergency responders were able to identify useful data, standardization requirements and requirements for functionality that would help them to help different types of callers in distress. Inside drying can be done on tables covered with plastic sheeting or on absorbent paper, such as unprinted newsprint.

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