The Clements Group LLC can help you recognize and gauge the potential seriousness of threats you may be presented with while working with you to effect an applicable and comprehensive plan to address and manage the threat.  As a graduate of The Academy for Advanced Threat Assessment and Management and a practitioner of threat management and security on a global basis Mr. If you are looking for a risk management guide there are several references text to choose from. In this lesson, you will learn how to determine the terrorist threat and how to effectively identify methods used in combatting terrorism. You will be given narrative information, extracts from AR 525-13 and AR 190-40, and FM 100-37 and FM 19-30. To meet the terrorist threat, the US Army has developed and implemented an integrated, comprehensive combatting terrorism program. Assessing the vulnerability of a unit or installation to the terrorist threat helps uncover and isolate security weaknesses. Realistic scenarios for exercises such as a command post exercise (CPX), or field training exercise (FTX) in which specific threats are directed against vulnerabilities. Staff personnel, under direction of the unit or installation operations officer, to provide expertise in preparing and maintaining the threat assessment. The crime prevention portion of the model consists of operations security (OPSEC), personnel protection, and physical security.
To develop essential elements of friendly information (EEFI) to facilitate and focus efforts to deny that information to terrorists. To identify physical vulnerabilities on installations or units and then take appropriate actions to reduce or eliminate those vulnerabilities.
To involve the installation and unit staffs in implementing a sound physical security program. Vigorous execution of a well conceived crime prevention program reduces or eliminates conditions conducive to crime. Since an understanding of who has authority to do what is an essential part of any plan, the terrorism counteraction model includes authority and jurisdiction as a program element. The establishment of a mechanism to respond to a terrorist incident is an essential element of any combatting terrorism program.
The intelligence in combatting terrorism is divided into two components, antiterrorism and counterterrorism.
At Department of the Army (DA) level, the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans (DCSOPS) has overall staff responsibility for coordinating the Army's combatting terrorism program. Combatting terrorism planning and execution must be an integral part of the security mind-set of all military personnel. In addition to identifying the terrorist threat in the order, measures to be taken by the command to counter the threat must be identified in paragraph 3 of the order or a supporting annex.
The combatting terrorism model represents an integrated, comprehensive approach to countering the terrorist threat both to military installations and to units. Intelligence in combatting terrorism planners must consider ways to deny terrorists the intelligence they need to plan and execute an attack. Information gathering is of critical importance when conducting intelligence in combatting terrorism planning and operations.
Antiterrorism addresses those defensive measures taken to reduce the vulnerability of personnel (to include family members), installations, and units to terrorist attack. Collecting and processing domestic terrorist information is a responsibility of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence (DCSINT), DA, provides guidance and develops policies, plans and procedures for collecting, reporting, and disseminating information on terrorist activities. Operate a 24-hour operations center to receive and disseminate worldwide terrorist threat information to and from applicable INSCOM staff elements, subordinate commands, and national agencies. Provide Army commanders with information on terrorist threats concerning their personnel, facilities, and operations. Provide terrorist threat information in subversion and espionage activities directed against US Army (SAEDA) briefings. Serve as the Army's liaison representative to Federal, State, and local agencies in CONUS, and national, state, and local-level agencies outside of the continental United States (OCONUS) for exchange of information on terrorists. Promptly report all actual or suspected terrorist incidents, activities, and early warnings of terrorist attacks through appropriate chains of command to ITAC. Report all actual or suspected terrorist incidents or activities to their immediate commander, supported activities, and INSCOM through established reporting channels.
Maintain liaison with federal, host nation, and local law enforcement agencies or other civil and military terrorism counteraction agencies, as appropriate.
Report all actual or suspected terrorist incidents or activities to their immediate commander, supporting Provost Marshal, other supported activities, and local INSCOM and USACIDC offices. Coordinate with the supporting Provost Marshal to prepare and continually update the Intelligence Vulnerability Assessment and take steps to eliminate identified weaknesses. Ensure that terrorism threat awareness training and briefings are presented to installation personnel and family members, as appropriate. Intelligence for the terrorism counteraction program is derived from open source information, criminal information sources, government intelligence, and local information. Terrorist groups and their affiliates publish manuals, pamphlets, and newsletters that reveal their objectives, tactics, and possible targets.
Since the collection, retention, and dissemination of criminal information is regulated by AR 380-13, AR 381-1, and AR 381-10, commanders must work through established law enforcement liaison channels. Threat assessment is the process of compiling and examining all available information to develop intelligence indicators of possible terrorist activities, see Figure 3-2. A comprehensive crime prevention program reduces the vulnerability of installation, unit, and individual to a terrorist attack. OPSEC is the process of denying adversaries information about friendly capabilities and intentions. Discussion of classified or sensitive information only on National Security Agency (NSA) approved cryptographically secured telephone or radio circuits such as the automatic secure voice communications system (AUTOSEVOCOM). Coordination of physical security measures to protect personnel and prevent unauthorized access to equipment, facilities, materiel, and documents.
Personnel protection (or personal protection) in combatting terrorism pertains to both protective services and those measures taken by personnel to protect themselves from criminal or terrorist acts. Protective service details, composed of law enforcement personnel, are intended to safeguard a designated individual from political embarrassment, assassination, kidnapping, and injury.
Individual protective measures decrease the individual's vulnerability to terrorist attack.
Hostage survival training that is continually evaluated and balanced against reasonable probability of occurrence. Special equipment needs, in selected cases, such as armor plated vehicles and protective vests. Other personnel, including family members, who are not necessarily classified as high risk by virtue of rank, position, or duty assignment, also have a need for a personal protection program.
Physical security helps to protect facilities and personnel from terrorist acts, thereby preventing unauthorized access to equipment, materiel, and documents.
The authority and jurisdiction over a terrorist incident depends on the location of the incident and the agencies, military or civilian, involved. The role of SOFAs, host nations, and the State Department concerning combatting terrorism planning operations OCONUS. A crisis management team (CMT) is set up to facilitate combatting terrorism planning and to function during periods of increased threat or when a terrorist incident occurs.
Who will be members of the team and their responsibilities (for example, military police, medical, engineer, staff judge advocate).
The need for the CMT to participate in exercises and be evaluated at least twice each year.
Counterterrorism operations sometimes involve the employment of forces to resolve terrorist incidents. Counterterrorism operations often require specially trained personnel capable of mounting swift and effective actions. Responding to a terrorist incident requires special capabilities and consideration of several factors.
Establishment of communications nets and the ability to monitor conversations in accordance with AR 190-30 and DOD Dir 5200.24. Using the terrorism counteraction model helps to ensure that the special threat plan is both proactive to prevent a terrorist incident and reactive to reduce the terrorist's chances for success. Information and intelligence gathering begins as soon as the initial response force arrives at the scene. Response to a terrorist incident varies depending on the nature and location of the incident (CONUS or OCONUS). Explosive Devices, response forces must be alert to this fact while securing and containing the incident scene. A crucial aspect of implementing the combatting terrorism plan is to establish secure communications among the forces in the incident area, the EOC, and the CMT. The primary goal of committing forces to a terrorist incident is to end the incident without injuring hostages or other innocent people.
Apprehended military personnel must be handled according to Army regulations and applicable installation standard operating procedures (SOPs). Reporting to higher headquarters is an important element in any special threat or terrorist situation. When dealing with a Public Affairs Office (PAO) about combatting terrorism matters, the principal objectives are to limit the media exposure terrorists seek and communicate a calm, measured, reasoned reaction on the part of U.S. Support DOD public affairs strategy on releasing information pertaining to combatting terrorism plans, operations, or forces involved in combatting terrorism operations. Agree with US policy on terrorism which identifies all terrorist acts as criminal acts, mandates no concessions to terrorists, refuses to pay ransom, and isolates those nations identified as fostering terrorism.
The Department of Justice has public affairs responsibility for incidents occurring within U.S.
The office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs) is the single point of contact for all public affairs aspects of U.S.
The CMT, when activated, assumes responsibility for the activities of the PAO and media center. During the immediate post-incident phase, medical and psychological attention, along with other support services, should be given to all personnel involved in the operation, to include captured terrorists. In the aftermath of a terrorist incident, the CMT reviews all the events and actions to revise the threat statement, if necessary, and to determine the effectiveness of the combatting terrorism plan.
Second, treat terrorists as criminals, pursue them aggressively, and apply the rule of law. Third, apply maximum pressure on states that sponsor and support terrorists by imposing economic, diplomatic, and political sanctions and by urging other states to do likewise. All terrorist actions, whatever their motivation, are criminal, intolerable, and should be condemned. All lawful measures will be taken to prevent terrorist acts and to bring to justice those who commit them. Concessions will not be made to terrorist extortion, because to do so invites further demands. The United States presumes that the host government will exercise its responsibility under international law and protect all persons within its territories. Even in an internationally recognized war or conflict (conventional, limited, or civil war), a terrorist act is a criminal act.
A commander's authority to enforce security measures and to protect persons and property increases with the level of conflict. Emergency Authority: This authorizes prompt and vigorous federal action, to include the use of military forces, to prevent loss of life or wanton destruction of property.


Protection of Federal Property and Functions: This authorizes federal actions, to include the use of military forces, to protect federal property and functions.
Title 10 (USC 371-378) and AR 500-51 provide for military assistance to civilian law enforcement agencies by sharing information, providing equipment, and by training and advising.
Congress, pursuant to its constitutional authority, has provided a broad range of legislation authorizing the President to use regular and federalized forces to execute the laws.
At the national level, the Department of State is the lead agency for response to terrorist incidents that take place OCONUS.
Major organizations with jurisdictional authority in a terrorist incident involving military assets in the United States are the DOJ, the FBI, and the DOD. The FBI has been designated as the primary operational agency for the management of terrorist incidents occurring in the United States. In accordance with a DOD, DOJ and FBI Memorandum of Understanding, all military preparations and operations, to include the employment of military forces at the scene of a terrorist incident, are the primary responsibility of the Secretary of Defense (SECDEF). Upon notification of Presidential approval to use military force, the Attorney General advises the Director of the FBI who notifies the SAC. On a military installation, the military commander who is responsible for the maintenance of law and order may take immediate action in response to a terrorist incident. Clements led corporate security operations worldwide for a Fortune 100 global corporation; serving 23 years as a corporate security director.
Clements has promoted and facilitated the expansion of professional security capabilities by being a featured speaker at the Interpol General Assembly, FBI Academy, and numerous international ASIS conferences. It is designed to foster a protective posture in peacetime that will carry over to a wartime environment.
The three separate, but related elements, together reduce the vulnerability of an installation, unit, or personnel to terrorist attack. All military personnel and family members, as well as civilians connected with the military or US government, are potential victims of terrorist attacks. Physical security measures for an installation or unit reduce the opportunity for terrorist attacks by increasing the risk to the terrorist.
An implicit requirement is for the local commander to determine whether an incident is terrorist or criminal in origin. Normally the commander identifies a Crisis Management Team (CMT) which acts as the principal planning agency for special threats. Consideration of the terrorist threat to the force must become a routine factor in planning all missions just as the conventional enemy threat to a mission is routinely considered. Failure to consider the terrorist threat in day-to-day activities increases the vulnerability of the force to a terrorist attack. The model consists of the defensive phase, which lists antiterrorism measures, and the reactive phase, which deals with counterterrorism measures.
The reactive phase includes actions taken in response to increased threat levels and the steps necessary to resolve a terrorist incident. Effective use of the combatting terrorism model (see Figure 3-1) will assist in structuring this effort.
Consideration of this information within the context of the social, economic, and political climate of an area provides a basis to determine the terrorist threat to an installation or unit.
Antiterrorism is, therefore, the foundation of the Army's terrorism counteraction program and includes actions that involve every member of the Army community (military, civilian, and family members). Overseas, terrorist intelligence collection is a Department of State and host nation responsibility. To work in conjunction with the FBI or host nation authorities to investigate terrorist incidents for intelligence aspects. Army Intelligence Agency (USAIA), provides a monthly international terrorism summary and other threat data to supported commanders. Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC) collects and evaluates criminal information and disseminates terrorist related information to supported installation and activity commanders as well as to INSCOM and ITAC. This information is publicly available and can be collected, retained, and stored without special authorization (AR 380-13 and AR 381-10).
Be aware that information on specific groups and individuals must be maintained in accordance with AR 380-13. Local USACIDC offices maintain current information that will assist in determining the local terrorist threat. Another valuable source of information is the individual soldier, civilian employee, or family member.
Threat assessment is the essential first step in determining vulnerability to terrorist attack. Army's capability to compile and evaluate information from many sources, the ITAC maintains terrorism data. MACOMs then augment or refine the ITAC threat assessment to focus on their area of interest. While all preventive measures contribute to the hardening, maximum benefit is gained when planning and implementation are done concurrently.
Effective crime prevention measures also reduce the probability that a terrorist incident will occur and help ensure a positive outcome should an attack take place. It includes identifying, controlling, and protecting information associated with the planning and conducting of military operations and other activities. Personnel protection programs are designed to train personnel in protective measures and to create an awareness of the threat. Alert and trained individuals minimize the likelihood of terrorist success and act as a deterrent to terrorist activity. Individuals other than general officers and VIPs may be termed high risk because of their past assignments, duty position, or area of assignment. The sophistication of that program in terms of effort and expense undertaken by the individual depends on the relative threat in the geographical area of concern. A successful physical security program includes planning, coordinating, executing, reviewing, and evaluating courses of action that improve physical security of quarters, offices, and installation facilities. Periodic review and revision of physical security procedures ensure that potential targets are being hardened, thus reducing the vulnerability to terrorist attack. The unwitting violation of the law during a terrorist incident could keep a terrorist from being prosecuted.
The special threat plan must describe the organization, training, and functions of this team. The counterterrorism phase validates the extensive preparation, planning, and response measures established in the combatting terrorism plan. Missions range from local force response on a military installation to assisting other U.S. General purpose forces not specifically trained in counterterrorism are ill-prepared to conduct these operations. First, the incident must be identified as a terrorist event rather than a criminal incident. The initial response to a terrorist attack on an installation is usually made by the military police or security force patrols on duty at the time of the incident. The initial response force immediately identifies the nature of the situation and reports it. For example, in cases of hostage-taking or facility seizure, criminal hostage takers may claim to be political activists because they believe their demands will be more readily accepted. The installation commander is responsible for command and control of installation resources during a terrorist incident.
Is the commitment of locally available resources which may include military police, security force patrols, interior guards or backup units.
Is the enhancement of the initial response force by the TMF, FBI, crisis management teams, or host nation tactical units.
Communications personnel must be able to respond to changing needs during the incident and be able to maintain predetermined channels of communications over a prolonged period. Civilian detainees in OCONUS will be processed according to the SOFA with that particular country.
The Department of State may delegate the public affairs responsibility to a designated DOD representative. The PAO will prepare media releases and conduct briefings during the incident using information provided by the EOC and the commander. Neither the PAO nor the media representatives should have direct access to hostages, hostage takers, or anyone directly involved in a terrorist incident.
A final briefing should be given to media personnel but they should not be permitted to visit the incident site. All personnel involved in the counterterrorism operations should be debriefed and the debriefings recorded.
When Americans are abducted or held captive, the host government is expected to do its utmost to effect the safe release of the hostages. Government will maintain close and continuous contact with host governments and support them with all practicable intelligence and technical services.
One difference in combatting terrorism in wartime involves jurisdiction to punish terrorists. If, however, the conflict is internationally recognized as an insurgency, then the protections under article III common to the four Geneva conventions apply.
Commanders must coordinate with their legal advisors to determine the extent of their authority to combat terrorism in time of conflict.
When civil law enforcement agencies are unable to control events, however, constitutional exceptions permit the U.S. Emergency authority is used to restore governmental functioning and public order when duly constituted local authorities cannot control the situation.
This authority is used when duly constituted local authorities are unable or decline to provide adequate protection. The Attorney General of the United States, through an appointed Deputy Attorney General, makes major policy decisions and legal judgments related to each terrorist incident as it occurs.
When an incident occurs, the first reaction is generally from the special agent in charge (SAC) of the incident area. In discharging these functions, the SECDEF observes law enforcement policies as determined by the Attorney General. The FBI is notified as soon as possible of all terrorist incidents on military installations. US military response, if any, depends on the applicable SOFA or memorandums of understanding, and is coordinated through the U.S.
Military forces will not be provided to host nation authorities without a directive from DOD that has been coordinated with the Department of State. A threat assessment may identify specific personnel who by virtue of their rank, position, or special knowledge are particularly prone to be terrorist targets. The more an area is strengthened, the more difficult it becomes for the terrorists to penetrate. Crisis management planning must address the activation and responsibilities of local resources and provide mechanisms to obtain support from resources not under local control (for example, medical, aviation, or explosive ordnance disposal (EOD)). Defensive measures are intended to harden potential targets and to develop procedures to detect planned terrorist actions before they take place, thereby reducing the probability of a terrorist event. At each level, the operations officer will organize and supervise those assets necessary to plan and conduct vulnerability assessments for the installation or unit commander. The defensive phase encompasses the planning, preventive measures, preparation, and training that take place prior to a terrorist incident. The role of intelligence in combatting terrorism is to identify the threat and provide timely threat intelligence.


Army agency controlling Army foreign intelligence and counterintelligence activities directed against terrorists and terrorist acts. As appropriate, USACIDC elements conduct liaison with local military police and civilian law enforcement agencies. Maintain liaison with local police, intelligence, and other civilian and military offices and agencies. There are private data services that offer timely information on terrorist activities worldwide. Since terrorist acts are criminal acts, criminal information is a major source for terrorist intelligence.
Army intelligence organizations (specifically ITAC) compile comprehensive intelligence that is disseminated on a need-to-know basis. These informal sources can provide information on unusual or suspicious activity in the local area. Even groups that enjoy state support or direction are usually unwilling to attack where there is a high risk of capture or death.
Take, for example, an installation where there is an OPSEC program, a crime prevention program, and a vulnerability assessment. Planning and implementing antiterrorism procedures, as part of the overall crime prevention program, develop effective practices and procedures and motivate personnel to put them into action. Protecting information is the cornerstone of the OPSEC program with training and common sense as the building blocks.
When consistent with operational priorities and approved by the Commander, USACIDC, subordinate USACIDC elements provide protective services to other personnel. Commanders must set the example so that security awareness becomes an integral element of Army thinking. Physical security, which incorporates human resources and mechanical systems, is an integral part of antiterrorism planning.
General purpose forces may provide support to a specially organized, equipped, and trained counterterrorism unit. The initial response force is under the control of the senior military police officer or NCO at the scene. They isolate the incident and contain the situation until relieved by the Threat Management Force (TMF). However, if they claim to be politically motivated but all of their demands are monetary, then their actual motives are suspect. The commander typically exercises this responsibility through the EOC which is activated in anticipation of or reaction to a terrorist incident.
When a terrorist incident occurs, the TMF is employed to isolate, contain, and, if required, neutralize the terrorist force. These teams may be supported by communications, medical, logistical, administrative, intelligence, and criminal investigation sections.
Ideally, all military police shift personnel are familiar with local SOPs for terrorist incidents and have practiced those procedures as part of their unit training program. Witness testimony, photographs, and other physical evidence play an important role in achieving successful prosecution.
Immediate telephonic notification will be made to the Army Operations Center (the basic interrogatives, for example: who, what, when, and where are the basis of the report).
While there is no mandatory requirement to release information, installation commanders are advised to exercise prudent judgement on such matters. Because of the criminal nature of the terrorist event, the site must be secured until the crime scene investigation is completed by the investigative agency. As policy evolved, it was necessary to delineate major responsibilities and legal constraints regarding policy execution.
In peacetime, terrorist acts are punishable under the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penaly Act of 1996.
Article III requires that noncombatants, including captured terrorists, be treated humanely. Lawful combatants who commit violations of the law of land warfare, such as attacking unlawful targets, are entitled to prisoner of war status and are subject to the laws of war. Exceptions are actions that threaten the safety of persons aboard aircraft in flight or that involve nuclear weapons. DOD responsibilities are carried out principally through the Department of The Army (DA), since the Secretary of the Army has primary responsibility for these matters as the DOD executive agent. The Commander, Task Force (CTF), and the SAC coordinate the transfer of operational control to the CTF. The Attorney General, or his designated representative, determines if the incident is of significant federal interest.
The Department of State will take primary responsibility for dealing with terrorism involving Americans abroad. Prevention of such attacks depends on the planning and use of personnel protection measures. Counterterrorism, offensive measures which are reactive, can be the tactical stage of combatting terrorism.
Five of the areas are defensive and directed toward procedures, planning, and actions to discourage or prevent terrorist attacks.
All possible sources to include open, criminal information, intelligence, and human sources within the installation or unit will be used for collecting information.
This includes evaluation of terrorist capabilities, tactics, and targeting strategy, and the dissemination of this information. Army intelligence activities are conducted in accordance with Presidential Executive Orders, federal law, status of forces agreements (SOFAs), memorandums of understanding, and applicable U.S. The antiterrorism Operations and Intelligence Cell, Army Operations Center, disseminates time sensitive and specific threat warnings to appropriate commands. This liaison is limited in scope as determined by the appropriate Army liaison office or the local INSCOM field office and must be coordinated with the law enforcement staff. Consequently, terrorists attack targets that have the greatest probability of success with the least risk to themselves. If each complements the other, then a cohesive prevention effect is realized, and the program is more effective than if each was approached in isolation.
With planning and an appropriate command emphasis, an OPSEC program can be highly effective in establishing and maintaining an antiterrorist posture among military personnel.
Installation provost marshals, within their capabilities, provide security to high-risk individuals as designated by the local command.
Peacetime and wartime missions include rescuing hostages, locating and recovering sensitive items, and assaulting terrorist positions. While political (religious) fanatics and those who are psychologically disturbed have been known to conduct suicide missions, criminals do not. In addition to directing the military response, the EOC coordinates with higher, lower, and adjacent headquarters and civilian organizations involved, see Figure 3-3. The TMF is organized, equipped, and trained to support the installation special threat plan.
They must be prepared to secure, contain, and gather information at the scene until the beginning of phase II. Incident termination may be the result of successful negotiations, assault, or other actions including the surrender by the terrorists. On military installations, the DOD may delegate the public affairs responsibility to a designated DOD representative. It is the responsibility of the commander to ensure that all required after action reports are prepared and subsequently reviewed with representatives of the staff judge advocate's office. For OCONUS, the host nation has primary authority as set forth in applicable Status of Forces Agreements (SOFAs). These are the responsibility of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), respectively.
The FBI maintains liaison with each governor's office which is renewed with every change of administration. The Attorney General, through the FBI, coordinates the activities of all federal agencies involved in resolving the incident.
However, the SAC may revoke the military commitment at any time prior to the assault phase if he determines that military intervention is no longer required. Any response taken by the installation will be subject to agreements established with the host nation. Reactive measures, to include direct contact with a terrorist force to end the incident with minimum loss of life and property, are taken in response to a terrorist incident. In cooperation with the local INSCOM detachment, develop and present terrorism threat awareness training and briefings to all personnel within their commands. Air Force Office of Special Investigations (OSI), Naval Investigative Service (NIS), Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), the Defense Investigative Service (DIS), and the CIA. This support, however, is limited by the availability of experienced protective service personnel and equipment.
Security requirements are determined by the installation provost marshal, USACIDC field offices, and local military intelligence activities.
Intelligence, for example, is not limited to antiterrorism, but rather has equal importance in counterterrorism.
The type of forces and command and control relations used in combatting terrorism operations depend on the location, type of incident, and degree of force required.
In this case, the response force is under the control of the unit duty officer or guard force commander.
All federal agencies that have resources for responding to terrorism are linked together through agency command centers and crisis management groups to ensure effective coordination of the U.S. He also administers justice in the affected area and coordinates these activities with state and local agencies. The CTF must agree that a withdrawal can be accomplished without seriously endangering the safety of personnel involved in the incident.
Should military assistance be required, it is furnished in accordance with the procedures prescribed in the memorandum of understanding.
In addition to reacting to the terrorist incident, collecting information is a high priority which is necessary in combatting terrorism.
Once an incident has been identified as a terrorist action, the installation commander should activate the CMT and the TMF. If the assault phase is required, the CTF will determine when that phase of the operation is completed and then promptly return command and control to the SAC. If the FBI declines to exercise its jurisdiction, military authorities take appropriate action to resolve the incident. A matrix outlining jurisdiction authority for handling terrorist incidents (CONUS and OCONUS) is depicted in Figure 3-4. There is no distinct separation between where anti-terrorism ends and counterterrorism begins.
This plan addresses specific detection, assessment, response, delay, and communications measures taken to safeguard personnel, materiel, and equipment.



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