On Purchases of Eventide products with your Sweetwater credit card made between now and December 31, 2016.
Sweetwater's friendly Sales Engineers are regarded as the most experienced and knowledgeable professionals in the music industry, with extensive music backgrounds and intense training on the latest products and technologies. Sweetwater's Flexible Payment Plan is a convenient, interest-free way to buy gear now and stretch your purchase across three budget-friendly payments. Inductive coupled RFID systems are being used in a huge number of applications such as payment (credit cards), ticketing (public transport and events), access control (company card) and identity verification (ePass, eID). The figure below illustrates the use of such a circuit as a RF interface in an active RFID transponder, using a simple ASK modulator instead of a ring modulator. Multiplication of binary signals, which is equivalent to (binary) ASK modulation, can be implemented with asimple AND operation. The influence of the antenna size on the data transmission range of a tag using active load modulation was determined experimentally. As can be seen, even with an antenna having only 10% of the area of a contactless smart card  it was possible to achieve a communication range of 25 cm. This technology is thus especially suitable for achieving an acceptable operating range, even with a very small antenna for example in a data storage device. To generate the modulation signal required to increase the reading range and to deal with the very weak reader signals received by the antenna due to a small antenna are (e.g. A simplified block diagram of the active RFID interface module is shown in the Figure below.
SIGOUT corresponds to the RF signal received by the reader and is a 13.56-MHz clock signal, which is suppressed during the modulation pulses of the reader.
When the interface module is in transmit mode, which means that data is being sent from the connected smart card chip to an external contactless reader, the modulated subcarrier signal is fed to the signal input SIGIN by the smart card chip. In receive mode, the receive signal picked up by the antenna is amplified and fed to the smart card chip from the SIGOUT output. A 13.56-MHz clock signal and the signals from the NFCWI are needed to process the modulation signals. This item will be sent through the Global Shipping Programme and includes international tracking. By clicking Confirm bid, you are committing to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder and have read and agree to the Global Shipping Programme terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab.
By clicking 1 Click Bid, you are agreeing to buy this item from the seller if you're the winning bidder. For a shielded cable, an approximate relationship valid from few kHz up to the first cable resonance can be derived from its Transfer Impedance (Zt) allowing to predict the cable shielding factor. This article comes up with very simple, practical formulas that directly express the cable shielding factor Kr, given its Zt and frequency. Expressing the effectiveness of a cable shield has been a recurrent concern among the EMC community, and, more generally, for the whole electronic industry. Although Transfer Impedance Zt is a widely used and dependable parameter, SE or Reduction Factor Kr as a figure of merit are often preferred by engineers dealing with product specifications and overall  design, because they can relate it directly to the whole shielding performance required for the system.  It would be a nonsense to require 60dB of shielding for a system boxes or cabinets if the associated cables and their connecting hardware provide only 30dB, and vice-versa. By illuminating the tested sample with a strong electromagnetic field, this approach is coherent with Shielding Effectiveness definition for a box, a cabinet or any enclosure, with SE being a dimensionless number. It is very sensitive to the tested cable set-up: height above ground, termination loads and type of excitation in near field conditions. We can define Shield Reduction factor (Kr) as the ratio of the Differential Mode Voltage (Vd) appearing, core-to shield at the receiving end of the cable, to the Common Mode Voltage (Vcm) applied in series into the loop (Figure 1). This figure could also be regarded as the Mode Conversion Ratio between the external circuit (the loop) and the internal one ( the core-to-shield line).
Vd2 : differential voltage at the receive end with the shield normally grounded, both ends.
This latter definition would be more rigorous, somewhat reminiscent of the Insertion Loss used in EMC terminology, i.e.
Zloop itself is a length-dependent term, since it is simply the impedance of the shield-to-ground loop, which for any decent shield is a lesser value than that of the core wire plus the terminal impedances. Zt (Figure 2) consists in shield resistance Rshand shield transfer (or leakage) inductance Lt. One must also take into account C’, the actual propagation speed in the cable-to-ground transmission line, where C’ is slower than the ideal free-space velocity C.
The following figures show some calculations using the formulas of this article, and test results. Figure 4 shows calculated results on a 5m long good quality single braid coaxial cable, 1 meter above ground, with perfect 360° contact at connector backshell. He has authored eight widely sold handbooks, two books co-authored with Don White and 28 papers presented at IEEE and Zurich EMC Symposia, and various conferences.


A recent study reveals radiation from solar events is unlikely to affect earth & the dose of radiation emitted during the events isn’t enough to harm people. Aaronia MagnoShield FLEX allows shielding electronic circuitry, appliances and their chassis against magnetic interference even in highly sensible areas such as control centres, etc.. Installation is very easy especially when using Aaronia MagnoShield FLEX PLUS (self adhesive version), even for the amateur.
Magnetic shielding performance can be adapted optimally to your requirements by applying several layers of the product. To shield large areas (for example, entire rooms or buildings) against magnetic fields, we recommend our industrial solution consisting of Aaronia MagnoShield DUR magnetic shielding panels. The PowerFactor 2 sports eight outlets configured in eight isolated sections and a beefy toroidal transformer with robust magnetic field shielding. Simply choose the "3 Easy Payments" option in your cart, and we'll divide your purchase amount into three convenient payments, billed to your current MasterCard, Visa, Discover, or American Express card. If the size of the transponder antenna gets very small, the operating distance drops until there is no more communication possible.
To do so, a modulation resistance connected in parallel with the antenna of the transponder is switched on and off at the clock rate of the signal to be transmitted. However, the achievable range drops dramatically when very small antennas are used (SIM cards, micro SD cards).
Even with a card having a supplementary source of power (an active card), conventional load modulation is not a satisfactory solution because it provides only marginal improvement over a passive card unless the magnetic coupling is improved. These additional signals are separated from the carrier signal by the subcarrier frequency (848 kHz), with modulation sidebands on each side of these signals. The inputs to the modulator are a 13.56-MHz carrier signal (CF), the subcarrier (SC) and the baseband data signal (BS). The measurements were made using an ISO 14443 type A compliant reader such as the well known NXP Pegoda reader. In principle, reducing the antenna area by 10 reduces the reading range by approximately two, which equals approximately the 3rd root of the area ratio between two antennas. With an antenna having the same size as a micro SD card, it is easily possible to achieve a range of nearly 10 cm. The interface module consists of an amplifier, a modulator (M), an oscillator (OSC) with a frequency divider, and a signal conditioner. SIGIN corresponds to the control signal used to drive a common load modulator in a passive transponder and consists of the modulated subcarrier signal.
The SIGIN signal is provided together with a 13.56-MHz carrier signal to the modulator whose output then feeds the power amplifier. The signal conditioner acts as an amplifier to enable reception of very weak signals (in order to achieve maximum operation range) and as a threshold comparator (Schmitt trigger) to provide a digital signal at the output of the signal conditioner.
As it is not possible to receive the reader signal while transmitting the active load modulation signal, the oscillator (OSC) generates the 13.56-MHz carrier signal required for transmission on board. If the item comes direct from a manufacturer, it may be delivered in non-retail packaging, such as a plain or unprinted box or plastic bag.
By clicking Confirm bid you commit to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder. Import charges previously quoted are subject to change if you increase you maximum bid amount. This Cable Shielding factor, as a figure of merit, is often preferred by engineers dealing with product specifications and early design. This concern comes from a legitimate need to predict, measure, compare and improve the efficiency for a wide variety of shielded cables, such as coaxial cables or shielded pairs and bundles, having themselves various types of screens: braids, foils, spiral, corrugated, woven etc. Since it would be unpractical to access the remaining E (or H) field inside a cable shield, meaning between the sheath and the core, it is the effect of this incident field that is measured instead, for instance the core-to-shield voltage. For instance,  a transmit antenna at 1m from the test sample will create near field conditions  for all frequencies below 50MHz. Conceptual view of the shield Reduction Factor (Kr), with two variations of the measurement set-up.
This is translating correctly the actual situation where, for a uniform field exposure, the victim receiver circuit will see a higher interference. On Figure 5, the curve shows the test results of a 5m coaxial cable where the shield has been is intentionally spoiled by a 10cm pigtail. Kr for a 5m coaxial, shield grounded with 10cm pigtail (courtesy of AEMC Grenoble, France). Kr for 5m shielded computer cable, with good quality SubD25 shielded connector (courtesy AEMC Grenoble, France). While the driving voltage is equal to the open-circuit value,  the current minimum  on the shield is causing a drop in the terminal voltage Vd, therefore the value of Kr artificially jumps to higher values.


From 1976 to 80, he was also the French delegate to the CISPR Working Group , participating to what became CISPR 22, the root document for FCC 15-J and European EN55022.
Consist of a 5m long special grounding band (meshed wire) which allows a professional grounding of all Aaronia shielding products like A2000+, Aaronia-Shield, Aaronia X-Dream etc.. There is a $10 processing fee for using this service, and your billing address must be in the United States to be eligible. In this aricle, we discuss the possibility to enhance the performance of very small transponder, in the size of a micro SD memory card. If a transponder comes into proximity of a reader, this strong magnetic field induces a voltage which can be used to supply the transponder with energy.
If a small contactless card of this type is used in a mobile telephone or a PDA for example, the already small reader range, additional shielding caused by the battery and metal layers in the phone, quickly leads to problems, so that the transponder can no longer be accessed by an external reader.
To do this, it is only necessary to supply the contactless smart card with power by means of an electrical contact. A possible solution is to use an other method to generate a signal with the same spectral characteristics as a load modulation signal and to actively transmit this signal to the reader.
So even if the card is installed in a mobile phone, suffering from additional shielding, an acceptable communication range of a few centimetres can be achieved.
This interface is known as NFC-wired interface (NFC-WI) and normally used to connect a secure element with a NFC front end in a mobile phone. The antenna and the series capacitor form a seriesresonant circuit connected to outputs of the power amplifier, with the result that under resonant conditions the RF current flowing in the antenna resonant circuit is limited only by the DC resistance of the conductors and the amplifier, which means that the maximum possible transmit power is obtained. If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable. Being not necessarily EMC specialists, they can relate it directly to the overall shielding performance required for a system boxes or cabinets. If the antenna is of the dipole family, the near-field will be predominantly Electrical, i.e. In (B), the measurement compares the voltage measured at the termination with, and without the shield connected. This effect is visible  on the figures, where Kr appears periodically better, then worse, than its average values. In 1980, he joined Don White Consultants (later re-named ICT) in Gainesville, Virginia, becoming Director of Training, then VP Engineering.
This standard is designed for high security communication with ID1 sized (smart card) transponders at proximity distances of 10 cm or less.
To transfer data from the reader to the transponder, simple amplitude shift keying (ASK) is used. To transmit data from an active transponder to a reader, it is only necessary to generate the two subcarrier spectral lines along with the sidebands containing the data and transmit them to the reader.
The amplitude of this signal is increased by an amplifier, and the amplified signal is radiated by the antenna. Using the same antenna size together with a circuit generating active load modulation, the resulting reader range was full 50 cm. On the digital side, the interface module has one signal output, SIGOUT, and one signal input, SIGIN, both of which are connected with the secure element. This eliminates the contribution of the core wire resistance and self-inductance, since they influence identically Vd1 and Vd2. In the present paper, we have preferred to align the calculations on the worst case situation, not the most favorable one. He developed the market of EMC seminars, teaching himself more than 160 classes in the US and worldwide.
Containing no information, a constant 13.56 MHz carrier signal does not need to be transmitted by the transponder, and it is anyway transmitted constantly by the reader.
SIGIN and SIGOUT are used to link the smart card microcontroller with the active RFID interface module.
If the transmit antenna is a magnetic loop, the field will be a low-impedance H field, and the SE results will be much less impressive. One top involvement has been the EMC of the Channel Tunnel, with his British colleagues of Interference Technology International. A basic telecommunication circuit that can be used to generate such a DSB modulation is the ring modulator.



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