This project tested and analyzed how much energy can be saved by applying conservation measures in a typical existing residential apartment building in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Compared to the US, buildings are a larger percentage of electricity consumption in the country. According to the Saudi Arabian census that was conducted in 2004, the latest census for Jeddah, 61% of the Jeddah population is living in apartments. By analyzing the energy use of an existing residential apartment, the information gathered can help inform the new housing units that might be constructed to accommodate the expansion of Jeddah. The three most common wall assembles in Jeddah were selected to compare to the existing wall assembly to determine if there was a variation in performance.
The 3rd floor (north and south positioned apartments), the results for the 3rd floor will be multiplied by the number of apartments that have the same orientation to get the total building cooling load.
When wall Alternative 1 was applied, there was a significant increase in cooling loads, an average of 11.6%. Alternative 2, insulated red hollow clay brick, was selected as a best practice option for future constructions. This project demonstrated that the energy use of a typical residential building in Jeddah can be reduced through energy conservation measures. Hatim Azzouz, Associate AIA, graduated from King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals in 2008 with a Bachelor’s degree in Architecture. Autodesk is committed to helping designers and engineers create a future where we all live well and within the limits of our planet.
This item will be shipped through the Global Shipping Program and includes international tracking. Will usually ship within 1 business day of receiving cleared payment - opens in a new window or tab. By submitting your bid, you are committing to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder. By clicking Confirm, you commit to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder.
By clicking Confirm, you are committing to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder and have read and agree to the Global Shipping Program terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab. Your bid is the same as or more than the Buy It Now price.You can save time and money by buying it now. By clicking 1 Click Bid, you commit to buy this item from the seller if you're the winning bidder. On August 6, I wrote a post called Making Sense of the US Oil Story, in which I looked at US oil. US natural gas production leveled off in 2013, because of the low level of US natural gas prices.
The US-Canada-Mexican natural gas system is more or less a closed system (at least until LNG exports come online in the next few years) so whatever natural gas is produced, is used. If natural gas is cheap and plentiful, it tends to switch with coal for electricity production.
Coal use increased further in early 2014, because of the cold winter and higher natural gas prices. If we look at total consumption of coal and natural gas (Figure 3), we find it also tends to be quite stable. Another factor in the lower electricity usage (and thus lower coal and natural gas usage) is fewer household formations since 2007. US coal production hit its maximum level in 1998, with production tending to decline since then. If we look at the US distribution of fuels, we see that in recent years, nuclear has been a much bigger source of energy than hydroelectricity. If we look at hydro and nuclear separately for recent years (Figure 6, below), we see that nuclear has tended to grow, while hydro has tended to fall, although both now seem to be on close to a plateau. The reason why hydro has tended to decrease in quantity over time is that it takes maintenance (using fossil fuels) to keep the aging power plants in operation and silt removed from near the dams. Nuclear power plant electricity production has grown even since the 1986 Chernobyl accident because the United States has continued to expand the capacity of existing nuclear facilities.
It is easier to see other energy types if we look at them as a percentage of US total energy consumption. A person can see that over the long haul, hydroelectric has tended to shrink as a percentage of energy consumption, as energy needs grew and hydroelectric failed to keep up. Biofuels now amount to 5.7% of US petroleum (crude oil plus natural gas liquids) consumption. Corn ethanol currently takes about 40% of US corn production, according to the USDA (Figure 9). If someone figures out how to make cellulosic ethanol cheaply (perhaps from wood), it presumably will cut into the market for corn ethanol, unless the blend wall is raised to 15%. Wind and Solar PV are sources of US electricity, so really need to be compared in that context. Figure 10: Hydroelectric, other renewables, and nuclear as a percentage of US electricity supply, based on EIA data.


The confusion comes elsewhere, where substitution is for natural gas, coal, or nuclear energy. Germany is known for its encouragement of wind and solar PV, using liberal funding for the renewables. It would be great if we had a solution for our non-oil energy issues, but we really don’t.
Editorial Notes: Related article on Solar, peak oil and net energy in the mainstream published at ABC Radio Australia. Resilience is a program of Post Carbon Institute, a nonprofit organization dedicated to helping the world transition away from fossil fuels and build sustainable, resilient communities. The project analyzes the design decisions of an existing residential building and through analysis, offers recommendations and guidelines for improving the energy efficiency for new constructions in the region.
Through simulation, the project identified the energy consumption of a typical residential building in Jeddah and explored various areas for improvement such as building orientation, shading devices, envelope materials, and internal loads. The alternative wall assemblies were: concrete block wall (Alt 1), insulated red hollow clay brick wall with 50mm of Extruded Polystyrene (Alt 2), and insulated red hollow clay brick wall with 75mm of Extruded Polystyrene (Alt 3).
Furthermore, the energy conservation measures can be summarized in best practices and recommendations to improve the current and existing residential building stock in Jeddah. If you'd like to get the additional items you've selected to qualify for this offer, close this window and add these items to your cart. Packaging should be the same as what is found in a retail store, unless the item is handmade or was packaged by the manufacturer in non-retail packaging, such as an unprinted box or plastic bag.
You have read and agree to the Global Shipping Program terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab. Import charges previously quoted are subject to change if you increase you maximum bid amount. In 2013, there was growth in gas production in Pennsylvania in the Marcellus, but many other states, including Texas, saw decreases in production. Selected Fuels Share of US Electricity Production – Coal, Natural Gas, and the sum of Coal plus Natural Gas, based on EIA data. In Figure 2, there is a slight downward trend in the sum of coal and natural gas’s share of electricity, as renewables add their (rather small) effect.
Increases in natural gas consumption more or less correspond to decreases in coal consumption.
Young people who continue to live with their parents don’t add as much electricity usage as ones who set up their own households do. US coal consumption has been dropping faster than production, so that exports (difference between production and consumption) have been rising (Figure 4). Hydroelectricity using concrete and metals became feasible in the 1800s, when we began using coal to provide the heat necessary to make metals and concrete in quantity. US Energy Consumption, showing the various fossil fuel extenders separately from fossil fuels, based on BP data. The grouping GeoBiomass is a BP grouping including geothermal and various forms of wood and other biomass energy, including sources such as landfill gas and other energy from waste. Hydro tends to be more variable than nuclear because it depends on rainfall and snow pack, things that vary from year to year and month to month.
Most of the good locations for dams are already taken, so not much new capacity has been added. Renewables are percentage of US energy consumption, using EIA data (but groupings used by BP).
It also includes geothermal, which is about 6% as large as hydroelectric, and is increasing gradually over time. Without additional ethanol coming from a source such as cellulosic ethanol, such an increase in the maximum blending percentage would likely be problematic.
Studies (such as by Brookings Institution, Weissbach et al., Graham Palmer) show that wind and solar PV are not cost-effective for reducing carbon emissions.
High prices of any fuel tend to lead to recession because wages don’t rise to match the high prices.
If fossil fuels have problems, can “renewables” have long life-spans in spite of those problems? There are a few situations where wind and solar PV are used to substitute for oil–for example, on islands, where oil is used to operate electricity generation.
Here, the savings to an electric company is primarily a savings in fuel cost, that is, the cost of the natural gas, or coal or uranium. This approach has adverse ramifications, including high electricity costs, less grid stability, closure of some traditional natural gas power plants, and rising carbon dioxide emissions. The closest we can perhaps come is scaling up natural gas consumption some, and reducing coal’s current portion of the electricity mix. If, on the other hand, natural gas prices don’t rise very much, not much of an increase in production is likely to be available. If the United States starts taking much nuclear off line, it will leave a big hole in electricity generation, especially in the Eastern part of the US.
There may also be growth possibilities for items that I have not discussed, such as solar thermal for heating hot water, particularly in warm parts of the United States.


In 2006, she became interested in the likely financial impacts of oil limits on insurance companies and other financial institutions, and started writing about that issue.
In 2010, he moved to the United States of America to pursue his Master’s degree in Sustainable Design from the Catholic University of America. If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable. In early 2014, natural gas prices have been higher, so natural gas production is rising again, roughly at a 4% annual rate.
Natural gas producers have found this pricing situation objectionable because natural gas prices tend to settle at a low level, relative to the cost of production. New natural gas power plants should be more efficient than old coal power plants in producing electricity, putting downward pressure on total coal plus natural gas consumption.
Note that GeoBiomass, Biofuels, and Solar+Wind are hard to see on Figure 5, because of their small quantities. Based on EIA data, biomass isn’t growing either in absolute amount or as a percentage of total energy consumed.
The remainder, which includes geothermal, wood and various waste products, is growing a bit.
If we want to reduce carbon emissions, conservation or switching from coal to natural gas would be more cost effective. This story is used to support a switch to wind and solar PV and high priced biofuels, since the expected high prices of fossil fuels will supposedly support the high cost of renewables. Also, a country using the high-priced fuel tends to become less competitive compared to countries that don’t use the high-priced fuel. The plant’s manpower needs and its cost of electric grid maintenance will be the same (or higher). A recent article called Germany’s Electricity Market Out of Balance by the Institute for Energy Research summarizes these issues.
We currently have a large amount of coal consumption relative to natural gas consumption (Figure 3), so we ourselves have good use for rising natural gas production, if it should actually take place. Producers would like to export (a lot of) natural gas to Europe, as a way of jacking-up US natural gas prices. Germany and recently Belgium are starting to experience the effect of taking nuclear off line. Wind and solar PV are still growing, but it is hard to justify subsidies for them, as part of the electric grid system. While studying, he received the Autodesk Building Performance Analysis Certificate in March 2013. Also, we are using more efficient lighting, refrigerators, and monitors for computers, holding down electricity usage, and thus both coal and gas usage. Similar to hydroelectricity, nuclear requires fossil fuels to build and maintain its plants making electricity. The capacity expansion of the San Onofre plant in California in 2010 experienced premature wear and is now being decommissioned. It takes fossil fuels to maintain the electric grid and to produce any modern renewable, such as wind, or solar PV or wave energy.
In these situations, per capita use of electricity can be expected to be very low, because exports made with such high-priced electricity will be non-competitive in the world market-place.
There may be costs associated with monitoring the new sources of electricity added to the grid or additional balancing costs, and these need to be considered as well.
It is hard to see how wind and solar PV can play a very big role in offsetting the nuclear loss.
Solar PV does have uses off grid, if citizens want their own source of electricity, with their own inverters and back-up batteries. The hope, from producers’ point of view, is that exports will push US natural gas prices higher, making more natural gas production economic. Better insulation is also helpful in reducing home heating needs (whether by electricity or natural gas). Many of the nuclear plants built in the 1970s are reaching the ends of their useful lives.
There are also business uses of this type–for example, to operate equipment in a remote location.
I am using EIA data for US renewables in Figure 7, since its long-term data series is probably as good as any for the US.
Unless we add a large number of new nuclear plants in the next few years, it seems likely that US generation of nuclear electricity will be falling over the next 20 years.
Oil prices may fall so low (relative to the cost of oil production) that oil producers sell their land and increase dividends to shareholders instead; in fact, this seems to be happening already.



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