The theoretical underpinnings of empathy studies roughly divide it into two camps: the theory-theory approaches, and the simulation-theory approaches.
To talk about affective and cognitive empathy as two parts or stages of the phenomenon does not solve the issue of how the two belong together, and it, indeed, seems to leave the account of action (acting in order to help the person one feels and understands is suffering) out of empathy altogether. In the conference we want to gather academics and practitioners from different disciplines who try to move beyond (not beside) the theory-theory and the simulation-theory approaches to empathy. This entry was posted in Conferences and tagged CFP, conference, emotion, empathy, medical humanities, philosophy. The Culture of Empathy website is the largest internet portal for resources and information about the values of empathy and compassion. Customer empathy is something of a polarizing topic for user experience and CRM experts alike, and it’s not surprising when you look at the nature of empathy as a whole. Empathy is different from sympathy in that empathy is genuinely feeling and understanding the feelings or plights of others, where sympathy is merely feeling remorse for the unfortunate situation others find themselves in, but not feeling their same sorrow or distress. A customer may in fact be making irrational demands, or impossible demands within the terms of service and policy of your company. On the other hand, though, a total lack of empathy for a customer can result in poor CRM altogether. In truth, some small quanta of empathy is useful during active customer service practice, but it must be closely monitored and controlled, to avoid that unfair lack of balance mentioned earlier. In truth, the best place for significant customer empathy is when designing terms of service, and customer service systems and procedures from the ground up.
It is in this stage that empathy is key, but it is actually a bit less helpful during the process of active customer service.
Below are some of the contributions to that conversation on the listserv – a conversation that I am sure is going to develop, change and grow as virtual reality becomes more established and accessible. Our goal was more to create a sense of immersion rather than an emotional response; we found that at a high refresh rate, low latency, high resolution that participants felt more involved.
In addition to mindful, thoughtful, intersectional action steps – We need to be careful of the people we are taking through the journey. Program Director at WITNESS, and teaches on human rights and participatory media as an Adjunct Lecturer at the Harvard Kennedy School. It seems to me a real leap to think of VR as an empathy machine without thinking about the context in which we experience VR. I think VR and immersive experience works very well for intensive encounters, and for responding intense moments – but not sure how well it encourages us to empathise with long-terms structurally-induced suffering for example.
1. It sounds like some of these VR experimentations are similar to “theatrical” type immersion experiences. I am familiar enough with the folks who run this program to trust their motivations, intentions, and values. Forgive the self-reference, but as I mainly have myself as a lab rat, let me report on my personal experience with RR (real reality) as opposed to VR, in amongst the most heart wrenching and overwhelming of humanitarian crises in recent years (post-earthquake Haiti, Somali famine crisis).
Recognising fully that I have had the privilege of leaving (as well as the privilege of witnessing, which is an extraordinary, life-changing privilege indeed), ultimately I have found that my being able to have these experiences has made me a stronger, more informed, more persuasive advocate (and just generally less of a materialist jerk). Put otherwise, my experience of an assemblage of the visual and haptic experience of another is putting me in their place, but not actually in their body. If empathy is fundamentally based on a movement of feeling within the individual, a transformation based on the imagining of the inner states of others, it can only deliver a heightened understanding of their responses.
Exploring Tools for Thought – interactive documentary platforms for production, teaching and research; The Uses of Immersion – from personalisation to VR and experiential storytelling; and Evolving Practices - where are i-docs going now?
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A good indicator of empathy in apes is consolation behavior (see photograph), which is defined as providing reassuring body contacts to distressed others, such as the loser of a fight.
The Age of Empathy tries to communicate the layered nature of empathy with the Russian Doll model.
Given the common misperception that we stand miles higher on the evolutionary scale, this means that in my book apes move up a few steps whereas humans move down a few. Some recent books and articles object vehemently to any talk of mental continuity between humans and other animals. When humans apply themselves, as we have been doing in the last few millennia, we can go from a stick to a Blackberry, but even though the end product is now radically different this doesn't mean that the underlying processes have changed to an equal degree.
This is not to say that we can get all of our information on primate behavior from captivity. I do feel strongly that captive primates should be kept in social setting in both zoos and laboratories, preferably with outdoor access.
A recent attempt by journalist Ian Parker of The New Yorker was to argue that bonobos are in fact more chimpanzee-like than we think, hence that they don’t undermine the traditional nature-red-in-tooth-and-claw image that some like so much.
When we judge prospective graduate students, we make a quick distinction between those who merely think primates are cute and likable and those who are more focused on issues that they wish to explore.

The wave of empathy studies is psychology, philosophy, psychiatry and other disciplines is linked to a parallel theoretical interest in the phenomena of feeling, selfhood, inter-subjectivity and morality, but also to practical attempts to understand and improve meetings between workers and clients in different professions, such as health care professions, teaching professions, psychotherapy or social work.
The ideas that to have a theory of mind or an ability to put oneself in the shoes of another are necessary for empathy can serve either as philosophical clarifications of empathy or as taken for granted starting points of the empathy studies; in both cases, however, it is becoming increasingly evident by way of empirical results as well as conceptual clarification that the two approaches are relying on ideas of inter-subjective understanding which do not get the relationships between feeling, thought and action in empathy exactly right. Most suffering persons would surely prefer a fellow being who actually does something for them in contrast to just telling them that they understand and feel sorry for them.
We want to address the question of what empathy is from an empirical as well as theoretical perspective, and we want to connect the issue to what role empathy serves in the development of human beings as well as the exercise of human based professions. It contains articles, conferences, definitions, experts, history, interviews,  videos, science and much more about empathy and compassion.
This is important to bear in mind, because sympathizing with customers when an issue or desire is brought forward is therefore not the same thing as empathizing with one. While it may in fact be unfortunate that this customer is experiencing duress due to these conditions, empathizing too strongly with them in this scenario may prove unproductive for your company, and may in fact upset other customers who are also displeased with the situation, but do not complain otherwise.
So many companies in modern times are guilty of having no customer empathy whatsoever, and customers will often be turned off by their seemingly robotic, uncaring CRM staff, and it can cost a lot of business. A seasoned CRM professional will know by reflex exactly what the right amount of empathy is for this. When designing how your CRM terms and procedures work, empathize with what a distressed customer may be feeling, when regarding all of the problem contingencies your UX professionals have foreseen up to that point. So I think we have to understand how we offer meaningful actions emerging out of intense experiences – otherwise we give people an intense experience but risk that we alienate people from returning or learning more.
Coming from a human rights background, there is often a prioritisation in attention on shocking, very visible violence or events, rather than long-term degradation of people’s rights and dignity. For example Crossroads has been running refugee and poverty immersion experiences at places like Davos for a while.
And this is the central critique of VR as a successful medium for “increasing” empathy: that it cannot reproduce internal states, only the physical conditions that might influence that. Several systematic studies have been conducted on this behavior, a recent one indicating that such body contact indeed serves to calm down the distressed party. Empathy (right) induces a similar emotional state in the subject as the object, with at its core the perception-action mechanism (PAM), which produces state-matching.
Here a juvenile chimpanzee puts an arm around a screaming adult male, who has just been defeated in a fight. If an extraterrestrial were to visit earth, he would have a hard time seeing most of the differences we treasure between ourselves and the apes. To see what it means for human behavior is another, and here I take the stance that not only our undesirable traits, such as violence, but also our noble ones, such as empathy and morality, are part of our primate heritage. They still remain tied to an ability to use tools, learn from others, and invent new habits -- all capacities common to humans and apes.
With the decreasing laboratory use of chimpanzees, there is a great need for retirement facilities. Best is of course to attend a college with professors who do primate work and teach about it. To be empathic does not seem to consist in being able to think that the other is like me, or imagining what it is like to be him, in feeling or acting on his behalf. Abstracts for presentations addressing these issues and not exceeding 600 words should be sent to the conference secretary Martin Gunnarson no later than the 15 of April. Well, quite simply, empathizing too strongly with a customer can result in compromising the integrity of a business, and can result in some levels of nepotism and favoritism with customers, which is absolutely disastrous in the long run.
Sometimes, one has to stand their ground (civilly of course) with customers and simply point out they are being irrational. Empathy also tends to prioritize linkages to particular individuals rather than structural thinking. As Coxon noted in Soupporis’ article, the system was incapable of reproducing “inner experience”. In psychology, this side is often emphasized, hence the view that empathy is a high level cognitive skill that requires language, and will only be found in humans.
The doll’s outer layers, such as sympathetic concern and perspective-taking, build upon this hard-wired socio-affective basis. The number of similarities is far greater - from our ears and hands to our sexual behavior and power politics. There is really no reason to blame human biology for all that's wrong with us, because also all that's right with us is a product of our evolutionary background. Captive primates are generally healthier, and hence live longer than primates in the field.
The question of what “professional empathy” might be and how it is possible, or, indeed, fruitful to attain such ability is an interesting one in itself.
It is true that most adults that show empathy are able to think and imagine that the other is like me and what it would be like to be in his predicament, but this is neither necessary nor sufficient for being empathic.
Is empathy a corner stone of morality, perhaps a necessary constituent in the makeup of every moral subject, or is it rather a bad substitute for ethical concepts such as respect and responsibility, allowing people to think and say that they really know what it is to be in the position of the other, and perhaps, also, to feel sorry for the other rather than doing anything about his suffering?

The customer is actually not always right, unfortunately, and it can be either very difficult to tell them this, or all too easy, and neither of these is going to end well.
Understand how they may feel when solutions are offered or declared impossible by your CRM professionals. And I found that creating sets that bridge between where a person is and where we transport them to helps. This doesn't explain, however, how empathy develops, because no one would deny that a young child is already affected by the moods of those around it before it can speak. I recommend this article and the review paper by Stephanie Preston and myself to anyone who wants to study this topic in detail, and who wants to get a taste of the academic debates surrounding the topic of empathy! Within this mass of shared traits a few important differences can be discerned, such as the use of language, but we tend to blow these differences out of proportion. The Age of Empathy stresses this continuity and shows in detail how empathy runs through the entire mammalian lineage. To make the point how different we are these books and articles like to contrast chimpanzee tool-use, such as a twig to fish for termites, with humans traveling on airplanes with Blackberries.
They are also less free, but this is a typically human take on their life that may not be felt the same by the animals themselves, especially those born in captivity (some great insights on this can be found in Life of Pi by Yann Martel). In order to get accepted in a graduate program in primatology it will be extremely helpful if you have previous experience.
Rather these two abilities can reinforce and develop an empathic attitude which in its basic form is developed as a feeling in its own right. On the other hand, in the wild it is impossible to do certain behavioral experiments so that conclusions are often hard to draw. This may be a field trip to a place where primates are being studied, a project at your local zoo, or time spent in an animal behavior laboratory. During most of our history most humans lived extremely simple lives, in which sticks were indeed important tools. For example, if apes in certain wild communities crack nuts with stones, the question is if each individual discovered this by itself or if it copied it from each other. Without such experience, the professors you apply to work with will find it hard to judge if you'll do well with primates. As is clear from my book, I consider this emotional side the core around which all empathy is constructed. It is obvious, however, that we have a talent for cultural learning and transmission, and that this talent is greater than that of chimpanzees. And without field experience it is hard to judge if you will be tough enough for work in the natural habitat (which is physically demanding and lacks many of the usual luxuries of life - some students travel all the way to the tropics only to quit in a matter of days). Yet, the cultural abilities of humans and apes are clearly related (see our culture studies web site).
If this core is lacking, you can try to imagine another’s situation as much as you want, you would lack investment in it. You might take the other’s perspective, but we wouldn't call it empathy if you stay emotionally aloof. Studies correlating empathy with increased sales, with the performance of the best managers of product development teams and with enhanced performance, means organisations have to seek new recruits with healthy levels of empathy. Even though empathy is a soft, sometimes abstract tool in a person’s toolkit, it can lead to hard, tangible results. People who are naturally and consistently empathetic – the people who can easily forge positive connections with other, are people who use empathy to engender trust and build bonds. On the other hand, lack of ability to experience empathy is the reason for a lot of organizational based bullying, employee and team distress and failure to sell and retain clients. The bad news is that they need to want to learn, as it takes practice and commitment to get it right.
Many people find requirements to be empathic as profoundly uncomfortable, but for most people it can be learned over time.
Of course, some people do not have the capacity to experience empathy due to damaging events and insecure attachment to primary caregivers during infancy, and sometimes due to brain and genetic disorders. Cultivating empathy has its own rewards: The more you do it, the better your relationships are and the more you want to continue. If you can see the problem from the other person’s point of view, you are much more likely to be able to get through the issue without conflict. Tagged as: development of empathy, empathy and business, empathy and sales, managers, teamwork Cancel reply Leave a Comment Name * E-mail * Website What amazed the team most was how well adaptas™ understood our business.One of the Worlds Largest Search Engines! Will definitely use you for projects in the future.Trinity College Dublin This training should be mandatory for all staff members. It was excellent and was well focused all the way through.Brown Thomas It created a kind of safety net which encouraged group participation and engagement.

Magnetic field earth 2014
National geographic series 'deadly arts'
Electromagnetic induction in real life

Rubric: How To Survive Emp


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