A recent article in the journal Science sheds new light on the collapse of the ancient Maya civilization.
The Maya civilization was an ancient Native American culture that inhabited the eastern third of Mesoamerica, primarily the Yucatan Peninsula. The Maya civilization was a group of independent city-states that shared some culture, including rituals, ceremonies, architecture and objects. The Lowland Maya centers flourished, becoming true cities with large populations, great pyramids, temples, sculpture and palaces constructed from stone and masonry. Located in the tropical rainforests and low woodlands, the Lowland Maya utilized slash and burn agriculture techniques. The Highland Maya, found in drier volcanic highlands, were farmers as well, but also traded in minerals and metals found on their lands.
Now, a new study supports the theory that large-scale climate change led to the Maya civilization’s demise. As rainwater dripped onto the floor of the cave, its minerals slowly formed the ancient stalagmite. They discovered that the early period of the Maya civilization experienced abundant rainfall supporting increased food production and a population explosion beginning around 440 A.D. Other scientists believe that while climate change may have affected the Maya, it did not lead to the end of the civilization, but set the stage for decline.
Co-authors are Neal Lineback, Appalachian State University Professor Emeritus of Geography, and Geographer Mandy Lineback Gritzner. Since 1999, Geography in the News has been a must-read for teachers subscribing to the K-12 online resource Maps101. National Geographic VoicesResearchers, conservationists, and others around the world share stories and commentary on the National Geographic Society's conversation platform Voices. Society Field Inspection 2016: Gulf of CaliforniaDescribed by Jacques Cousteau as the "aquarium of the world," the Gulf of California in Mexico is threatened by coastal development, climate change, and other human activities.
Support National GeographicWe've supported more than 11,000 grants to scientists and others in the field.Learn more about our work. Two years after being discovered deep in a South African cave, the 1,500 fossils excavated during the Rising Star Expedition have been identified as belonging to a previously unknown early human relative that National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Lee Berger and team have named Homo naledi. With at least 15 individuals of all ages and both sexes represented, the find adds an unprecedented amount of information to our understanding of early human evolution in Africa. In addition, the absence of any other animal remains or large debris in the fossil chamber strongly suggests that these non-human beings intentionally deposited their dead within this cave. BANABA ISLAND, Kiribati—Asbestos dust covers the floors of Banaba’s crumbling colonial houses, buildings, and schools. Spiders literally creeping out of your walls may sound like a Halloween movie, but it was reality for one Missouri family: They were forced to move after more than 4,000 venomous spiders infested their home. For several years the Trost family of Weldon Spring had seen brown recluse spiders coming out of the fireplace, the blinds, the pantry ceiling, even the shower, according to the St.
Why do spiders congregate like this—and could it happen to us? National Geographic spoke with Joel Ledford, who studies spiders at the University of California, Davis. I study spiders that are in caves, and I’ve been in caves where there have been many hundreds [of spiders] that belong to the same genus.
There are some spiders that are social, and they form little colonies that contain many hundreds—or a thousand—of individuals. I’m not surprised that there were lots, but certainly not seeping through the walls. That seems out of character for this kind of spider. This spider is very secretive and not aggressive, and it doesn’t really do anything but hang out and eat harmful insects. When the males mature and they’re reproductive, they leave the safety of their web and go looking for love. Brown recluse spiders have a very special kind of venom that causes necrotic lesions—your skin starts seeping and dying and flaking off.
What do you say to those of us who are concerned about a spider infestation in our own homes? As one poster said, most of the times this is MRSA and the other times it’s local allergic reactions to flying insect bites. The article indicates spiders were an ongoing issue in the home for several years, but how would anybody be able to live with this problem for that amount of time? Also, how were two different extermination companies not able to rid the building of the creepy-crawlers?
I still think that doctors tend to sensationalize, even if they would survive a nuclear blast, as Mark Rodriguez is trying to make us believe. How did they determine that there were ‘over 4000’ spiders involved in this scenario? People are asking why so many recluse spiders were found in this house, and what they can do to prevent being next! Like many other spiders, recluse spiders have a preferred ‘microhabitat’ and the conditions in this home may have been just right. Recluse spiders are nocturnal hunters, and spend most of the time in small web retreats during the day. The original story had details about spiders seeping though walls which I found incredible. Spider bites are overdiagnosed, and there are many articles that deal with this in professional journals. The mythos and stigma surrounding spiders is pervasive in the media, and spiders overall have a bad rap. Most everyone I talk to about spiders has a personal anecdote about spider bites (or deaths!) and I do my best to share information about spider biology.
To those who are saying this article contains inaccurate information, I would like to defend it. Also, if it is a group of searching, reproductively active males, I would imagine they are more likely to have aggressive tendencies. Imagine if you were in the same area as an attractive person of your interest, and were crowded by potential competitors. In terms of their bite, there are other things and animals that can cause similar wounds, and misdiagnosese are not uncommon.
The danger with these bites is that they don’t initially hurt, and can go unnoticed, allowing them to spread or to become infected. A completely random guess (as in no sources, an uneducated guess) would be that, when so crowded, they are inbreeding. My experience comes from several sources, and personal encounters with these spiders by friends and family. I am not trying to create an argument, I just felt a responsibility to provide this National Geographic page with a defense.
It also might be good to consider that this scientist has a PHD (often 3-4 additional years after a BA for science).
Did you “lightly edit” the portions of the interview that actually dealt with the topic?
Brown recluse FEMALES stay closer to the web, while males venture out much further to hunt. I have a friend who sees Brown Recluses around on a near daily basis and they are nearly always running and hiding, unless she is sitting still (which is difficult to do as she is an arachnaphobe), which is when they simply walk by in search for food and leave her alone. The fatalities reported to be from Brown recluse bites occur almost always in the very old and the very young, because their immune system is impaired or insufficiently developed, but there are many conditions that cause lesions similar to that of a brown recluse bite so misdiagnosing is easy.
So these spiders can, but many times DON’T kill you, they will however cause nasty damage if you do not seek treatment for the bite (and if you can bring the spider with you for proper identification), which the man in this interview absolutely agrees with, and he even states that their bites should NOT be trivialized. The fact you have lived around these spiders for quite some time and have not been bitten kind of proves this man’s point about the sensationalizing. I have seen several of those claimed to be recluse bite amputations that were actually amputations and necrosis from untreated diabetes and other diseases(if you do a search for these you find a lot of the same images).
I live in alaska an these are one of the main spiders here, during winter they move into houses for warmth, and usually never go out of their way to bite someone unless its provoked.
An exhibition commemorating the bicentennial of the Jesuit Restoration and a century of women's education at Loyola-Mundelein in Chicago. Map of New France (French): territories that had been controlled by France sometime during the period 1534-1803.
In The Catholic Calumet, historian Tracy Neal Leavelle examines interactions between Jesuits and Algonquian-speaking peoples of the upper Great Lakes and Illinois country, including the Illinois and Ottawas, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. As part of their 125th Anniversary edition last October, National Geographic decided to publish a series of pictures predicting what the average American would look like in the year 2050. In 2010, 15% of new marriages were between members of different races, according to the Wall Street journal, who also created this graphic showing the percentage of mixed-race marriages state by state. The Coolest Places on Earth: Plitvice Lakes National Park, CroatiaPlitvice Lakes National Park is located in Croatia, near the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina. A wall of National Geographic magazine covers at the 125th Anniversary Exhibit in Washington, DC. For me, working at National Geographic is a dream come true, and this year especially, I feel a real sense of honor to be contributing in my own small way to the great legacy of the Society.
The beginning of this year marked the 125th anniversary of the founding of the Society, when,  on January 13, 1888, 33 men gathered at the Cosmos Club in Washington, DC and laid out the charter to establish a geographical society in the United States of America.I wonder if any of those founding fathers had any idea that their little club would grow into the force of global inspiration that it is today.
A bathing beauty enjoys Kenilworth Gardens in Washington, DC, photographed on autochrome in January 1928 for National Geographic, but never published. Now in this month of October, we commemorate the 125th anniversary of the first issue of National Geographic magazine.
Holding the original October 1888 issue of National Geographic Magazine in anticipation of our 125th Anniversary Expedition around the world. Having traveled around the world last year, I already know that this trip is going to be simply amazing. Alas, the plane has numbered seats and weight restrictions, I imagine, leaving me to represent all of you on this expedition of a lifetime.
So many NG articles inspired so many of my trips; I have well over 5 million air miles so NG is also a money maker for airlines. I have a great stack of National Geographic that I just can’t bring myself to get rid of. I visited the National Geographic 125th anniversary exhibition and it was truly one of the best exhibitions I have ever seen.


The KT extinction wiped out more than half of all species on the planet, including the dinosaurs, birdlike pterosaurs and large marine reptiles, clearing the way for mammals to become the dominant species on Earth, Imperial College added in its release.
The impact released about a billion times more energy than the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and a million times larger than the largest nuclear bomb ever tested, said the University of Texas. Some scientists have suggested that the Chicxulub impact happened 300,000 years before the KT boundary, and therefore came too early to have been the major cause of extinctions, the University of Texas said.
The KT boundary, also known as the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, is how geologists refer to the time of the great extinction.
The Cretaceous Creekbed diorama in the Prehistoric Journey exhibit at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science shows two Stygimoloch spinifer dinosaurs fighting in the woodlands of North Dakota. However, the University of Texas added, the reviewers of the study published today find that what appears to be a series of layers neatly laid down over 300,000 years near the impact site were actually violently churned and then dumped in a thick pile in a very short time. The Earth Impact Effects Program website created by Gareth Collins, from the Department of Earth Science and Engineering at Imperial College London, allows the user to select different effects such as air blasts, seismic shaking and thermal radiation to determine their effect on Earth after the Chicxulub asteroid impact. In addition, the reviewers note, as you go farther from the impact site, these layers become thinner and the amount of ejected material decreases until it becomes one layer that can be found globally exactly at the KT boundary coincident with the mass extinction.
The K-Pg boundary as exposed along the side of Interstate 25 near Raton Pass in southern Colorado. The reviewers find that despite evidence for relatively active volcanism in India, marine and terrestrial ecosystems showed only minor changes within the 500,000 years before the KT boundary. The Earth Impact Effects Program website created by Gareth Collins shows the extent of the fireball that engulfed the impact zone (top) and the area covered by an air blast. The Earth Impact Effects Program website shows the estimated tsunami zone created by the Chicxulub impact. In the review, the panel sifted past studies to analyze the evidence that linked the asteroid impact and volcanic activity with the KT extinction, Imperial said. I never thought of the possibility it could cause plate shifts and world wide earthquakes with resultant volcanic activity. The information posted here gives me cause to suspect this meteor strike may have caused the tilt in the earths axis and the slight wobble in the earths rotation.
Is it possible that there were multiple strikes in different geographic locations from a larger object that broke apart??? I know as little about science as is humanly possible but wouldn’t North and South America have been one continent 65 million years ago? Also, this larger impact might have infulenced the tectonic plates would be yet another focal point as to whether my impact is commissurate in time with the Chicxulub incident. It is possible that the Dinosaurs were dying out due to disease or other causes but it really does seem that the impact event was what finished them off. I think that the impact hypothesis is wrong because the city-size asteroid grazed the earth, thus left Iridium scattered over an area of New Mexico, AZ, toward gulf region. This could cause eruptions, but is more likely to release pressure through earthquakes and avoid eruptions in various hot spots.
I am not a scientist; but would not a hit from an asteroid that big cause earthquakes and set off volcanoes all over the globe? The alligator snapping turtle, the biggest freshwater turtle in North America, is actually three species, according to a study that appeared April 9 in the journal Zootaxa. The prehistoric reptile is already known for its size—it weighs up to 200 pounds (90 kilograms)—and longevity of nearly a century. Loosely related to common snapping turtles, alligator snappers have a dinosaur-like appearance and a range that’s limited to rivers in the southeastern United States that drain into the Gulf of Mexico (map). Scientists made the discovery using a multipronged approach, examining wild turtles’ genes and body shapes as well as those of fossilized turtles. Thanks to their work, the original species (Macrochelys temminckii) has been joined by two newly classified species—M. Study leader Travis Thomas, of the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, and team caught turtles in rivers throughout the Gulf Coast region and collected blood samples from their tails to compare their DNA, which revealed significant differences. The team also measured the reptiles’ skulls and carapaces, or shells, and found significant variations among them. The DNA and physical evidence, combined with analysis of fossil snappers dating back to 16 million years ago, confirmed the turtles are separate species. The team estimates that the more distinctive-looking Suwannee River snappers diverged from the others roughly 9.6 million years ago, and that the western alligator snapping turtle (M.
Despite their fearsome appearance, alligator snapping turtles face a number of threats, many caused by humans, experts say. Alligator snapping turtle populations were “sharply reduced” in the 1970s and ’80s when the reptiles were commercially harvested for their meat and for use in turtle-soup products by companies like Campbell’s, he said. Illegal harvesting and the ingestion of fish hooks continue to pose a threat to alligator snapper populations today—so in a sense, the animal has gone from being one threatened species to three. At the lake of buyat , east bolang mongondow , north sulawesi , Indonesia , alive a species of crocidile that have 5 finger n its coluor is blue to grey , lenght near 3 to 4 meter . We’re Moving!As of October 22, 2014, Weird & Wild will be hosted on National Geographic's main news site.
Today, the region encompassing the Maya homeland is eastern and southern Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Belize and western Honduras, an area of about 150,000 square miles (388,498 sq.
The city-states, each of which was ruled by a king, both traded and occasionally warred with one another. They excelled in mathematics and astronomy and built aqueducts to bring water to their cities. Most of their crops were for their own consumption and included maize, squash, beans, chili peppers, amaranth, manioc (yucca), cacao, cotton and sisal, used to make rope. Scientists used a 13,500-year-old stalagmite from a recently discovered cave in Belize to assemble a rainfall record for the Maya homelands that traces the past 2,000 years. Scientists examined the ratio of atomic isotopes along the length of the spire to determine when portions formed and how much rain fell during each six-month period. While the evidence remains strong, the debate continues about the demise of one of the most advanced civilizations in the western hemisphere—the ancient Maya civilization.
This one and more than 700 of the 1200 GITN articles are available in full, with supporting materials, critical thinking questions and Spanish language translations, to Maps101 subscribers. Posters and commenters are required to observe National Geographic's community rules and other terms of service. To learn firsthand what's going on in and around this marine treasure of global importance, the National Geographic Society sent its top scientists and officials to the region in January 2016. So in someplace like Missouri, where the conditions are just right, they can be very abundant.
I’ve heard anecdotes that you’re never more than ten feet [three meters] from a spider, so spiders are abundant and common—even in urban environments. Most have never crossed paths with a brown recluse, as this species of spider tends to be shy in nature; hence their name. I wouldn’t think having such an influx of arachnids would be easy to ignore, at least not for most people. As someone in the comments section mentioned, usually a quick spray of Raid is all it takes to kill a single insect.
Putting a leg in a pair of jeans doesn’t seem aggressive to us but this is one of the more famous ways to get bit by one. Recluse spiders are often associated with people and do well in human homes and dwellings (synanthropic).
They don’t often wander far while looking for food and may just sit and wait in their webs. The only possible explanation I could conceive is that many males matured and went out looking for mates. This is not to say that recluse spider bites are not dangerous, but they are uncommon given how abundant they can be in some areas. And these spiders, according to what I know, are unable to actually penetrate your skin without actually being pressed against you (for ex. Recluse spiders live secretive lives and the original story upon which this article was based seemed extraordinary. They are not to be taken lightly, as the man interviewed clearly states, so if you had actually taken the time to read the article instead of spewing more unfounded paranoia, you would have comprehended that. We have the wolf spider, I was bit several months ago and still have the area showing and scared from the bite. A spider, in my opinion, wouldnt go around a house hunting you down to bite you, because it isnt benificial in any way to it. I was bitten by a brown recluse at a relative’s house in Missouri shortly after going to bed one night.
It was squished, so definite identification was impossible, but I went to the ER twice, and at one point I feared losing my right breast. Marquette established the Mission of the Immaculate Conception with the Kaskaskia tribe of the Illiniwek at Starved Rock (Illinois Country, New France).
The year 2000 was the first time the Census Bureau even allowed people to select more than one race- 6.8 million people did so. There are very wealthy people out there trying to stop this evolution with propoganda and other social weapons but you can’t stop nature. For over a century, National Geographic has inspired millions to fall in love with the world.
In some ways, this special birthday is even more personal for me, because I blame National Geographic entirely for my incurable wanderlust. To this day, I cannot pick up a copy of National Geographic and not be hit with a powerful drive to walk out the door and head off to some rare corner of the globe to discover their faraway life. Honestly, I’ve been waiting all year for this trip, giddy with the very same wanderlust I had as a child, pinching myself at the destinations that lie in wait (London!
Though you won’t get your passport stamped or your swimsuit wet, I truly hope that all of you will follow along for the next 24 days, as I explore some of the most intriguing and beautiful (and exotic!) parts of the globe, paying homage to the reason all of us are here . I think so many of us did reports on countries with old National Geographic subscriptions and then got an idea we had to go to that place.
Seeing those covers up close all together and remembering the ones that have inspired me makes me remember why I travel. It would have blasted material at high velocity into the atmosphere, triggering a chain of events that caused a global winter, wiping out much of life on Earth in a matter of days,” Imperial College said. Life on Earth after the event that caused the extinction was dramatically different to what was on the planet before.


The scene, based on an actual fossil site, represented the final ecosystem of the Cretaceous. Moreover, the ejecta (blasted material) within the global KT layer is compositionally linked to the specific sediments and crystalline rocks at Chicxulub. Thickening of the K-Pg boundary layer towards Chicxulub shows Chicxulub was the impact site. Quartz is shocked when hit very quickly by a massive force and these minerals are only found at nuclear explosion sites and at meteorite impacts sites. But looking at this article makes me realize it was far more powerful than I had understood. Please show a globe having the land masses combined as Gwondonaland (spelling?) at the time of impact. Although I believe that a larger object fell off the shores of African islands leaving a 350 mile crator, and exaserbated the atlantic ridge, the sediment and dating of the magma flows along the ridge should shed some light, have not done the research, nor am I privy to the information. It is all part of the same tectonic plate so it would have moved with the plate itself rather than independently. To date, no one has been able to provide a single causal explanation for why some organisms and lineages survived while others did not. For instance, snappers found in the Suwannee River have a particularly distinctive caudal notch, a scooplike structure at the back of the shell. Dogs, wolves and coyotes interbreed and produce fertile offspring, but is there much argument about their status as separate species? They developed intensive farming techniques, including crop rotation, fertilizer and terracing. During that period, the Maya endured a series of major droughts, said Douglas Kennett, anthropologist at Pennsylvania State University and the leader of the study. They toured the desert islands off the southeastern coast of the Baja Peninsula and they listened to presentations by more than a dozen experts, including several whose Baja California research is funded by the Society.
Imagine witnessing over 4,000 of these eight-legged creatures spilling from the walls and ceilings. Much more extensive measures would have to be taken in this situation, undoubtedly, but was permanently vacating the home really necessary? SEVERAL witnesses can testify that this is true and yet this spider and it’s bite is the least of my concerns in my everyday struggle.
There are reports of some older homes and barns in the Midwest that have many hundreds or thousands of individuals!
Strange things happen at times, however, and there are some interesting videos prepared by Australian colleagues where spiders and other arthropods seem to be attracted to diesel engines at idle!
Once they realize it is not in fact a bug, but a giant person, I’d imagine they get aggressive because they are panicking, which makes any animal more dangerous. It might be with certain species where the male isn’t killed by the female or the female reproduces more than once.
My father was playing the guitar, a recluse felt the vibrations and crawled up his leg, then suddenly was freaked. I have seen places in rural PA.where there have been thousands of recluses in the basement. However, if the brown recluse feels threatened, for instance when it is on the floor where our huge feet stomping around them could easily crush them, they will defend themselves (aka what you describe as running at you – though I am convinced this is another one of those tall tales people love to tell to look interesting). They are related, thank God the wolf isn’t as venemous, but to some people any spider bite could be deadly. A series of thematic chapters on topics such as myth and historical memory, understandings of human nature, the creation of colonial landscapes, translation of religious texts into Native languages, and the influence of gender and generational differences demonstrates that these encounters resulted in the emergence of complicated and unstable cross-cultural religious practices that opened new spaces for cultural creativity and mutual adaptation.
I read (or flipped through), every single issue of National Geographic and World magazines. Every longing I have for a place on the globe can be traced back to a particular story, image, or cover of National Geographic.
Some of you have traveled with me online now for years, and I sincerely wish you could be by my side as we celebrate the very thing that we all love, National Geographic. I love traveling online with you Monica, always appreciate your thoughtful words and comments to you.
Impacts of this size on Earth are thought to happen on average about once every hundred million years.
Paleontology from this site documents the extinction of the dinosaurs as well as more than 50 percent of plant and insect species. Immediately after the iridium layer, there is a dramatic decline in fossil abundance and species, indicating that the KT extinction followed very soon after the asteroid hit. The team say that an abundance of shocked quartz in rock layers all around the world at the KT boundary lends further weight to their conclusions that a massive meteorite impact happened at the time of the mass extinction,” Imperial College said. So even if the plate has moved the site of the impact is still in the same place relative to the modern continents as we see it on the modern day map.
The deposits of Iridium are wide as it entered earths atmosphere which explains the spread Iridium over large area in heavy concentrations in those areas.The lack of evdience of full impact depth this would have created somewhat differnt damage which we see, The asteroid is heading away from earth as we speak. In this case, these snapping turtle populations likely interbreed where their environments overlap.
Researchers tend to split the Maya into two geographical groups, Lowland Maya and Highland Maya. Scholars have postulated many reasons for the collapse including warfare, disease, social unrest and over-farming. We are having a great response to our efforts to provide basic geographic analysis to major historical events and breaking news events. If you have children who play on the floor, you must take action if these spiders are seen in the living areas of your home.
They are drawn into houses by lighted windows after dark, heavy rain in spring and cold in the fall. Apparently, when the people bought it, the previous owners didn’t tell them about the spiders. I would probably drop of heart failure if I had that many spiders crawling out the walls, and etc. So for their anniversary issue, they hired world famous photographer Martin Schoeller to take pictures of different mixed race people.
I grew up watching National Geographic Explorer on television, reading National Geographic books, and competing in the National Geographic Bee.
We have gawked at the gripping photos on every page, and then defined a standard of photography that never falls short. Kigali!), in awe that 125 years after our first explorers, we can simply jet from place to place without a thought beyond which appetizer we’ll choose for dinner. Allowing us to experience places, people, foods, etc.that we might not get to see otherwise. Pollen and spores from Cretaceous plants are found immediately below this layer but not above it, a pattern that is seen from the southern United States all the way north to the Arctic Ocean. A globe or map showing the land distribution at the time being discussed should be included in all discussions of prehistoric global events. But clearly the results of this research reflect that fact that these species, being bound to riverine environments, don’t have opportunity for overlap. Kennett further postulated that the drought contributed to societal fragmentation and political collapse, whereby the Mayan kings lost their power. A child died in the Kansas City area a few years ago as a result of this spider’s bite. They live in woody areas outside your home and in crevices under driveways and possibly rock piles. This article was shocking to me that it would even be posted with all it’s inaccuracies, especially it being from national geographic. And thus, their breeding and genetic development has been isolated for many millions of years. The Trost family is going to have some major arachnophobia after this experience, I’m sure. If the spider used your shirt as a hiding place and then you put it on in the morning it could be pressed against your skin and bite you. I was able to swat the spider with a magazine and took it with me to the clinic where it was identified as a brown recluse. They also are venomous, their venom is cytotoxic, like a recluse, only their bites are generally not as serious or life threatening. Coming into contact with these spiders is easily avoided by keeping things tidy and being mindful. Later, I spoke with many for whom a bite from this spider had been as serious as a poisonous snake bite. I have them in my home, and the exterminator has to come every three months, as the preventive pesticide they use can only work for that long. When I got to my friends home I noticed a small red mark on my eyebrow…The next morning my eyes was shut close with swelling. He got lucky because if it had gotten worse, he could have lost the muscles in his calf as well. They showed me scars and some have limited use of their limbs as a result of a brown recluse bite.
Every doctor I have spoke with states that more spider bites are from a yellow sac spider but people generally think it’s a recluse bite because they have never heard of the yellow sac.
Thousands of Mazda 6s had to be repossessed in 09 and 12 because they are attracted to the smell of gasoline and they infested cars. But I’ve had one fall on me minutes before a shower, one fall out of my shower spoosh, and seen one watching me from the shower curtain.
The only 3 spiders in the U.S with venom made of cytotoxin are the brown recluse, the yellow sac, and the hobo!!



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