If you must leave the vehicle, write down your name, address, phone number and destination. Avoid Overexertion: Shoveling snow or pushing your car takes a lot of effort in storm conditions.
I attended a presentation at an Auxiliary National Training meeting called Cold Water Boot Camp, which works in cooperation with many life saving organizations, including the US Coast Guard. The presentation showed rescuers keeping the victim horizontal – not vertical, ever – while getting them into the boat.  This is because of what is called post-rescue collapse.
The information provided is for public information only and is not a distress communication channel.
When using snow that needs cleaning, I will filter the water through two layers of cloth to make sure it is clean of bits and pieces from the ground. In a survival situation, you should keep in mind that you might have to do whatever it takes to procure good drinking water.
Additionally, most folks never consider dehydration a problem in the arctic or in cold regions, but it can be a serious problem. Another area to consider when using ice or snow is making sure it is not near your toilet area. Gary Benton has over 45 years of outdoor experience in camping, hiking, fishing, and other activities.
The soldiers visited Porsanger in Finnmark, Norway’s northernmost military exercise area located at 70 degrees north. Learning how to operate safely in cold climate, the Marines are preparing for the exercise Cold Response 2016.
Finland is not a NATO member, but will together with Sweden participate with soldiers and materiel in Cold Response 2016.
To understand ourselves it is important to understand our ancestors, and a part of them, and their heritage, lives on in us today. To the world the American Indians seemed like a forgotten people when the English colonists first arrived and began to occupy their lands. I want to give special thanks to my cousin, Mary Hilliard, for her assistance and encouragement in researching and preparing this book. Wherever possible I have tried to find at least two sources for the genealogical data, but this has not always been possible. I have also found Franklin Elewatum Bearce's history, Who Our Forefathers Really Were, A True Narrative of Our White and Indian Ancestors, to be very helpful. It is certainly possible that such a record may contain errors, but it is also very fortunate that we have access to this record as it presents firsthand knowledge of some of the individuals discussed in this book. 8 Newcomba€? Cpt.
Sometime before the colonial period, the Iroquoian tribes began moving from the southern plains eastward across the Mississippi River and then northeasterly between the Appalachians and the Ohio River Valley, into the Great Lakes region, then through New York and down the St. Though they were neighbors and had similar skin color, these two groups of Indians were as dissimilar as the French and the Germans in Europe.
Federations, as well as the individual tribes, were fluid organizations to the extent that the sachem was supported as long as he had the strength to maintain his position.
Belonging to a federation meant that an annual tribute had to be sent to support the great sachem and his household, warriors had to be sent if he called for a given number to go to war, and strictest obedience and fidelity was demanded.
Some of these federations had as many as thirty member tribes supporting their Great Sachem, although many of these tribes would be counted by more than one sachem, as any tribe that was forced to pay tribute was considered as part of that Great Sachem's federation.
Any member of the society who dishonored himself, in anyway, was no longer worthy of the respect of his people.
When viewing the typical Indians of America, one would describe them as having a dark brown skin.
They wore relatively little clothing, especially in summer, although the women were usually somewhat more modest than the men. The English resented the fact that the Indians wouldn't convert to Christianity as soon as the missionaries came among them. The various tribes of New England spoke basically the same language and could understand each other well. There are many words used commonly in our language today that were learned from these New England Indians: Squaw, wigwam, wampum, pow-wow, moccasin, papoose, etc. Today there is little doubt that prior to Columbus's voyage, the Norsemen sailed to the coast of North America early in the eleventh century. We do not have a record of all of the European contact and influence on the Indians in the early years of exploration because the greatest exposure came from the early European fishermen and trappers who kept no records of their adventures, as opposed to the explorers. In 1524, Giovanni da Verrazano wrote the first known description of a continuous voyage up the eastern coast of North America. As the fur trade became increasingly more important to Europeans, they relied heavily on the Indians to do the trapping for them. Another problem with which the Indians had to contend was the White man's diseases for which they had no tolerance nor immunity. In the spring of 1606, Gorges sent Assacumet and Manida, as guides on a ship with Captain Henry Chalons, to New England to search for a site for a settlement.
In 1614, Captain John Smith, who had already been involved in the colony at James Town, Virginia, was again commissioned to take two ships to New England in search of gold, whales or anything else of value. Dermer wanted to trade with the local Indians of the Wampanoag Federation and asked Squanto if he would guide them and be their interpreter.
Derner was given safe passage through Wampanoag land by Massasoit and soon returned to his ship.
When the Pilgrims left England in the Mayflower, their stated intent was to establish a settlement on the mouth of the Hudson River, at the site of present day New York City. The Pilgrims returned to the Mayflower and, after many days of exploration, found a more suitable location. On March 16, 1621 the Pilgrims were surprised by a tall Indian who walked boldly into the plantation crying out, "Welcome! The Pilgrims gestured for Massasoit to join them in their fort but, he in turn, gestured for them to come to him. When the amenities were ended, the English brought out a treaty they had prepared in advance, which specified that the Wampanoags would be allies to the English in the event of war with any other peoples and that they would not harm one-another; and that when any Indians came to visit the plantation they would leave their weapons behind.
After the ceremonies were ended, Governor Carver escorted Massasoit to the edge of the settlement and waited there for the safe return of Winslow.
Part of Massasoit's willingness to make an alliance with the English must be credited to his weakened condition after suffering from the recent epidemics which left his followers at about half of the strength of his enemies, the Narragansetts.


In June of 1621, about three months after the signing of the treaty, a young boy from the Colony was lost in the woods. When the English could not find the boy, Governor William Bradford, (who replaced John Carver, who died in April) sent to Massasoit for help in locating the boy. That summer Governor Bradford sent Edward Winslow and Stephen Hopkins, with Squanto, to Pokanoket (Massasoit's own tribe, on the peninsula where Bristol, R.I.
From this trip of Winslow's, we learn more about the daily life of the Indians in this area. Massasoit urged his guests to stay longer but they insisted they must return to Plymouth before the Sabbath. Less than a month following this visit, Massasoit sent Hobomock, a high ranking member of the Wampanoag Council, to Plymouth to act as his ambassador and to aid the Pilgrims in whatever way they needed.
Hobomock and Squanto were surprised at what they heard, and quietly withdrew from the camp to Squanto's wigwam but were captured there before they could get to Plymouth. Although the Narragansetts and Wampanoags were historical enemies and continually feuding over land, they did not usually put hostages of high rank to death. Normally, treason was punishable by death and Massasoit would certainly have been justified in executing Corbitant for his part in the plot against him but, for some reason, Massasoit complete forgave him.
Their first harvest was not a large one but the Pilgrims were.happy to have anything at all. During the winter, a rivalry developed between Squanto and Hobomock, the two Indians who now lived continually at Plymouth.
According to the treaty he had signed with Plymouth, they were to turn over to him any Indians guilty of offense. In June and July, three ships arrived at Plymouth with occupants who expected to be taken in and cared for. In the winter of 1622-23, Governor William Bradford made trips to the various Indian tribes around Cape Cod to buy food to keep the Pilgrims from starvation. Next, Standish went to Cummaquid (Barnstable, MA.) where Iyanough was Sachem of the Mattachee Tribe. Thinking that Massasoit was dead, they went instead to Pocasset, where they sought Corbitant who, they were sure, would succeed Massasoit as the next Great Sachem. Winslow describes their arrival, where the Indians had gathered so closely that it took some effort to get through the crowd to the Great Sachem. Since the Pow-wow's medicine had not produced any results, Winslow asked permission to try to help the ailing Sachem. Their second Thanksgiving was combined with the wedding celebration of Governor Bradford and Alice Southworth. Because of Massasoit's honored position, more was recorded of him than of other Indians of his time. Massasoit most likely became Sachem of the Pokanokets, and Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, between 1605-1615. The second son of Massasoit was Pometacomet, (alias Pometacom, Metacom, Metacomet, Metacomo or Philip.) Philip was born in 1640, at least 16 years younger than Alexander. The third son, Sunconewhew, was sent by his Father to learn the white man's ways and to attend school at Harvard. When his two oldest sons were old enough to marry, Massasoit made the arrangements for them to marry the two daughters of the highly regarded Corbitant, Sachem of the Pocasset tribe.
The tribes of Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, as well as some of the Nipmuck tribes of central Massachusetts, looked to him for Military defense and leadership. Following the plagues of 1617, which reduced his nation so drastically and left his greatest enemy, the Narragansetts of Rhode Island, so unaffected, Massasoit was in a weakened position. In 1632, following a battle with the Narragansetts in which he regained the Island of Aquidneck, Massasoit changed his name to Ousamequin (Yellow feather) sometimes spelled Wassamegon, Oosamequen, Ussamequen. In 1637, the English waged an unprovoked war of extermination against the Pequot Federation of Connecticut, which shocked both the Wampanoags and the Narragansetts so much that both Nations wanted to avoid hostilities with the feared English.
After hearing of the death of his good friend, Edward Winslow in 1655, Massasoit realized that his generation was passing away. As Massasoit's health began to decline, he turned more and more of the responsibilities over to Alexander who was a very capable leader and who was already leading the warriors on expedition against some of their enemies.
Massasoit was succeeded, as Great Sachem, by his son Alexander, assisted by his brother, Philip. The younger generation saw, in Alexander, a strong, new leader who could see the danger of catering to the English. Both Philip and Weetamoo were very vocal in their condemnation of the English and word of their accusations soon reached Plymouth. Together, Philip and Canonchet reasoned that it would take a great deal of preparation for such a war. Snow can plug your vehicle's exhaust system and cause deadly carbon monoxide gas to enter your car. Concentrate on self-rescue initially.  Swim failure will occur within these critical minutes and if you are in the water without a life jacket, drowning will likely occur. If a victim has hypothermia when pulled from the water, he has an 80 percent chance of surviving.
People in an emergency and in need of Coast Guard assistance should use VHF-FM Channel 16 (156.8 MHz), dial 911, or call their nearest Coast Guard unit. The Coast Guard retains the discretion to determine which comments it will post and which it will not. Coast Guard disclaims any liability for any loss or damage resulting from any comments posted on this page. Coast Guard will not collect or retain Personally Identifiable Information unless you voluntarily provide it to us.
While at the same time it looks like with all the ice and snow, water would not be a problem. I carry an old white (I do not recommend a different color because the dye may bleed) pillowcase with a very small hole in one corner of the sewed end. Remember not use your body to melt snow, filter water if needed, and always add purification tablets or boil any water you get from ice or snow.
He's no armchair survival man, he's walked the walk from the arctic to the desert and all the area in between. Marine Corps lined up on the ice waiting for their coldest experience ever; jumping into the icy waters and learn how to get up again. This is the first time a Marine infantry battalion has practiced winter weather training so far north in Norway.


From the icy waters at the Allied Training facilities at Porsanger, the American soldiers move on to the area north of Trondheim where they will participate in Cold Response and be attached to the Norwegian Army’s Brigade North, the Norwegian Defence informs.
At first I was very skeptical of this record as it was a family tradition passed down for many generations.
She was very fond of her Grandmother, Freelove, knew all about her and stated on several occasions that Freelove's Mother was Sarah Mauwee, daughter of Joseph Mauwee, Sachem of Choosetown, and not Tabitha Rubbards (Roberts).
Massasoit was the Sachem of this tribe, as well as being the Great Sachem over the entire Wampanoag Federation, which consisted of over 30 tribes in central and southeastern Massachusetts, Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket.
Welcome, Englishmen!" It was a cold and windy day, yet this Indian, who introduced himself as Samoset, Sachem of a tribe in Monhegan Island, Maine, wore only moccasins and a fringed loin skin. I have posted it on few kayak forums hopefully there are others who want to gain the knowledge and be safer. Coast Guard to provide a forum to talk about our work providing maritime safety, security and stewardship for the American people to secure the homeland, save lives and property, protect the environment, and promote economic prosperity. I usually move just a few red coals over and place my melting container on top of the coals. Using your mouth will not only lead to chapped lips, but will also lower your body temperature.
I suggest that a person who is prepared will not have to resort to risky techniques to survive except in the most unusual situations. Urine, dirty wash water, and other waste may melt through the snow, especially if you heat water to wash with, and run under the top layer of snow. She obtained her copy of Zerviah Newcomb's Chronical from Zerviah's original diary, in the hands of Josiah 3rd himself. When pulled from the water, the heart has to work hard as the cold blood from the arms and legs moves back into the warmer core of the body.
Off in the distance I could see the smoke from our campfire, so I knew one of the men that had accompanied me on the hunting trip had returned early. The big problem with snow is that small twigs, rocks, and other foreign objects may be in it.
All water not from a known clean source should be purified with purification tables, or by boiling. The heat used to melt the ice or snow will come from your core temperature, thus lowering it in the process. Army soldiers learned a range of extreme winter skills while training together with the Finnish Sodankyla brigade in Lapland.
If you're with someone else, make sure at least one person is awake and keeping watch for help at all times. We will also not post comments that are spam, are clearly off topic, or that promote services or products. I just hoped that he had the coffee pot on, or even had enough sense to melt some snow or ice for water. The heat from the fire will melt the ice or snow and as long as you have a container under the pillowcase it will catch the dripping liquid. Keep in mind that even clean looking streams, lakes and rivers, may not be a safe source of healthy drinking water. Another old trick that you may have heard of, is to fill a container with snow or ice, place it in your shirt and allow your body heat to melt it. Avoid alcohol for the same reason (unlike in the movies, never give alcohol to a victim of the cold). By using these simple rules, your winter camping experience can be a real joy, instead of a nightmare. Bearce's Great-aunt, Mary Caroline, lived with Josiah III and Freelove Canfield Bearce for several years, listened to their ancestral stories, and made her own personal copy of Zerviah's diary supplement.
Lawrence to what is now known as Lake Champlain where his party killed several Mohawks in a show of European strength and musketry. Professional Outdoor Leadership Development Community.A Employment Opportunities After a WOLF graduate receives the certifications need to for employment. You can tell if you are becoming dehydrated by the color of your urine (dark brown urine is a sure sign of dehydration). We have worked out, potential employment opportunities and internships with a number of Expedition Companies, Adventure Education Programs, Adventure Education Schools & Outdoor Recreation Businesses.
Coast Guard and Auxiliary do not endorse any non-government websites, companies, or applications.
Both of these procedures could seriously affect you, if you are close to experiencing hypothermia (the lowering of the body’s core temperature). He further told them that Massasoit, the Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, was at Nemasket (a distance of about 15 miles) with many of his Counselors. WOLFA WOLF, Curriculum was designed by outdoor professionals using the most current training standards and materials, also by affiliating ourselves with other professional organizations such as AMGA, SOLO, ARC, ACA, LNT, BSA.
TMO Guides & Instructors are leading expeditions in the USA, South America and around the world.Where do you want to go?
It is a great place to connect with nature, practice awareness and outdoor skills, be challenged, and discover your own unique leadership style. We will also learn how to read a topo map and learn how to use a compass, how to navigate safely through remote mountain terrain, how to facilitate a group, and understand group dynamics. We will also explore the metaphorical, spiritual, and therapeutic elements of the wilderness experience.Lead with confidence. High Peaks Introductory to winter camping, Ice climbing, mountaineering A A February 18-29.
They are home to a very diverse range of wilderness landscapes, we're thankful to have classrooms from which we can go to snowy peaks and ridges to lakes, rivers, swamps and gorges.
A The TMO New England's Adventure Instructor & Guide TrainingA  is in the perfect location to access the unique wilderness areas of New England. Wilderness Outdoor Leadership Fundamentals program is an educational model that promotes a positive message, nurtures leadership development, and creates an awareness of the guiding mentality that is essential for leading safe fun adventures in the outdoors. They are home to a very diverse range of wilderness landscapes, we're thankful to have classrooms from which we can go to snowy peaks and ridges to lakes, rivers, swamps and gorges.
These are quality adult programs designed for Outdoor Leadership &A Professional Development.



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