Deafness in one ear causes,what causes random ringing in ear baratos,blocked ear and clicking noise gate - Tips For You

Author: admin, 31.05.2014. Category: Severe Tinnitus Symptoms

Let's see if I can do a bigger intro now, and then post for now -- I may lay on the couch as oldest son is quieter now. We lived with his parents for a while after we got married until we got on our feet right after college. 9 months later (what a nice long maternity leave!) I got my wish and we both got jobs within a week of each other. 3 years later Rog was doing great going to college and I also had my home business built by this time, where I was now (by 2000) working almost full time at home doing transcription for different companies.
Sometime soon I will finish the history I had started before, about meeting my wonderful hubby, etc.!
Been searching around for different additional friends' diaries to read -- it's fun to see many different people and their interests.
Hi COLLEEN - think you're the only reader I have right now -- hope you are feeling good today -- note from 2006 - this is a different Colleen than my daughterA?a‚¬A¦.
We just have been so broke for so long that it feels good to be able to pay the bills and having more sounds so good. A little less than a month ago after good old AF was over dh and I had time to get friendly (which is rare!) and here I had all these weird symptoms all month and thought perhaps I was pregnant!
Set up live journal for dh too as he was mentioning he wanted to do some blogging about our autistic son, etc. I have such mixed emotions about all this -- I feel proud of myself that I pulled myself together with all our home confusion and WAS able to make a full time job work out for 5 months. Financially it's scary; however, we've been BOTH jobless before, even at the same time, and made it through. So I'm sad I didn't make this company happy, and that they're angry and disappointed in me for missing so much time, but also am relieved in a way to be out of the rat race. RJ had speech eval today and they want us to closely watch him and work with him a LOT as he may be a little behind. I have accomplished many household tasks -- organized many cabinets and cupboards, rearranged living room, etc.
Well, so I'm the busy SAHM and still hope to go back to college, but don't know when that will be.
I am trying to lose weight again -- I have been overweight since a child but on and off diets. So, we talked about the book I wrote in high school, that I want to complete but was flabbergasted that I haven't worked on since 1996!
He was proud of me that I'm on a daily cleaning schedule now, and that I'm not adding 100 new things to my list. I've seen this survey several times and wanted to do it since I have NO surveys in my diary, though it's probably written for people much younger than me! Between 5 & 7 (baby is early riser AND I have to be up early to get oldest ready for bus.
I already play guitar -- perhaps I would like to learn the piano with TWO hands instead of one!!
Aldi's bags, a stroller, extra clothes, probably some food, books we were taking to Good Will and kept some in the trunk because they were written in workbooks and we have to throw them out (they don't take those). In '99 I joined a diet system called "Weigh Down" and I followed through my pregnancy and nursing as well. Chris had to have surgery on his ear on Wednesday because he hit it so hard he got cauliflower ear. 17 The righteous cry, and the LORD heareth, and delivereth them out of all their troubles. 18 The LORD is nigh unto them that are of a broken heart; and saveth such as be of a contrite spirit.
19 Many are the afflictions of the righteous: but the LORD delivereth him out of them all. I pray that Chris will be delivered from this ear problem with no damage or further danger.
Of children with sensorineural hearing loss of any type, between 11-41% of them have inner abnormalities seen on CT. Before we start talking about individual syndromes, inherited deafness is usually symmetrical and bilateral, nearly always sensorineural, and usually more severe at high frequencies. Barakat syndrome, also known as HDR syndrome, is an inherited condition characterized by hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural deafness and renal disease (Barakat et al in 1977). Large Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome (LVAS) also known as EVA (enlarged vestibular aqueduct). About 60% of mutations in the SLC26A4 gene known to cause Pendred syndrome can be detected with genetic testing. Although the SMA's are not generally associated with hearing symptoms, a recent report suggests that the disorder caused by a mutation in TRPV4 can induce a neuropathy as well as hearing loss (Oonk et al, 2014). Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a largely autosomal dominant disorder characterised by pigmentary anomalies of the skin, hairs, eyes and various defects of other neural crest derived tissues (Read and Newton, 1997). The displacement of the canthus, dystropia cantorum, is the distinguishing feature between WS1 (has it) and WS2 (doesn't have it).
Wolfram Syndrome, first described in 1938, is also known as DIDMOAD (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness). Delayed onset of hearing loss is common -- infants with CMV and normal hearing at birth should be monitored for 6 years. There are also some deformities of the membranous labyrinth -- as for example the very common Schiebe deformity (pars inferior -- cochlea and saccule). One would think that the VEMP test would be a good method of detecting the Schiebe deformity, as the VEMP is sensitive to saccule disturbances. Unusually sized openings between the inner ear and the brain (internal auditory meatus) are usually associated with other bone abnormalities (surprise !). Li Y1, Yang J, Liu J, Wu H.Restudy of malformations of the internal auditory meatus, cochlear nerve canal and cochlear nerve. Oonk AM1, Ekker MS2, Huygen PL3, Kunst HP3, Kremer H4, Schelhaas JJ5, Pennings RJ3.] Intrafamilial Variable Hearing Loss in TRPV4 Induced Spinal Muscular Atrophy.
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Hearing disorders are the most frequently inherited sensory defect in humans, with nearly 70 million people across the globe suffering from a form of hearing loss (Wilson, 1985). Mutations on genes associated with deafness cause a variety of defects in the processing of sound. The work of Georg von Bekesy played a critical role in the development of the biological model of the ear and also in understanding the workings of the inner ear. In the late 1970s, David Kemp expanded on Bekesy’s work and discovered otoacoustic emissions, which are low intensity sounds produced by the cochlea in response to stimuli (Kemp, 2000).
Among the many genes that contribute to deafness, four specific genes are targeted in this review.
Exploration of four genes involved in nonsyndromic deafness reveals the impact of gene mutations on the auditory system function. Myosin VI is a very unconventional motor protein because it has a domain that binds an actin filament with two different ends. Recently, this movement was found to be essential for stabilization and organization of the hair cell stereocilia. Mutant mice are also born with mostly organized microvilli that undgo the transition to stereocilia.
Myosin VI is essential for maintenance of the stereocilia structures located on the apical surface of the hair cells.
At the molecular level, mutations hinder the progressive movement of Myosin VI and lead to human autosomal dominant deafness. In mutants, the microvilli must have another anchoring mechanism that is sufficient for early development, but cannot prevent membrane fusion after they have become stereocilia.
The influx of Ca2+ ions is necessary for vesicles to bind to the presynaptic membrane and neurotransmitters to be released. Specifically, PMCA2 is thought to be present in high levels on the cell membrane of the outer hair cells (OHC). A point mutation in the PMCA2 gene, in which adenine is substituted with guanine, causes a glycine-to-serine substitution (Street et al, 1998). Additionally, the PMCA2 deficient mice were examined by an Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) test, which demonstrated that the PMCA2 deficient mice showed no response to varying intensities of sound (Kozel et al, 1998).
Recent research and experimentation have shown that malfunction of the PMCA2 leads to a decrease in Ca entering the cell, significant imbalance, and a loss of hearing.
In the mid 1990’s, only two genes were known to encode K+ channels, KCNQ1 and KCNE1 (Kubisch et al, 1999). In a French family with high-frequency deafness, a mutation (G285S) was found in the sequence for the P-loop for the K+ pore (Kubisch et al, 1999). At that time, the only models available to study channels were frog eggs, which are very different from sensory transduction cells.
A mutation in the KCNQ4 gene leads to an amino acid change in the K+ pore and results in a nonselective ion channel (Figure 1D).
Connexin 26, a gap junction protein found in the cochlea and epidermis, is created with instructions found on the GJB2 gene. Connexins are a family of transmembrane proteins that form channels allowing for rapid transport of ions and small molecules.
At least four other connexins are also found in the ear, some of which are also associated with deafness.
Mutation of the GJB2 gene was found to generate significant changes in the inner ear of mutant mice. The sustained structural integrity of these components suggests that the conditions within the endolymph have been maintained.
In addition to destroying or damaging many of the necessary inner ear components, various GJB2 mutations have been seen to impair intercellular coupling. This review examined four genes, but over thirty different genes have been linked to deafness. Despite the fact that recent research has discovered much about these four genes, many questions still remain.
In children who are deemed likely to have an inner ear abnormality and who are sent for MRI scan, about 40% have abnormalities (McClay et al, 2008). In other words, although there are many many more papers about genetic syndromes than non-syndrome deafness, and lots more text on this page, these conditions that are the subject of so much discussion, are just a little piece to the big genetic hearing loss puzzle. WS1 is mostly caused by PAX3 mutations, while MITF, SNAI2, and SOX10 mutations are associated with WS2.


Mutations of EDNRB, EDN3 and SOX10 genes are responsible for Waardenburg syndrome type IV (Otreba et al, 2013) . According to Plantinga et al (2008), all patients had similar sensorineural hearing loss with a gently downsloping pattern. The organ of Corti, particularly the basal turn of the cochlea and adjacent ganglion cells, is affected most prominently. Ther reason is that these deformities cannot be diagnosed on CT scan, as CT scans are not able to define abnormalities of the membranous labyrinth. Screening of SLC26A4, FOXI1, KCNJ10, and GJB2 in Bilateral Deafness Patients with Inner Ear Malformation. By 1928, he had developed anatomical techniques that allowed for quick, non-damaging dissection of the cochlea. These findings led him to develop hearing tests for infants by monitoring the levels of these emissions.
While it has long been known that the genes studied affect many of the biological workings within the cell, they have only recently been linked to deafness (Morton, 2002). After moving through the outer and middle ear, sound waves enter the cochlea, causing the tectorial membrane to vibrate (Musiek, 2006).
It is especially concentrated in the cuticular plates and pericuticular necklace, which is present in the hair cell cytoplasm (Figure 1). The barbed end of the filament is attached to the plasma membrane of a cell and is positively charged. At birth, wild type mice have normal organization of microvilli on the hair cells of the ear. This function is specific to Myosin VI, as mutations in other myosin proteins do not yield the same results (Hasson, 2003).
The tail domain attaches to the apical membranes found between the stereocilia, while the motor domain anchors this membrane-stereocilia structure to the actin in the cuticular plate.
For example, a missense mutation of Cys442 to Tyr in the Myosin VI gene alters the ATP hydrolysis mechanism and the motor functions of the protein. It is critical for the microvilli to be present in organisms during early development, as they are essential for the function of many organs (Self, 1999).
When functioning normally, Myosin VI prevents fusion of the stereocilia, allowing them to open the membrane channels and enacting an action potential. The surge of calcium ions is controlled by the plasma membrane Ca2+ PMCA (ATPase), a transport protein in the plasma membrane of cells that brings calcium into the cell. PMCA2 plays an essential role for hearing in relation to its function in both the vestibular and auditory systems. In mice that have this missense mutation, PMCA2 is no longer localized in the stereocilia and the basolateral membrane of hair cells, as normally seen in wild-type mice. However, the wild-type mice demonstrated a normal response to varying intensities of sound (Kozel et al, 1998).
KCNQ1 is a voltage-gated K+ channel with six transmembrane domains, found in the cochlea and other locations, including the heart and brain cells. This gene, KCNQ4, was specifically found in the outer hair cells of the cochlea and was mapped on the DFNA2 locus (Kubisch et al, 1999).
The normal amino acid sequence contains glycine, which is highly conserved in all the KCNQ proteins (Kubisch et al., 1999). Therefore, an advanced model was needed to better understand the function of the proteins on the OHC, and a mouse model was created. While returning to resting potential, the hair cells excrete the K+ ions into the perilymph. More specifically, connexin 26 is found in the stria vascularis, the spiral limbus, and the supporting cells found in the cochlea (Figure 1A).
Connexin 26 mutations, however, are the most prominent cause of nonsyndromic forms of deafness.
Hearing development in mice differs from that of humans, in that humans have fully developed hearing capabilities at birth, while mice are not fully matured in this area until about two weeks after birth (Aoki et al., 2003). This led researchers to believe that the epithelial gap junction system as the malfunctioning system.
Gap junctions are thought to be involved in the circulation of potassium between the fluids of the inner ear (Ahmad et al., 2005).
Many genes responsible for this disease were identified and four specific genes were investigated.
The complexity of the four genes reviewed helps illustrate how complicated the picture truly is.
The rate step of the ATP hydrolysis mechanism and its effects on hearing have many gaps that need to be explored to truly understand the role of Myosin VI in the auditory system.
One recent study illustrated how Connexin30-linked deafness could be combated by increasing the expression of Connexin 26 (Ahmad, 2007).
We would also like to thank Lisa Jeziorny, Lindsey McCurdy, Katie Michael, Jenny Riddle, and Kim Silvers for providing us with their example of this project.
Properties of connexin26 gap junctional proteins derived from mutations associated with non-syndromal hereditary deafness. Marker analysis enables identification of the region of the genome where the disease gene lies.
Of course, this does not mean that 40% of all deaf children will have MRI abnormalties, but rather 40% of those who are thought by their doctors to have an MRI abnormality, and who are sent for an MRI, have MRI abnormalities. It is associated with congenital anomalies of all three parts of the ear (external, middle and inner ear) as well as the IAC and vestibular aqueduct (see below).
Roughly two thirds of the Turner's population has hearing loss, about evenly split between sensorineural and conductive types (Ingeborg et al, 2005). More than 100 different disease-causing mutations have been reported in many ethnic groups(Chen et al, 2010). Hearing loss is most notable with higher frequencies, while low-frequency hearing is relatively preserved.
Deafness, characterized as hearing loss, can be environmentally induced, syndromic, or nonsyndromic. Doctors place these implants into a patient’s ears through a surgical procedure involving an external microphone that is connected to an internal electrode placed on the auditory nerve. In the 1930’s, he demonstrated that the basilar membrane of the cochlea has frequency selective properties (Bekesy, 1989). More recently, studies have focused on identification of the genes responsible for inner ear function and development (Heller, 2002). Advancements in research for these four genes have led to a better understanding of the mechanisms functioning in the auditory system.
This movement is picked up in the hair cells’ stereocilia, where the cell will later convert it to chemical signaling.
Myosin VI is also located at the base of microvilli, which is made up of bundles of actin filaments. The pointed end is negatively charged and reaches towards the inside of the cell (Ahmed, 2003). In this process, ATP binds to Myosin VI, hydrolysis occurs, and previously bound ATP molecules are released as ADP and phosphate, providing the energy needed for movement. By three days after birth (DAB), most of the hair cells are affected by the process of fusion and excess growth of stereocilia. The area of focus was centered on the stabilization of the stereocilia, because these cells are where the initial defect occurs in organisms with mutated Myosin VI genes. When Myosin VI is absent, the apical membrane is poorly anchored and rises up in response to surface tension among the cells.
Previously, the ADP dissociation rate was thought to be the limiting factor in the hydrolysis reaction, which then limited the amount of movement possible for Myosin VI. This diagram illustrates the four specific genes studied and the effects of their mutation. Eventual loss of stereocilia has less impact than complete lack of microvilli, thus enabling the mutants to survive, providing they initially possess microvilli. There are four basic isoforms of PMCA pump: PMCA1, PMCA2, PMCA3 and PMCA4 (Grati et al, 2006). This indicates that a glycine-to-serine substitution on the PMCA2 protein may cause deafness and imbalance (Street et al, 1998). They also showed an underdevelopment of the organ of Corti canal, as well as the hair and the pillar cells (Kozel et al, 1998). This indicates that a lack of PMCA2 causes severe imbalance as well as a significant loss of hearing. Site A is located in the cytosolic loop and site C is located in the C-Terminal, or the tail of the pump (Ficarella et al, 2007). This area also encodes many other proteins, which, when mutated, cause diseases associated with dominant progressive hearing loss (Figure 2).
However, the mutant gene sequence had a change of one specific nucleotide, replacing guanine with adenine.
Researchers were able to produce knockout mice (KO) which deleted the P-loop region, and knock-in mice (KI) that had the specific mutation in the genome (dominant negative allele).
If the KCNQ4 gene is normal, the K+ channel is able to return the cell to resting potential, and the next signal can be generated.
Channels formed with connexin 26 are largely involved in the transport of potassium and other small molecules (Casalotti et al., 1999). Deafness related to connexin 26 occurs in an autosomal recessive manner (Ahmad et al., 2005).
Examination of the inner ear of the genetically mutated mice at two weeks revealed that the tunnel of Corti had collapsed and that sensory hair cells were deformed. Disruption of the epithelial gap junction system hinders potassium intake which is necessary for transmission of signals by the hair cells (Aoki et al., 2003). Thus, understanding how and where mutations interfere with the formation of gap junctions is an important step in moving towards treatment. Although current studies on deafness have helped to fill some of the gaps in knowledge, the precise mechanisms involved in hearing are still not completely understood.
Mutations on any of these thirty genes lead to profound changes that hinder other processes as well, leading to the degradation of sound perception.
Additional studies could examine the overall understanding of the mechanism underlying the histopathology of the organ of Corti and how PMCA2 is dependent on other ion channels. Future studies could reverse this experiment and explore correcting Connexin 26-linked deafness through the use of other connexins, such as connexin30.
Gap junction-mediation intercellular biochemical coupling in cochlear supporting cells is required for normal cochlear functions.


Restoration of connexin26 protein level in the cochlea completely rescues hearing in a mouse model of human connexin30-linked deafness. Transgenic expression of a dominant-negative connexin26 causes degeneration of the organ of Corti and non-syndromic deafness.
Differential expression of KCNQ4 in inner hair cells and sensory neurons in the basis of progressive high-frequency hearing loss.
I'm just not sure I'm now going to send back him to day care at all right now - may just work with him at home intensely for awhile. In other words, it means that the abnormal rate for clinicians at the location where this study was done (Dallas), is about 40%. It seems likely that outside of academic settings, cookie-bite hearing patterns are even more likely to be associated with inherited hearing loss. Renal disease includes nephrotic syndrome, renal dysplasia, hypoplasia or aplasia, chronic renal failure, hematuria, proteinuria and others.
Pendred is associated with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (see above) as well as Mondini (see below).
The SOX10 mutation is also involved in the Kallman syndrome with deafness (Pingault et al, 2015). Material contained herein should be treated as personal communication and should be cited as such only with the consent of the author. Damage to the outer or middle ear by exterior sources can lead to environmentally induced deafness. Failure to respond to sounds, disinterest in music, and lack of verbalization are noticeable signs that can help lead to diagnosis (Piatto, 2005). While many of his experimental conclusions have since been challenged, his pioneering efforts led to further knowledge and development in the auditory field. In this study, we will examine these four genes due to their essentiality in normal hearing.
The location of Myosin VI is critical to the function of protein in stability of hair cell stereocilia (Self, et al., 1999).
Radiating from the various locations within the inner ear are the four genes covered in this review.
Typically, proteins of the myosin family move towards the positive end of the actin filament, but the unconventional Myosin VI moves towards the negative end (Hasson, 2003).
This hydrolysis reaction allows the protein to move the lever arm along the filament towards the negatively polarized end (Hasson, 2003).
Eventually, these microvilli develop into stereocilia bundles, which also appear as fingerlike projections from the hair cell and aid hair cell function (Hasson, 2003).
As stereocilia fuse together, the once differentiated stereocilia are reduced to only a few large protrusions from the hair cell (Figure 1B).
More specifically, the interaction of Myosin VI with the heavy concentration of actin at the apical region is significant (Hasson, 2003).
This causes the stereocilia to zip up until there is no differentiation remaining (Self, 1999). More recently, however, it was determined that the protein moves great distances without dissociating; therefore, ADP dissociation is not the rate limiting step.
The PMCA2 gene plays a critical role in the formation and function of the Ca2+ channels. PMCA1 and PMCA4 are expressed in many different tissues and cell types, whereas PMCA2 (also known as ATP2b2) and PMCA3 operate in specialized tissues, such as brain and muscle tissues (Grati et al, 2006). Thus, a mutation in this protein could cause a Ca2+ shortage in the cell, which would disable the vesicles from binding to the presynaptic membrane and would cause a significant loss of hearing (Figure 1C).
This suggests that a PMCA2 deficiency is connected to structural changes in the organ of Corti tunnel (Figure 2). When the cells were perfused with calcium chloride, mutations at Site A and Site C caused a dramatic decrease in the intake of Ca2+ ions (Ficarella et al, 2007). After the influx of calcium, the voltage-gated KCNQ4 channels open to allow the passive diffusion of K+ out into the perilymph, repolarizing the cell (Wangemann, 2006). It was found that the knockout and dominant negative allele mice had the same reduction for the K+ current out of the cells at 3 weeks of age. Potassium is required for the transformation of sound waves into electrical impulses that can be sent from cell to cell. Different mutations in the GJB2 gene lead to various problems involving function, but the outcome is the same in all cases: profound deafness. By seven weeks the organ of Corti had begun to degenerate as had the spiral ganglia and hair cells. Myosin VI gene mutations affect the mobility of proteins, which in turn affects the stability of the stereocilia. Note that many persons with thyroid problems have Meniere's disease (Brenner et al, 2004), and thus LVAS, Meniere's and Pendred syndrome may all be interconnected. The MITF (microphthalmia transcription factor) is related to the melanogenesis process (i.e. Children should be screened for hearing loss so that deafness can be detected as early as possible. Detailed examination of mutations occurring on genes linked with deafness will provide a more complete picture of how hearing loss occurs.
By 20 DAB, there were no hair cells with normal stereocilia remaining in the cochlear duct. Additionally, ADP dissociation is increased by the mutation of Cys442, further supporting these latest findings. PMCA2 demonstrates a highly restricted tissue distribution, suggesting that PMCA2 serves a more specialized and physiological function than the other isoforms. Mutations in either protein halts the K+ recirculation (Beisel et al., 2005) and can lead to a disease known as long QT syndrome. This K+ current out of the hair cells is then picked up by the surrounding cells and recycled back into the endolymph. This mutation disrupts the selectivity of the pore, and causes it to function improperly (figure 1D). Over a longer period of time, both types of mice had the OHC completely degraded (Kharkovets et al., 2006).
The importance of potassium in hearing and influence of connexin 26 on potassium levels has lead researchers to explore the link between connexin 26 and deafness. While researchers know that GJB2 mutations lead to deafness, the way in which GJB2 mutations affect hearing remains largely unknown. However, components responsible for the generation of endocochlear potential, such as the spiral ligament and stria vascularis, showed no alteration (Aoki et al., 2003). While individual cells and their components seem like small tasks to investigate, their effects on the system as a whole are much more difficult to understand. Mutations in the PMCA2 pump cause a significant loss of hearing, imbalance, and a dramatic decrease in calcium’s entrance into the cell. The rate limiting step was actually determined as the conversion of ATP to ADP and phosphate.
These proteins then lead to the deformation of cell structure, resulting in nonsyndromic deafness. This disease is characterized by arrhythmias due to repolarization anomalies of the cardiac action potential, and can lead to sudden death (Kubisch et al, 1999). When the wild-type (WT) and mutant proteins were expressed in Xenopus oocytes, the K+ current out of the cell drastically decreased in mutant channels compared to the WT channels (Kubisch et al, 1999). By missing an essential part of the hearing pathway (the OHC), the signal was not able to be passed on, and thus deafness occurred.
Mutations in the transmembrane domains prevented oligomerization of proteins, thereby hindering the formation of connexons.
KCNQ4 mutations reduce the ability to repolarize the hair cells resulting in the cells degradation. In contrast, nonsyndromic deafness occurs without recognizable symptoms and can be x-linked, dominant, or recessive (Schrijver, 2004).
Research determined that mice lacking Myosin VI had fused stereocilia and did not respond to sound stimuli. The limiting factor of the Myosin VI protein that occurs in mutated organisms makes it useless for anchoring the membrane and transporting cargo (Sato, 2004). Two other genes, KCNQ2 and KCNQ3, also create K+ channels, but are not specific to the ear. From these results, it was believed that KCNQ4 was important in the removal of K+ for keeping the electrical excitation conditions (the concentration of K+ in the endolymph) constant for the next round of stimulation.
Currently, it is believed that KCNQ4 is essential in the OHC to remove the K+ ions in order to repolarize the cell, not to replenish the endolymph K+ concentration as originally thought.
The biggest hindrance to research is the fact that GJB2 deficient mice are embryonically lethal (Aoki et al., 2003). Connexin 26 is prevalent throughout the inner ear and plays a vital role in the formation of gap junctions, which allow for the transport of potassium ions. Mom." But I don't really see how we can both work full time right now - I really think once he finds the job he really wants to go for, and gets it, that I will (at least eventually) have to quit working, or the balance will fail. The ability of the Myosin VI gene to complete its function of stabilizing the stereocilia of the hair cells is hindered (Figure 2). Neonatal convulsions result from mutations in either of these proteins (Kubisch et al., 1999). Problems with connexons or their formations interfere with intercellular coupling (Figure 2). While each gene performs a very different function, they all play a critical role in the auditory system. Recently, the KCNQ protein family has been found in many more electrically excitable tissues, including skeletal muscle and the retina (Beisel et al., 2005). Certain mutations affect the flow of biochemicals while leaving the flow of ions unharmed (Ahmad, 2005).
A functional study of plasma-membrane calcium-pump isoform 2 mutants causing digenic deafness.



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