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Author: admin, 14.12.2015. Category: Cause Of Ringing In Ears

Acrobatic Blue Whales Can Sneak Up on KrillTo capture enough food for their enormous bodies, blue whales use an extreme technique called lunge feeding: they take enormous gulps of water, then let it pass through comb-like mouth filters called baleen, keeping krill behind for consumption.
27) in the journal Current Biology, may shed light on how the enigmatic creatures hunt and devour their shrimplike prey.Hungry giantsThe blue whale, the largest creature to ever live, can span up to 98 feet (30 meters) long and weigh up to 200 tons (180 metric tons).
And sometimes, a new study reports, they also do an acrobatic roll to help them capture krill more effectively. The oceans are increasingly cluttered with human-made noise, which can disturb even the largest animals on Earth, blue whales, new research shows.Whales depend on vocalizations to communicate with other individuals in their species over long distances. To protect delicate eardrums, around 8 to 10 baleen whale species have ear canals that are naturally sealed off from the external environment. Ventura County plans to tow it through the water to another beach today.By Steve Chawkins and Kenneth R. This means you are limited to certain areas of the board and there are some features you can't use.
This creature the size of a submarine uses its bristly, comblike teeth, or baleen, to filter tiny crustaceans called krill from the water. Writing in Biology Letters, researchers explain that the whales sometimes roll 180 degrees, so their backs face the seafloor as they accelerate and move forward to open their mouths for a lunge.
Weiss, Los Angeles Times Staff Writers September 15, 2007 The 70-foot carcass of a blue whale rests on the shore at Hobson Beach Park north of Ventura. If you join our community, you'll be able to access member-only sections, and use many member-only features such as customizing your profile and voting in polls. Whales don’t hear like humans–fat deposits in their jaw funnel low-frequency sound vibrations toward their eardrum, so the wax does not get in the way of their hearing.By the end of a blue whale’s life, the wax forms a solid, permanent tube of what researchers refer to as an earplug in the animal’s ear canal. Blue whales -- nearly 100 feet in length and weighing 190 tons as adults -- are the largest animals on earth. While most people would likely consider the prospect of handling this stuff rather off-putting, for scientists the earwax provides “unprecedented lifetime profile” of the animal, according to a new paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.Like tree rings, layers found within whale earplugs are already used to help researchers estimate an animal’s age.
But scientists are eager to do detailed examinations of the putrefying hulk, which washed ashore Thursday night just yards from Hobson County Park, a seaside campground off Pacific Coast Highway.Ventura County officials planned to have the massive body towed about a mile through the water this morning to a beach with better access for heavy equipment and more sand for burying remains. And they are the heaviest ever, weighing more than twice as much as the largest known dinosaur, the Argentinosaurus. The whales were tagged with suction cups that recorded acoustic data and movements as the animals were exposed to the controlled sounds. In this new study, scientists guessed that the wax may have more secrets to tell.Traces of events recorded from birth to death may leave their mark in the whale’s ear wax, they figured. Their study looked at seasonal as well as individual differences in whale distribution, documenting a high degree of variability -- but also a strong fidelity to the upwelling zones that coincide with ship traffic to and from the major ports of Los Angeles and San Francisco.Blue whales can grow to the length of a basketball court, weigh as much as 25 large elephants combined, and their mouths could hold 100 people, though their diet is primarily krill -- tiny shrimp-like creatures less than two inches in length.
Chemical pollutants, for example, are a problem for ocean creatures, included endangered blue whales.
Once the swarm is spotted, the whale surges upward toward the dark spot and opens its mouth to engulf the krill in one big gulp. Many of these contaminants build up in whales’ fatty tissues, but fat offers no clues as to when a whale might have been exposed to those chemicals.
Navy frigate Curts while on a training mission, sighted what may be another dead blue whale in the water 70 miles from San Diego -- but it also might be the carcass of the Long Beach whale, which was towed to sea by the Coast Guard, Cordaro said.In Ventura County on Friday, lookie-loos parked by the roadside to take photos of the dead whale and give their children an up-close, if somber, look at a colossal example of an endangered species.
That's likely 97 percent of the historical level according to the model the co-authors used. Goldbogen and his colleagues studied 22 whales living off the coast of Southern California. Photo by Michelle Berman- Kowalewskic, Santa Barbara Museum of Natural HistoryHowever, testing this hypothesis requires invasively getting at that golden substance–a difficult task while the whale is alive. That may seem to some a surprisingly low number of whales, Monnahan said, but not when considering how many California blue whales were caught. Only about half used the technique while they were being monitored, and those whales did it only about 10 percent of the time. But in 2007, a 12-year-old, 70-foot long blue whale washed ashore near Santa Barbara, dead from a ship strike.


They estimated its weight at 50 tons.About 100 to 200 blue whales have been feeding in the Santa Barbara Channel during their annual summer migration from Mexico and Central America. The recovered 10-inch long earplug sat in a freezer for a couple years, until the team sampled it.
Goldbogen said; when there are dense patches of krill, the acrobatic maneuver may not be necessary. They also took samples of its blubber to compare it with the wax and get chemical profiles of these two lipid-rich materials’. Earwax is continuously deposited throughout the whale’s lifetime, but forms alternating light and dark layers on approximately 6 month intervals. The light corresponds to periods in the whale’s lifecycle when it’s feeding, while the dark represents times of fasting and migration. The team performed numerous chemical analyses to produce a profile of the whale’s life, told at a 6-month resolution.Within the wax, they found markers of the stress hormone cortisol, growth-inducing testosterone, contaminants such as pesticides and flame retardants, and mercury. Here, we used controlled exposure experiments with simulated military sonar and other mid-frequency sounds to measure behavioural responses of tagged blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) in feeding areas within the Southern California Bight. Much like humans, this particular whale’s stress levels increased as it got older, effectively doubling over its lifetime. Scientists tagged blue whales and monitored their movements via satellite between 1993 and 2008, delineating core areas of use. Despite using source levels orders of magnitude below some operational military systems, our results demonstrate that mid-frequency sound can significantly affect blue whale behaviour, especially during deep feeding modes. Testosterone peaked when the whale was about 10 years old–the height of puberty for male blue whales.The contaminants tell an interesting story.
He and other scientists were preparing for a necropsy on the animal -- a complicated procedure that entails taking at least 35 measurements, cutting holes in the carcass and extracting tissue samples, bodily fluids and stomach contents.Marine researchers examine the 70-foot carcass of a blue whale at Hobson Beach Park north of Ventura. When a response occurred, behavioural changes varied widely from cessation of deep feeding to increased swimming speed and directed travel away from the sound source. From the whale’s birth until about 12 months old, anthropogenic chemicals such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (better known as DDT), chlordanes, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers appeared in his earwax.
The whales have been migrating through the Santa Barbara Channel.He said the work would take days and might involve the use of heavy equipment to peel back thick layers of blubber. The variability of these behavioural responses was largely influenced by a complex interaction of behavioural state, the type of mid-frequency sound and received sound level. About 20 percent of the the whale’s total organic contaminants turned up during this first year, indicating that although the whale’s mom likely did a good job nursing her son, she also inadvertently transferred toxins to her baby during gestation and through her milk.After the whale was weaned, the bulk of pollutants that built up in the whale’s body likely came from krill, it’s main food source.
Blue whales can consume up to one ton of the little shrimp-like crustaceans each day, so small contaminants present in the tiny creatures can accumulate over time in the whale’s body. Five have been beached since 1980 in Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo and Ventura counties, said Collins, the museum curator. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Estimating Historical Eastern North Pacific Blue Whale Catches Using Spatial Calling Patterns. The earplug, however, had never been used to obtain a chemical profile.Finding a lifetime chemical pro?le for an animal can be tricky, especially for free-ranging creatures.
While these findings don’t bode well for the health of the ocean’s creatures–especially endangered ones like the blue whale–the researchers are excited about using the chronically archived wad of wax to better understand the extent to which humans are tampering with marine fauna’s health. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the ‘home range’ (HR) and ‘core areas’ (CAU) as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. In the North Pacific their population structure is unclear and current status unknown, with the exception of a well-studied eastern North Pacific (ENP) population.
We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Despite existing abundance estimates for the ENP population, it is difficult to estimate pre-exploitation abundance levels and gauge their recovery because historical catches of the ENP population are difficult to separate from catches of other populations in the North Pacific. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Nino and La Nina conditions.


We collated previously unreported Soviet catches and combined these with known catches to form the most current estimates of North Pacific blue whale catches.
For example, they noticed that stress hormones began to rage after the whale went through testosterone-triggered puberty, indicating the big guy may have been flustered over competition and pressure to win a lady friend. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals.
We split these conflated catches using recorded acoustic calls from throughout the North Pacific, the knowledge that the ENP population produces a different call than blue whales in the western North Pacific (WNP). On the other hand, some of the whale’s ever-growing stress may be due to accumulating pollutants, though this study only scratches the surface of that question. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes.
The catches were split by estimating spatiotemporal occurrence of blue whales with generalized additive models fitted to acoustic call patterns, which predict the probability a catch belonged to the ENP population based on the proportion of calls of each population recorded by latitude, longitude, and month. Large pulses of pollutants, like the mercury seen in this whale, may indicate that the animal came near a polluted shore (the coast of California in this case, perhaps) or was exposed to a major contamination event. With further study samples, researchers might be able to put together a more extensive picture of how increasing pollution, sonar use and the introduction of specific pesticides have affected whales, Usenko said.The research was detailed in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. When applied to the conflated historical catches, which totaled 9,773, we estimate that ENP blue whale catches totaled 3,411 (95% range 2,593 to 4,114) from 1905–1971, and amounted to 35% (95% range 27% to 42%) of all catches in the North Pacific. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. Thus most catches in the North Pacific were for WNP blue whales, totaling 6,362 (95% range 5,659 to 7,180). One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. The uncertainty in the acoustic data influence the results substantially more than uncertainty in catch locations and dates, but the results are fairly insensitive to the ecological assumptions made in the analysis. Additionally, the researchers have confirmed the method works on grey whales, and they suspect it should also apply to other species of baleen whales. In the meantime, whale researchers may celebrate over less of a need to handle whale blubber, poop and blood–up until now the conventional means of studying whale health, and probably even more unpleasant than handling a giant tube of years-old wax, even though the earplug does reportedly have a pungent fishy smell. Testosterone profilessuggest this male blue whale reached sexual maturity at approximately10 y of age, which corresponds well with and improves onprevious estimates. Early periods of the reconstructed contaminantprofiles for pesticides (such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanesand chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominateddiphenyl ethers demonstrate significant maternal transfer occurredat 0–12 mo.
The total lifetime organic contaminant burden measuredbetween the earplug (sum of contaminants in laminae layers) andblubber samples from the same organism were similar. Despite decades without whaling, abundance estimates for eastern North Pacific (ENP) blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) suggest little evidence for a recent increase.
Total mercuryprofiles revealed reduced maternal transfer and two distinctpulse events compared with organic contaminants.
One possible reason is fatal strikes by large ships, which have affected populations of other cetaceans and resulted in mitigation. We used a population dynamics model to assess the trends and status of ENP blue whales, and the effects of ship strikes. We estimate the population likely never dropped below 460 individuals, and is at 97% of carrying capacity (95% interval 62%–99%). These results suggest density dependence, not ship strikes, is the key reason for the observed lack of increase. We also estimate future strikes will likely have a minimal impact; for example, an 11-fold increase in vessels would lead to a 50% chance the long-term population would be considered depleted.



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