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Author: admin, 28.03.2016. Category: Buzzing In Ears

When we think of the needs of children with hearing loss, it is widely known that they are very likely to have significant delays in language skills without early, effective and meaningful interactions with those around them. The area of social cognition, or the ability to recognize emotional state in others, appears especially weak in children with hearing loss, with 7-year-olds having the ability to identify and explain feelings in a manner that is typical of a 3-year-old.
A 2012 study asked parents to complete a 45-item checklist about how their child uses social communication skills. Assess specifically in the area of pragmatics.  With 80% or more children with hearing loss being educated mainly in the mainstream, the ability to interact socially is crucial to their full participation in the classroom and acceptance by their peers. In order to identify deficits in social communication we must expand the scope of a comprehensive oral language evaluation to include daily pragmatic language behaviors. We should use assessments that provide a valid, normative comparison between the student with hearing loss and his or her typically hearing age peers. RECOMMENDATION:  The Pragmatics Checklist will be completed by families at least annually for all children with hearing loss ages 3, 4, and as part of planning for kindergarten readiness. Because the normative results for The Pragmatics Checklist included children with hearing loss up to age 7, it is appropriate for use through grade 2.
Another, or additional option, that may be useful for monitoring development or program planning is Checklist of Socio-Pragmatic Language Behaviors for Students with Sensory Impairment. There are tests specific to pragmatic language development that are appropriate starting at kindergarten age, however expense and time commitment to complete should be carefully considered. RECOMMENDATION:  At least the 18 older age (4-5 years) items of the Pragmatics Checklist will be completed by families at least annually for all children with hearing loss ages 5, 6 and 7 (kindergarten through grade 2). Again, there are tests that tap into pragmatics skill development for this age group (refer to list of assessment instruments). RECOMMENDATION:  That the classroom teacher complete the Pragmatic Language Observation Scale annually for all students with hearing loss for whom pragmatic language skills are below average.
One resource that suggests intervention for pragmatic language development, especially for young children, is available for consideration (The Missing Link in Language Development of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children: Pragmatic Language Development). There are a wide variety of intervention materials available for pragmatic communication learning, especially with the rise of students on the Autism Spectrum (see suggested tools at the end of the PowerPoint presentation mentioned under Planning). Helping Your Child Become a Strong Self-Advocate a€“When a child learns how to advocate for their specific needs related to their hearing loss, they experience a much higher level of self-confidence, social skills, and academic success. Understanding and Navigating the IEP- The IEP process can often times leave parents feeling overwhelmed, intimidated, and unsure of their rights.
Behavioral Support 101- Parents specifically requested that we cover this topic because they felt their child with hearing loss exhibited more behavioral issues then their children with typical hearing. Self-Concept and Social Skills- This Sound Beginnings Family Education and Support Group was all about providing strategies for helping children develop a positive self-concept that would help them go on to have improved social skills.
The Sound Beginnings Family Education and Support Group was started by a professional at Sound Beginnings who also has a daughter with hearing loss. Coffee drinking increases risk of heart attack Flu shot lowers hospitalizations due to influenza pneumonia Senator Richard Pan Actually Said Water is The Most Dangerous Vaccine Ingredient This CONDIMENT burns FAT!
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Vowel sounds like a short a€?oa€? as in the word a€?hot,a€? have low frequencies (250 to 1,000 Hz) and are usually easier to hear.
Consonants like a€?s,a€? a€?h,a€? and a€?f,a€? have higher frequencies (1,500 to 6,000 Hz) and are harder to hear. Sounds that are 120 dB or louder can be painful and can result in temporary or permanent hearing loss. Different groups and organizations use decibels to define the degree of hearing loss differently.

Hearing loss is a distance sense, which allows people to hear what is going on around them, from a few inches to many feet away in some situations.
Even when the child has age-appropriate vocabulary and syntax (grammar) skills, she or he may not yet have learned how to use these skills in a socially appropriate manner for specific social purposes. This is why it is imperative to address social cognition specifically when a child has a hearing loss. It was completed by parents of 109 children with typical hearing  and parents of 126 children with hearing loss of all degrees between age 2-7 years. For ages 5, 6, 7 it is desired for the parents to identify any of the items in which the child is able to only use a few words to express themselves, especially for the 17 items that mastery is achieved between 48-54 months and the 1 item of mastery between 54-60 months. Regardless of the instrument, the person completing the checklist needs to be very, very familiar with the child’s behavior and what is typical for age peers. In addition, the social communication skills represented on the Checklist of Socio-Pragmatic Language Behaviors for Students with Sensory Impairment should be considered for student planning and during monitoring of progress.
Most students with hearing loss are educated in the regular education mainstream classroom and have a classroom teacher who has observed their behavior over the course of many days and many situations.
An increasing number of students with hearing loss are not being identified as eligible upon school age, using a standard battery of language assessments. Each month families who have children with hearing loss have the opportunity to come together to learn and share their experiences with one another while enjoying breakfast together.
This particular Sound Beginnings Family and Education Support Group was aimed at empowering parents to know that they are key members of their childa€™s IEP team and helped them understand how the IEP process works (evaluation determines the childa€™s needs-needs determine the childa€™s goals-goals determine the services needed-services needed help determine appropriate placement). Resources and handouts were given that provided activities families could do at home with their children to assist in social skill development.
When thinking back to the early days of her daughtera€™s diagnosis, she admits that her family felt very alone and unsure of how to help their daughter. The study included 1,700 participants over the age of 70, and the research team found those with hearing loss increased their risk of death by 21 to 39 percent. Ana Kim, from the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, said, a€?This is an interesting observation, but it also needs to be taken with a grain of salt.
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A person who has hearing within the normal range can hear sounds that have frequencies between 20 and 20,000 Hz.
What is universal to children with hearing loss is that they have a reduced listening bubble, meaning that they are unable to overhear conversations going on around them beyond a few feet. Young children with typical hearing acquire these skills rapidly between 3 and 4 years of age and are able to use these pragmatic language skills using complex language. For each of the 45 items the parents had to decide if the child did not use any communication (not present), used no words (point, yank, other preverbal gestures), used 1-3 words to express the communication in the item or was able to use complex language.
The extensive CASL does tap into pragmatics, but it measures a student’s knowledge of pragmatics rather than actual use in school and social situations. The downside is the expense of the test and the length of the protocol that must be completed by families.
Download the resource Teaching Your Child to Identify and Express Emotions and share it with families. It  has been included free for use. It includes many of the items from the Pragmatics Checklist in a manner more appropriate to school-age (K+) students.
The results can also be used to support the referral of a student with hearing loss for educational assessment who was found to be previously ineligible.
Parents left this meeting armed with ideas on how to build their childa€™s self-advocacy skills.

Resources were shared with families that will help them navigate their childa€™s IEP long after their time at Sound Beginnings is through. Elizabeth Preston questions about their childa€™s hearing loss was extremely helpful for parents.
Many parents shared the similar concerns they had for their child with hearing loss and were able to support one another and brainstorm ideas together on ways to help their children build and maintain friendships. Her goal in starting up the Family Education and Support Group was to ensure that no other family had to experience those same feelings.
Experts do caution that the study does not suggest hearing loss shortens a persona€™s life.
Someone who cannot hear high-frequency sounds will have a hard time understanding speech and language.
Hearing aids have a very small microphone and pick up sound best in a quiet room when the speaker is within 3-6 feet. Children with hearing loss acquire these skills much more slowly even when provided early intervention and preschool services. It is up to the parents and professionals who specialize in supporting students with hearing loss to advocate for appropriate measures of pragmatic language use. If your agency will pay for it and your families will complete all of the pages, you will end up with a clear trajectory of pragmatics language learning as children transition from early intervention and eligibility for specialized instruction is considered.
Therefore, at transition, a child should have mastered 20 of the items using complex language. It is NOT normed or validated in any way but could be useful for planning or monitoring progress.
The Pragmatic Language Observation Scale (PLOS) has 30 questions that are rated by classroom teachers in a 5-point scale from below average to above average.
The distance between the ears of a child sitting on the floor near a standing parent is often further than 3-6 feet. Even at the age of 7, typical children with hearing loss have the pragmatic language skills similar to a 3-year-old. The reality is that the expense and parent completion really can be very significant issues.
Along with fewer words learned, children with hearing loss are at high risk for not learning what typically hearing age mates know about social communication, or pragmatic language use. Without mastery of these skills, children will encounter significant challenges with literacy, written communication, and abstract conversational communication – all of which effects success in school and in getting along with peers.
Based on the results of the study however, it is more likely that the child with hearing loss will exhibit challenges in some or most of the areas listed above as pragmatic skill areas of weakness.
The PLOS was normed on 862 children during 2006-2008 and has good validity and reliability.
Preston able to answer parentsa€™ individual questions, but parents were also able to share their personal experiences to help other parents who were in the beginnings stages of the cochlear implant process.
Scoring the PLOS teacher checklist results in a percentile rank and a Pragmatic Language Observation Index (PLOI), which should relate to the total composite scores provided by most comprehensive oral language test batteries.
There is also a descriptive term score (above average, average, below average, poor, very poor).
The PLOS has been correlated with a variety of commonly used oral language assessments to allow IEP teams to determine if the PLOS score is clinically different from the results of another oral language assessment.

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