Low vitamin d and tinnitus,tinius olsen testing equipment nz,noise in ear lightheaded beds - PDF Review

Author: admin, 23.06.2014. Category: Severe Tinnitus Symptoms

Vitamin D is a critical regulator of your immune system and research has already established that Vitamin D deficiency is highly associated with other autoimmune diseases like Multiple Sclerosis and Type I Diabetes. And Vitamin D deficiency IS associated with Hashimoto’s hypothyroidism–another autoimmune condition. In 2011 a great scientific study looked specifically at Hashimoto’s patients and Vitamin D. Their thyroid lab test numbers are “normal.” (I see quite a few of these people in my practice).
Look at those numbers again….see how many of those Hashimoto’s patients had Vitamin D deficiency? And then…you go see a doctor who probably doesn’t test you to see if you’ve got Hashimoto’s (medical doctors have nothing to offer but replacement hormones anyway). Taking the wrong dose of Vitamin D can make you have MORE low thyroid symptoms—even if you really are Vitamin D Deficient. That scenario nvolves something called 1, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D, and is a little bit beyond what I want to explain here. Even though there’s a 90% chance that you’re Vitamin D deficient if you have Hashimoto’s— this doesn’t mean you should go out and start supplementing Vitamin D. You need to find someone who understands exactly what I’ve been telling you about, someone that understands there are other things to look at… and that Vitamin D, even though it’s important, is not the magic bullet. In my practice we see a lot of people that need Vitamin D but some people need more or less than others–and many times it’s the difference between the person feeling good or feeling worse. He specializes in treating Hashimoto’s Autoimmune Thyroiditis at his Center for Low Thyroid Solutions in Durham, NC. Filed Under: Thyroid Testing Tagged With: Hashimoto's, Vitamin D About Dana TrentiniWho knew that little butterfly-shaped thyroid gland at the base of my neck could affect my life so completely? I live in Des Moines Iowa, and am seeing Carolyn Walker at Healing and Prevention of Iowa, she is located in Des Moines. This article just hit home for me, I actually after my visit with her yesterday found out my Vitamin D was at 15! I recently found out that Synthroid has additives that contain gluten so if you have celiac or are gluten sensitive, keep that in mind.
This was very interesting to read since my last labs came back with major Vitamin D deficiency. 6 months ago I underwent a complete hysterectomy for a uterus that grew from 13cm to 23cm in a year’s time.
Anthony, she may be like many of us who do better on a combination of T4 and T3 thyroid meds instead of T4 only levothyroxine drugs like Synthroid.
Hello everyone, I posted on March 17th of this year that I was found to have Vitamin D deficiency and have now been diagnosed with Low Calcium even though the Vitamin D has gone back up. The Scots' Paradox: Can Sun Exposure, or Lack of it, Explain Major Paradoxes in Epidemiology?
A number of paradoxes have been identified which vividly illustrate the difficulty we have in accounting for differences in incidence of disease and mortality between nations. Sun exposure and the vitamin D levels of populations are risk factors that contribute to mortality and most likely to national differences in incidence of disease but, hitherto, they have not been widely considered in attempting to explain these national paradoxes. In a bold attempt to account for the Scots' paradox, 17 different hypotheses have been considered by the Glasgow Centre for Population Health (GCPH) (9).
Hypotheses considered include social alienation, deindustrialization, sectarianism and limited social mobility. The 17th and last hypothesis, a variation of the UVB-vitamin D hypothesis, is the suggestion by the present author that Scotland's northern location and cloudy maritime climate provide little sunlight and hence Scots are at risk of having low serum levels of vitamin D (10).
In this article I endeavor to show that the UVB-vitamin D hypothesis satisfies criteria required for an explanation of the Scots' paradox. These geographic and climatic considerations have a profound effect on the amount of sunshine and, more particularly, on UVB reaching ground level in Scotland (Figure 1) (12-14).
Whether or not low vitamin D is a direct cause of these diseases is still open to some debate. Scots' mortality began to diverge from the rest of Europe in 1950, failing to improve as rapidly as in other countries. Disease due to deficiency of vitamin D appears to occur when blood levels of the vitamin drop below certain physiological thresholds (53). The rate of hospital admissions for MS in the Orkney Islands, north of the Scottish mainland, are three times the one in the Scottish Borders region adjacent to England and overall there is a highly significant correlation of MS admissions with latitude (58). International comparisons of annual UVB show that Glasgow has a particularly low level compared with other locations at the same latitude (13). Distribution of heart disease in the UK has been found to correlate geographically with the amount of rain (18, 59), which is a surrogate measure for cloud and hence an inverse measure of sunshine or UVB. A significant association has been found between air pollution and cancer of the bowel and breast in 20 canadian cities (64).
Detailed study of air pollution and geography shows that the distribution of disease within greater Glasgow correlates with air pollution and urban residence among other factors (70). To understand the secular changes in diet on the second half of the 20th century it is helpful to look back to the first half of the century when traditional diets were still followed in more remote parts of Scotland.
In 1936 the Department of Health for Scotland noted (73) that witnesses "deplored the passing of the old staple foods of porridge, salt herring and potatoes and the substitution of shop bread, tinned foods, tea and sweets and other goods purchased from shops." However some doctors considered the diet was improving because it contained more meat (although much of it was tinned corned beef) and fruits such as apples, oranges and bananas (73).
The price and availability of fish varied a great deal since 1950, when Scots health ceased to improve so rapidly.
World War II when fishing was severely restricted by submarine activity around the British Isles.
Failure to provide babies with a vitamin D supplement in the first six months of life may have profound effects on the nervous system. Official advice in the UK to doctors and mothers about receiving vitamin D in pregnancy has been inconsistent (80). Between the 1930s and the 1960s, infants in the UK were commonly exposed to UV sunlamp treatments in clinics as a measure to prevent rickets and tuberculosis. The first sunscreen creams became available in the late 1940s and were continuously improved. A clear pathway (Figure 2) of cause and effect can be shown from environmental factors and the modern effects of industrialization, which reduce sun exposure and vitamin D uptake, to the major physical illnesses that excessively afflict Scots today.
The UVB-vitamin D-cancer hypothesis was first proposed by the Garland brothers in 1980 (87) but was largely overlooked by mainstream epidemiologists.
Many factors, geographical, climatic, social and biological influence the amount of sunlight reaching the skin.
Latitude is a major factor which is present by definition in the five epidemiological paradoxes considered here.
Albania (latitude 41° north) is the poorest country in Europe and has one of the highest infant mortality rates. Explaining national differences in incidence of disease and mortality is a major project involving many variables, as illustrated here by the example of Scotland. Scotland's northern location and climate provide little sunshine and so Scots have low vitamin D levels compared with England.
This article owes much to David Grimes, who first named the Scots and Greek paradoxes, and to William Grant, whose pioneering ecological studies of sunlight, vitamin D and disease have done much to explain differences in the health of nations.
8 Hanlon P, Lawder R, Buchanan D, Redpath A, Walsh D, Wood R, Bain M, Brewster DH and Chalmers J. 15 Zgaga L, Theodoratou E, Farrington SM, Agakov F, Tenesa A, Walker M, Knox S, Wallace AM, Cetnarskyj R, McNeill G, Kyle J, Porteous ME, Dunlop MG and Campbell H.
17 Ahmed SF, Franey C, McDevitt H, Somerville L, Butler S, Galloway P, Reynolds L, Shaikh MG and Wallace AM. 27 Parker J, Hashmi O, Dutton D, Mavrodaris A, Stranges S, Kandala NB, Clarke A and Franco OH. 30 Anderson JL, May HT, Horne BD, Bair TL, Hall NL, Carlquist JF, Lappe DL and Muhlestein JB. 38 Bjelakovic G, Gluud LL, Nikolova D, Whitfield K, Wetterslev J, Simonetti RG, Bjelakovic M and Gluud C.
42 Lee DM, Tajar A, O'Neill TW, O'Connor DB, Bartfai G, Boonen S, Bouillon R, Casanueva FF, Finn JD, Forti G, Giwercman A, Han TS, Huhtaniemi IT, Kula K, Lean ME, Punab M, Silman AJ, Vanderschueren D, Wu FC and Pendleton N. 43 Lee DM, Tajar A, Ulubaev A, Pendleton N, O'Neill TW, O'Connor DB, Bartfai G, Boonen S, Bouillon R, Casanueva FF, Finn JD, Forti G, Giwercman A, Han TS, Huhtaniemi IT, Kula K, Lean ME, Punab M, Silman AJ, Vanderschueren D and Wu FC; EMAS study group.
48 Lucas RM, Ponsonby AL, Dear K, Valery PC, Pender MP, Taylor BV, Kilpatrick TJ, Dwyer T, Coulthard A, Chapman C, van der Mei I, Williams D and McMichael AJ.
49 Willer CJ, Dyment DA, Sadovnick AD, Rothwell PM, Murray TJ and Ebers GC, Canadian Collaborative Study Group. 56 Mirzaei F, Michels KB, Munger K, O'Reilly E, Chitnis T, Forman MR, Giuovannucci E, Rosner B and Ascherio A.
66 Jenab M, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Ferrari P, van Duijnhoven FJ, Norat T, Pischon T, Jansen EH, Slimani N, Byrnes G, Rinaldi S, Tj0nneland A, Olsen A, Overvad K, Boutron-Ruault MC, Clavel-Chapelon F, Morois S, Kaaks R, Linseisen J, Boeing H, Bergmann MM, Trichopoulou A, Misirli G, Trichopoulos D, Berrino F, Vineis P, Panico S, Palli D, Tumino R, Ros MM, van Gils CH, Peeters PH, Brustad M, Lund E, Tormo MJ, Ardanaz E, Rodriguez L, Sanchez MJ, Dorronsoro M, Gonzalez CA, Hallmans G, Palmqvist R, Roddam A, Key TJ, Khaw KT, Autier P, Hainaut P and Riboli E. 68 Rejnmark L, Tietze A, Vestergaard P, Buhl L, Lehbrink M, Heickendorff L and Mosekilde L. Babak Larian, MD, FACS, is known around the world for his parathyroid expertise and frequently has patients fly in from out of town for consultations and surgery at the CENTER for Advanced Parathyroid Surgery. The Connection Between Heart Palpitations and Parathyroid Disease Parathyroid disease may not be the first thing that comes to mind if you’ve been experiencing heart palpitations, but it may be a condition you should consider as a possibility. Parathyroid Info: 5 Little-Known Facts The thyroid gland is a well-known part of the body, but have you ever heard of the parathyroid?
Vitamin D helps our intestine absorb calcium from the foods we eat and increase the amount of calcium in our bodies. Hyperparathyroidism is associated with high calcium in the blood, which the body does not want.
However, it is important to remember that measuring vitamin D levels has nothing to do with diagnosing hyperparathyroidism.
If you have low vitamin D levels and are concerned about parathyroid problems, schedule a consultation at the CENTER or give us a call at 888.538.6954 today! Mushrooms are low in calories, fat-free, cholesterol-free and very low in sodium, yet they provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, and Vitamin D. Visit our Nutrition section to discover some of nature's hidden treasures found in mushrooms. Over time, your immune system destroys the inside of your thyroid gland—so much, that you can’t make enough thyroid hormones and you suffer low thyroid symptoms. Plus, there’s a complex situation in which if you take the wrong dosage of Vitamin D— read carefully— if you take the wrong dosage of Vitamin D you can actually make yourself worse.
David Clark found Chiropractic during his journey to change his own health and poor habits. In 2005 Dr. I happened to find an MD who FINALLY set me in the right direction, regarding low Vitamin D. They are a great resource and I wonder if going on that forum and asking for doctor recommendations would help.
If your doctor won’t look more closely at your thyroid as a possible culprit then find an open-minded doctor for a second medical opinion.
At the time, the endocrinologist I was seeing said that it was no big deal because my thyroid levels were normal (story of our lives, right?!) . Five epidemiological paradoxes that have puzzled epidemiologists for a decade or more can be explained by the UVB-vitamin D hypothesis. In this article, it is suggested that variation in sun exposure and hence in vitamin D sufficiency play an important part in explaining five such paradoxes.
It is suggested that this in turn causes an increased risk of serious disease, so accounting for Scotland's relatively high mortality (7, 10). If this supposition is correct, then important improvements in Scots' health relative to the English, and other nationalities, may be obtained by relatively straightforward public health measures such as fortification of food with vitamin D, use of vitamin D supplements, reduction in air pollution and careful sunlamp treatments. A normal Western diet cannot provide more than about 10% of the optimum vitamin D supply (11, 12). Direct support for the hypothesis comes from evidence showing that low levels of vitamin D are associated with greater all-cause mortality (3436).
Insufficient vitamin D appears to be a risk factor for a number of psychiatric diseases which in turn are associated with vulnerability to premature mortality caused by drugs, alcohol and violence. The GCPH report states that it is "unclear how vitamin D can be an important cause of the Scottish effect unless there has been a temporal change in exposure" (9). The relatively high mortality of the Scottish population after 1950 compared to that of other industrial countries was in large part the result of an epidemic of coronary heart disease which affected all modern industrial countries (50).
Indeed it seems likely that there is a series of threshold levels of serum vitamin D below which different diseases may emerge, according to age and duration of deficiency. Other Scottish regions with high MS admission rates are Shetland, the Western Isles and the most northerly part of the Scottish mainland. The prevailing westerly wind blows clouds coming from the Atlantic across Scotland from west to east. In Scotland, 73% of the geographic variation in mortality from heart disease, in particular some of the east-west gradient in mortality, can be explained by cloud and rainfall together with unemployment and social class (60). Air pollution is another critical factor which may have a profound effect on solar UVB radiation reaching ground level (61).
These two types of cancer are particularly common in Scotland and contribute to the higher Scots mortality (8).
Different levels of air pollution between Liverpool, Manchester and Glasgow may be a factor explaining differences between the health of inhabitants of these cities which has been remarked upon in studies of the Scottish effect (9). In the following years gross air pollution from this source ended, but so-called smokeless fuel continues to be burnt. Oily fish is the best natural food source of vitamin D and so differences in fish consumption may contribute to differences in health between those living in different parts of Scotland. An inquiry undertaken by the Medical Research Council into the diet of families in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland in the late 1930s found that people on the island of Lewis still ate fish regularly (71). These changes to the Scottish diet, observed at the beginning of the 20th century, had been going on for more than 100 years as Scots moved from rural and maritime locations to work in industry. North Sea fish stocks recovered briefly following World War II when submarine hostilities prevented normal fishing. Fresh, pickled or smoked herring (kippers) has historically been an important part of the Scottish national diet. This change in diet may be responsible, at least in part, for epidemics of leukaemia and multiple sclerosis in Orkney, Shetland and Faroes which were first observed following the war (77).
Fortification of foods with vitamin D was introduced in the 1930s but became limited to margarine and cereals in the UK in the 1950s after alarm over possible excess vitamin D being taken by babies (78) (and see below). An 'epidemic' of hypercalcaemia in babies in Glasgow and elsewhere in the UK in the 1950s was associated with some deaths.


Babies in Scotland are particularly vulnerable because population levels of vitamin D are so low (16, 17) and so Scots' babies obtain minimal supplies of vitamin D in the womb. In 1991 and 1998 one learned UK committee (COMA -Committee on Medical Aspects of Food and Nutrition Policy) recommended a supplement of vitamin D for all women in pregnancy.
In the 1970s the UK Health Education Council (HEC) started to advise that sunlight is dangerous and should be avoided. These treatments went out of fashion in the 1960s or earlier, Since then sunlamps have been condemned as dangerous devices by Cancer Research UK and others without providing adequate scientific evidence (83-85).
Until the 1960s, it was customary for boys in the UK to wear short trousers all year round until about 12-13 years of age. In the 1970s new sunscreen creams were developed containing chemicals that were more effective at blocking UVB and these became increasingly popular. The same pathway can also be traced to an increased vulnerability of Scots to mental illness, drug and alcohol problems, although social factors must clearly be involved with these endpoints. Since 1980, the hypothesis has been extended to take in many other diseases (88, 89) but it still remains to be fully accepted and integrated into mainstream accounts of major health risks. The complexity of all these factors and the influence of vitamin D on so many diseases have delayed acceptance of the UVB-vitamin D hypothesis as an explanation of international paradoxes in epidemiology. However the implications of latitude have generally been overlooked, perhaps because epidemiologists have been reluctant to accept ecological evidence (90).
Yet the age-standardised mortality rate for coronary heart disease in males aged 0-64 years was less than half that of the UK in 1990 (3, 92).
The health of the Swiss is almost certainly linked, in part, to social factors associated with wealth. Elsewhere, 17 different hypotheses have been considered as explanations of the Scots' paradox and the Bradford Hill criteria have been used to assess the validity of each hypothesis (9, 101). A meta-analysis of clinical trials of vitamin D has established a significant association between supplementation with vitamin D and reduction in mortality (37, 38). Many observations have shown consistent associations between low levels of vitamin D and health outcomes. Diseases which have a higher incidence or prevalence in Scotland than in England include those for which insufficient vitamin D is an established risk factor.
The time course of changes in lifestyle and environmental factors influencing UVB can explain how mortality in Scotland fell behind other countries after 1950 as discussed above. A biological gradient of vitamin D serum levels measured in 45 year olds has been demonstrated between Scotland and England consistent with the gradient of mortality between the two countries (16). Vitamin D is known to activate more than a thousand genes and to play an important role in cell differentiation and apoptosis. The vitamin D hypothesis is entirely consistent with modern knowledge of epidemiology and disease processes, with no need to invoke any additional mechanisms to explain awkward facts. The vitamin D hypothesis is supported by some clinical trials (37, 69, 104) and many others are in progress. The understanding we are now developing of epidemic disease caused by insufficient sunshine and insufficient vitamin D can be compared with the development of understanding of the importance of clean water for prevention of epidemics in the 19th century and clean air in the 20th Century. Since 1950 a number of factors have emerged which increased the likelihood that sun exposure of Scots was reduced below threshold levels for good health.
Albanian paradox, another interesting example of protective effect of Mediterranean lifestyle?
Vitamin D status in postmenopausal women living at higher latitudes in the UK in relation to bone health, overweight, sunlight exposure and dietary vitamin D. Diet, environmental factors, and lifestyle underlie the high prevalence of vitamin d deficiency in healthy adults in Scotland, and supplementation reduces the proportion that are severely deficient.
Recent trends and clinical features of childhood vitamin D deficiency presenting to a children's hospital in Glasgow. Effects of diet and exercise on plasma vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in Vietnamese immigrant elderly in Sydney, Australia. Effects of a short-term vitamin D3 and calcium supplementation on blood pressure and parathyroid hormone levels in elderly women. Relation of vitamin D deficiency to cardiovascular risk factors, disease status, and incident events in a general healthcare population. Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with increased all-cause mortality risk in a general population. Prospective study of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, cardiovascular disease mortality, and all-cause mortality in older U.S.
Relation of schizophrenia prevalence to latitude, climate, fish consumption, infant mortality, and skin color.
Effects of vitamin D supplementation on symptoms of depression in overweight and obese subjects. Lower vitamin D levels are associated with depression among community-dwelling European men. Association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and cognitive performance in middle-aged and older European men. Low maternal exposure to ultraviolet radiation in pregnancy, month of birth, and risk of multiple sclerosis in offspring. Association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentration and risk of colorectal cancer in European populations.a nested case-control study. Avoidance of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy in the United Kingdom; the case for a unified approach in national policy. Addressing the health benefits and risks, involving vitamin D or skin cancer, of increased sun exposure. Epidemiology of hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors in a country in transition. As a result, our bodies will try to get rid of the excess calcium in the urine, explaining why every third patient will have high calcium in the urine. Bilezikian (published in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism in 2009) showed, in these patients with primary hyperparthyroidism and low vitamin D levels, taking vitamin D to normalize vitamin D can lower the PTH, improves bone density, and it does not worsen hypercalcemia (meaning it wont increase the calcium in the blood or urine).  This has to be done with caution and close monitoring, because it is not uncommon for patients who are on vitamin D therapy when they have primary hyperparathyroidism to feel ill when they are taking vitamin D replacement in which case it should be stopped. This information is not intended to replace a medical consultation where a physician's judgment may advise you about specific disorders, conditions and or treatment options. Mushrooms are nutritious; they contain heart-healthy potassium, essential B-vitamins as well as Selenium- a powerful antioxidant. Whether you need just a little something to dress things up or add a whole new dimension of flavor, your answer is mushrooms. Clark became one of less than 1,000 board-certified Chiropractic Neurologists in the world.
The switch to Synthroid and Vitamin D changed my daily life, but with Hashimoto’s Disease I still experience bad days.
I am not going to start with Vitamin D drops in my morning breakfast and will go back in 8 weeks to have my levels checked. Many autoimmune disorders (which Hashimoto’s is) are exacerbated by gluten so keep that in mind as well.
My vitamin d is like 25 and the doc says I need to take 10,000IU a day, which I take with a fish oil. As soon as I realized he was going to do nothing, I started researching and decided to go gluten free, 100%. Until these national paradoxes have been explained, we cannot be satisfied that the major causes of the most common diseases, together with regional variations, are well understood by science (5). Scotland has an extreme climate so far as sunlight is concerned, probably more extreme than that of any other industrialised country (12, 13). Scottish water has low levels of calcium because the water comes from mountain and moorland sources that percolate through peat which absorbs calcium salts.
The last three of these are associated in numerous studies with low levels of vitamin D and sunshine as outlined below. In addition, according to a meta-analysis (37), supplementation with vitamin D reduces mortality in clinical trials testing benefits for patients with bone disease or prevention of fractures.
Insufficient vitamin D at various crucial periods of development from pregnancy to puberty or later has been linked to schizophrenia (39), autism (40), depression (41, 42), cognitive deficit (43), Parkinson's disease (44), dementia Alzheimer's disease (45), and has been reviewed as a major contributor to neurodegenerative disease (46). The report also argues that the UVB-vitamin D hypothesis fails to explain why "more northern areas of Scotland are less affected by ill health than Glasgow". The peak in Europe and North America was observed about 1970, with 550 deaths per 100,000 in the UK (51). Secular changes, such as advice to avoid the sun, are likely to take a greater proportion of Scots to blood levels of vitamin D below thresholds for disease compared with such changes in other countries where the base level of vitamin D is higher. However the mountains of central Scotland draw down much of this cloud as precipitation which means that cities to the east, Edinburgh and Dundee, get more sunshine hours than Glasgow. These observations show the importance of considering both social and climatic factors together in the same model. Long term air pollution measured as NO2 and particulate matter of 10 micrometers or less in size (PMW) is substantially worse in Glasgow and Edinburgh compared with Aberdeen and Dundee (62).
Breast and bowel cancer have been associated with low vitamin D levels in a number of studies (65-68). At the same time a massive increase in use of cars and other road transport has created another major source of air pollution in cities.
Fish is likely to have been more readily available as a cheap food in Aberdeen, which historically has been the largest fishing port and market in Scotland, than in Glasgow. The changes have continued into the 21st century as fish has, more than ever before, become a cash crop, exported from Scotland all over the UK and abroad. However the trend before the war to larger fishing vessels using purse seine nets continued after the war (74).
In 1977 a moratorium was called on herring fishing in the North Sea and an important item of the traditional Scots diet became unobtainable. The persistent cloud that hangs over Orkney (latitude 59° north) and Shetland (latitude 60.5° north) obscures what little sun there is. Fortified foods contribute insignificant amounts of vitamin D to total intake in the UK (16). An excess intake of vitamin D was blamed, although this was never proven with blood tests of vitamin D in the babies because reliable testing was not available at that time (78). Insufficient vitamin D in early life is now known to be a crucial risk factor for MS (48, 49) and diabetes type 1 (79). This was countermanded by another committee (NICE - National Institute of Clinical Excellence) in 2003 on grounds of lack of evidence.
The HEC spent some ?3 million telling people to put on suncream before going out, cover up with clothing and a hat and avoid the sun in the middle of the day. A person wearing short trousers with a short sleeved shirt has sun exposure of 30-50% of the skin which may allow optimal synthesis of vitamin D in summer if sufficient time is spent outdoors. When a sun screen with a modest sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 is used only 'miniscule' amounts of vitamin D will be made (86). But the increase in number of channels and diversity of programmes means that every year, the average time spent watching TV has increased, keeping more and more people indoors at weekends. The pathway also shows the complex interaction of these factors with diet, 21st century lifestyle and national failures in policy and advice. This delay has hindered epidemiologists striving to explain striking national differences in health which have been highlighted as paradoxes. Difficulties in understanding all these variables and their interactions have been considerable as this article aims to show by a consideration of the Scots paradox. The French paradox highlights the low mortality from coronary heart disease in France (latitude 42° to 51° north) compared with northern European countries despite a high intake of animal fat by the French.
However the Swiss population also lives at a higher altitude than any other nation in Europe. A study of Scottish smokers in Renfrew and Paisley found that there are more deaths from lung cancer per cigarette smoked in Scotland than in England or the United States (99). The UVB-vitamin D hypothesis is tested below against the criteria of Bradford Hill as a valid explanation of the Scots' paradox (criteria in bold).
Low serum levels of vitamin D have also been associated with reduced mortality in adults in the US (35) and in the Tromso study (34). Indeed the Bradford Hill criteria have been used to assess the UVB-vitamin D-cancer hypothesis suggesting that insufficient vitamin D or UVB is the cause of some 14 types of cancer (102).
At least five other metabolic systems are modulated by vitamin D, so accounting for its influence on so many different diseases (103, 104). Many steps in the disease pathway have been tested by detailed experimentation, for example, the link between MS and insufficient vitamin D is now known to be mediated by vitamin D-responsive genes (105).
Changes in living patterns and housing brought about by industrialisation led to diseases caused by dirty air, indoor work and polluted air.
Decreasing influence of socioeconomic deprivation between 1981 and 2001 supports the existence of the 'Scottish Effect'. The body will also want to shut down calcium absorption from your intestines, and it does this by limiting the amount of vitamin D in your body. We hope the information will be useful for you to become more educated about your health care decisions. Chiropractic Neurology brings together current research findings from fields such as psychology, neuropsychiatry, neurology, neurophysiology and nutrition. Dr.
Levothyroxine is generic, therefore not a pure form but additives thrown together and there is no guarantee you are getting the correct amount in each pill. Worse off I was late everyday and couldn’t plan anything too early for fear of sleeping through it. After a year, I was put on a synthetic T4 and T3 combo, which helped immensely but it took time (nearly two years) and I was not back at 100%. Many subsidiary factors varying over time and place influence the amount of UVB which reaches the skin of individuals and so the amount of vitamin D synthesised, while other factors influence the amount ingested. Simply stated, this paradox, also known as the 'Scottish Effect' (8), tells us that the mortality of Scots is higher than that of the English across all social classes even though many aspects of culture, environment and health provision are the same. This is because Scotland (latitude 55° to 61° north) is not only located relatively far north but also has a very cloudy maritime climate. While in winter 92% of Scots aged 45 fail to have the optimal level compared with 86% of people in southern England. This is of interest because vitamin D is needed for absorption of calcium in the bowel (19). A Cochrane Review of 50 randomised trials with 94,148 participants has extended this approach confirming a significant reduction in mortality of individuals taking vitamin D3 (38). In Scotland the peak in men reached 960 deaths per 100,000, higher than anywhere else, possibly because of the particularly low level of vitamin D in the population (27, 29, 30). Since 1950 a number of these factors that lower vitamin D levels in individuals and populations have come into play and may have had a disproportionate effect in Scotland as a result of threshold effects.


The effect of latitude has been explained as acting through intensity of environmental UVB radiation and synthesis of vitamin D. However, most of the Scottish population is clustered further south, between latitude 55 and latitude 56.5 degrees where the rates of admission for MS all fall in a narrow band. According to the map of sunshine hours (Figure 1) compiled by the UK Meteorological Office, the east coast towns of Scotland may expect to get 75150 more hours of sunshine per year than those on the West coast based on 1971-2000 figures. Air pollution, especially particulate, has been found to correlate with hospital respiratory admissions which were greater in Glasgow and Edinburgh than in Aberdeen and Dundee (62). Reanalysis of the Women's Health Initiative Trial shows that breast, bowel and total cancer is reduced by a vitamin D plus calcium supplement (69).
Fish will also have been more readily available in the Scottish islands, particularly Orkney and Shetland and in the many small fishing towns and villages. This is about half a pound (227 gm) of fish a day for each family member providing about 1500 IUs of vitamin D, an amount of vitamin D sufficient for basic good health.
These faster modern boats enabled larger catches further offshore, catching the fish before they had a chance to come inshore to breed. The herring fisheries re-opened in 1981 but the eating habits of a generation had begun to change.
This, together with the change from a diet rich in fish (76), is a factor which must be considered as a cause of the high incidence of MS admissions in Orkney and Shetland today (58).
In 2011 milk fortified with vitamin D came on sale again in the UK by one supplier (Marks and Spencer). The result of this 'epidemic' was the ending of fortification of milk with vitamin D in the UK, whereas other countries continued fortification. Then in 2008, the NICE advice was countermanded again by NICE itself which then recommended a vitamin D supplement for mothers and children in low income households.
When HEC was dissolved Cancer Research UK, the national charity, obtained a government grant to continue the campaign under their SunSmart banner.
By the mid-1990s many, perhaps most, women's cosmetics, face creams, foundation, and hand creams contained sun block. From the 1990s on computers and digital screen games became increasingly popular doing even more to trap people indoors in summer as well as winter. The concept of the French paradox is in conflict with conventional theories on the causes of coronary heart disease.
However since 1990 infant mortality in Albania has decreased and life expectancy increased (93, 94) while cardiovascular risk factors appear to remain less common than in many other European countries (95). Most Swiss live above 400 m altitude where they get some 5% more UVB than people living at the same latitude at sea level and, probably more important, a longer summer season when UVB remains available. Explanation of lung cancer incidence in Greece and Scotland in terms of the UVB-vitamin D hypothesis is encouraged by a study of lung cancer and UVB irradiance in 111 countries (100) which shows that lower levels of UVB are associated with a higher incidence of lung cancer. Examples suggest that these criteria may be satisfied and so the Scots' paradox may in large part be explained by the UVB-vitamin D hypothesis. We are now beginning to understand the full consequences of dirty air and indoor work and indoor living which block out sunlight, our natural source of vitamin D.
Increasing an individual’s vitamin D levels will simply increase the amount of calcium they absorb from their diet. If your calcium level is too high, the body will decrease the amount of vitamin D in order to decrease the amount of calcium that is absorbed from your intestines. But while low vitamin D levels will never cause high calcium levels, removing a parathyroid tumor will almost always correct the vitamin D level.
I get blood work in couple weeks hope all is well and levels improved since taking the supplements.
I have such a hard time waking up in the morning now too like I just want to sleep and sleep.
Finally, a few months ago I decided to switch to desiccated thyroid replacement at an equivalent dosage. What I wasn’t told is that I also had low iron and hypothyroidism until my 23 week checkup with a midwife.
These factors are plotted leading to a common pathway that ends in vitamin D insufficiency and consequent disease. This is the result of the prevailing westerly wind which brings in moist air from the Atlantic. If the diet is relatively rich in calcium, it has a sparing action which frees vitamin D for other uses, reducing the overall optimal vitamin D requirement (20-23).
The evidence that low serum levels of vitamin D are a risk factor for other types of cancer, heart disease and stroke is considered by many experts in the field to be compelling (25-32). Furthermore deficiency of vitamin D in pregnancy is known to be common in Scotland because it is a risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS) (48, 49) which is more common in Scotland than any other country surveyed (49).
After 1970, mortality dropped rapidly to fewer than 25 per 100,000, which is the UK average today (52). This is supported by independent evidence which points to the role of vitamin D insufficiency in pregnancy and early life as a major factor in the development of MS (48, 55-57). This is hardly surprising since such a small difference in latitude gives rise to very little difference in intensity of UVB light.
Aberdeen is on the east and so gets more sun than Glasgow but the annual UVB intensity may be no better because it is substantially further north. Greater air pollution in Glasgow may be the result, in part, of its proximity to the west coast so that, as in the San Francisco bay area (63), a persistent marine layer of low cloud and fog moves inland with the prevailing wind as the region warms up during the day.
Evidence that insufficient vitamin D is a major factor in bowel cancer was accepted by the International Agency for Research in Cancer, Lyons, to imply causation (24). However interpretation and implementation of such laws and regulations are controlled by individual cities and regions.
The present investigation has endeavoured, but been unable to obtain, historical statistics on fish consumption in Scotland as a whole. In the more remote south-eastern coastal districts of the island families ate even more fish, particularly herring (72). This led to the collapse in 1955 of one of the great European herring fisheries (off East Anglia).
The increased cost of seafood, together with changes towards a 'modern' industrial diet, have led to reduced consumption of fish even in Orkney and Shetland (76). The relationship between fish consumption and disease in Scotland merits further investigation. The blame attached to vitamin D following this scare led to mothers being advised not to give their babies cod liver oil or NHS infant vitamins (containing A, D and C) until they were six months old whereas other countries provide babies with a vitamin D supplement from the first week or so of life.
It is hardly surprising that obstetricians and midwives have been confused and a recommendation to take vitamin D in pregnancy and while breast feeding is not passed on to mothers. This advice, which continued until 2010, can only have lowered vitamin D uptake generally in the UK (80). While these changes have occurred throughout the modern world the effect may have been greater in Scotland, where a small lowering of population levels of vitamin D might be expected to take more people below threshold levels for disease. Mortality in Albania is lowest in the south west where most of the olive oil, fruits and vegetables are grown. Furthermore, all the cheese eaten in Switzerland provides the Swiss with a relatively high calcium diet, so sparing vitamin D for other functions (1923). If a person takes more vitamin D, the intestines will become more efficient at absorbing the calcium molecules in our diet, and your calcium level will go up.
Because vitamin D is needed to absorb calcium from your diet, the decreased levels will restrict the amount of calcium your body can absorb. Looking for a doc in Gilbert AZ … Going to a neurologist on Tuesday … I just hope and pray that he will listen !!! Examples suggest that the factors interact to increase mortality in Scotland in a way consistent with causation according to the criteria of Bradford Hill.
Much of England (latitude 50° - 55° north) is given some protection from this moist westerly air stream by the Irish landmass and the mountains of Wales and Cumbria which draw down precipitation. Furthermore 160 children in the west of Scotland were found to be suffering from obvious vitamin D deficiency in the period between 2002 and 2008; 40% of them had bowed legs (17). Thus soft water puts Scots at a further disadvantage when it comes to effective body levels of vitamin D. Diabetes (33) and a number of other diseases (10) linked to low vitamin D levels might be usefully investigated as possible causes of excess deaths in Scotland. However this epidemic and its extreme impact in Scotland cannot account for the Scottish paradox because the difference in mortality between Scotland and England today is larger than it was in 1950 (9).
As well as causing adverse effects on respiratory health, including asthma, air pollution may have adverse effects on pregnancy, and on the immune system, particularly in the case of children (61).
This may have led to differences between Glasgow and other Scottish cities and between Scotland and England but it is beyond the scope of this article to investigate the issue further.
Traditional fish dishes eaten on Lewis included boiled cod's head and stomach of cod stuffed with chopped cod's liver, onions and oatmeal. In the following years herring stocks which had been highly productive for the last 1000 years disappeared one after another, or were drastically reduced (74, 75). Each year in April or May, Cancer Research UK promoted their 'SunSmart' advice to avoid the sun in the middle of the day, cover up with long sleeves and a hat and wear suncream.
However, in the UK today tights or leggings are generally worn with such skirts all year round and so casual exposure to the sun is minimal. Vitamin D does not seem to have been given serious consideration, which is particularly striking when, as everyone knows, the Mediterranean is the sunniest part of Europe (91).
Thus the Albanian paradox is very similar to the French paradox and again latitude stands out as a major variable. They theorize that milk products from cows that graze at higher alpine localities contain higher levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids which prevent development of the metabolic syndrome, although it is not clear how this explains the relatively low mortality in the Netherlands where some cows may actually graze below sea level. The net effect of a 1000 m increase in altitude of residence has been found to be a 33% decrease in cardiovascular mortality and a 12% decrease in stroke (97).
These factors are shown as a pathway which provides a substantial explanation of the Scots' paradox. However, for the past two months, the fatigue and brain fog have slowly started creeping back and I think, after reading this fantastic article, that I might have a vitamin deficiency.
Three months later I remember reading a recent scientific article about the fact that Vit D is actually required by the thyroid hormones (I think at cellular level) and decide to go under the sun as much as possible. It is suggested that different degrees of vitamin D insufficiency in populations can explain important differences in the health of nations and resolve health paradoxes. However the historical decline in fishing in the North Sea and reduced catches resulting from legal restrictions limiting fishing by British vessels in Icelandic and Norwegian waters is well documented.
Anecdotally, many people tried to follow this advice and reduced sun exposure to a minimum, while many also ignored it. As a result of these fashions young children are getting much less exposure to the sun than they obtained previously. The hypothesis that lower cancer rates observed at high altitudes arise from enhanced sunlight-induced vitamin D production levels has advanced (98).
Latitude and differences in sun exposure may explain other paradoxes noted by epidemiologists. Good luck with your search and just know we who suffer along with you understand your frustration. It’s possible that I have more than one, according to another article I read on your blog.
The analysis also shows that vitamin D insufficiency is a consequence of industrialisation and, like other consequences of industrial growth, such as water and air pollution, needs to be corrected by public health measures. Now Cancer Research UK have changed their advice and say people should go out in the sun in the middle of the day (81, 82) but they have not issued any corrective advertising and the old message persists. I went home and made an appointment with my doctor who was reluctant to me getting an ultrasound and said I was just depressed!! Direct intervention with use of supplements and fortification of foods with vitamin D can be expected to provide considerable health gains, but progress will be slow until there is greater recognition of the vitamin D health crisis by the public, professionals and politicians. The ultrasound came back with a small single hard nodule on my left lobe and a cyst on top. My test results came in and the professor of obstetrics advised that I didn’t have hyperthyroidism about 4 weeks later. Health professionals need to be trained and motivated to encourage use of supplements, particularly by pregnant and nursing mothers, and infants. The importance of open sunny spaces and clean air that allows full penetration of UVB needs to be recognised by city planners and politicians.
I thought I finally had my answer and was somewhat relieved, but also scared out of mind at the same time. Now, five months later, I was forced to decrease my thyroid meds by a lot (from 2.5 grains to 1.5) and I still lose weight and my remaining symptoms and overall health are improving!
New advice and new fashions are needed to encourage maximum exposure of skin to summer sun without burning. I had always been a very healthy person, getting exercise and cooking healthy food from scratch. Once I realised that, thry finally tested me and found that I do have the antibodies but my ranges are quite normal again. I couldn’t take it for much longer and 2 months afterward I noticed my nodule was noticeable now and starting to hurt. I doubt it but it is worth understanding that Hashimotos people are Vit D deficient and that in turn this deficiency will affect thyroid levels even more.
Alllll of these doctors want a share of your pie and this is something you can do for yourself, safely, and at a nominal cost. I called my endo who I haven’t even been able to see yet and complained on a particularly sleepy day at work. If anyone has a recommendation for an endocrinologist in Brisbane, Australia, please advise. The tests came back with normal T4 (no T3 done), normal TSH… But then I saw my vitamin D was deficient and my thyroxine antibodies were very high.
I really do not want to wait around any longer and have been so frustrated with how little the medical industry seems to give attention to thyroid cancer or disease!
I goto see my endo in a week and plan to get some answers and put a game plan together, but all my doctors before would probably still say it was everything but a thyroid problem. I cannot really tell if I am in the wrong, but I hope anyone else out there dealing with the same is getting second and third and fourth opinions!



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