Meaning of giving pearl earrings uk,ear crackles when i move my head quickly,tinnitus goes away after shower wikipedia,hearing loss in cold - Step 1

Author: admin, 09.07.2014. Category: Ring In The Ears

Description: This highly significant map of the world eluded examination by modern scholars for nearly four hundred years until its re-discovery in 1901 by the Jesuit historian, Joseph Fisher, in the library of Prince von Waldburg zu Wolfegg-Waldsee at the Castle of Wolfegg, WA?rttemberg Germany. It had long been suspected that Martin WaldseemA?ller, a professor of cosmography at the school in St. The purpose of this little book is to write a description of the world map, which we have designed both as a globe and as a projection [tam in solido quam plano]. Martin WaldseemA?llera€™s Universalis Cosmographia secundum Ptholomei Traditionem et Americi Vespucci aliorum Lustrationes [A Map of the World According to the Tradition of Ptolemy and the Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci] was designed on a single cordiform projection and engraved on twelve wooden blocks (21 x 30 inches each; 54 x 96 inches overall) at Strasburg and printed at St.
In Plate IX of the map, numbering the plates from left to right, the top row first, WaldseemA?ller re-asserts that he is particularly delineating the lands discovered by Vespucci.
A general delineation of the various lands and islands, including some of which the ancients make no mention, discovered lately between 1497 and 1504 in four voyages over the seas, two by Fernando of Castile, and two by Manuel of Portugal, most serene monarchs, with Amerigo Vespucci as one of the navigators and officers of the fleet; and especially a delineation of many places hitherto unknown. Vespucci claimed that on his first voyage he made discoveries along the coasts of Honduras and the Gulf of Mexico. In describing the general appearance of the world, it has seemed best to put down the discoveries of the ancients, and to add what has since been discovered by the moderns, for instance, the land of Cathay, so that those who are interested in such matters and wish to find out various things, may gain their wishes and be grateful to us for our labor, when they see nearly everything that has been discovered here and there, or recently explored, carefully and clearly brought together, so as to be seen at a glance. This mapa€™s greatest claim to immortality, however, is contained in the simple word of seven letters, America, the earliest known use of that name to describe the newly found fourth part of the world, placed on the southern continent (present-day South America) of the world map only by WaldseemA?ller. More than four years had elapsed since Amerigo Vespucci announced what he claimed to be the discovery of an entirely new continent, and as yet that new continent had no satisfactory name. In the first years of the new century, a group of scholars decided to produce a revised edition of the Cosmography of Ptolemy (#119) to meet the urgent need for new maps, according to the new discoveries. Martin WaldseemA?ller, a native of Freiburg in the Breisgau and appointed Professor of Geography at St. Toward the South Pole are situated the southern part of Africa, recently discovered, and the islands of Zanzibar, Java Minor, and Seula.
The name appeared in Halmal, a semi-divine mythical forefather or ancestor of the Amelungen, or royal tribe of the Ostrogoths, which was called A–mlunger. Returning to the map, it is curious to note that while the name America appeared on the new continent (South America) of the new hemisphere on the world map, WaldseemA?ller did not choose to use it on the small inset map of the western hemisphere, where South America is labeled Terra Incognita. By selecting the name America for a major portion of the new discoveries, WaldseemA?ller was not unaware of the contributions of Columbus and intended no denial of the credit properly due him.
Plate I, in the upper left-hand corner, contains an inscription that explains WaldseemA?llera€™s ideas as to the location of the lands discovered by Vespucci and Columbus.
Many have regarded as an invention the words of a famous poet [Virgil] that a€?beyond the stars lies a land, beyond the path of the year and the sun, where Atlas, who supports the heavens, revolves on his shoulders the axis of the world, set with gleaming starsa€?, but now finally it proves clearly to be true. Instead of a€?19 degreesa€? he should have written a€?29 degreesa€? which, when added to the 23 degrees of the tropic, would have made the a€?52 degreesa€? given in the a€?thirda€? voyage as Amerigo Vespuccia€™s farthest south. The remarkable geographical features of the WaldseemA?ller map are, however, more important than the giving of a name to one of them.
These close approximations to geographical actualities were natural corollaries of Amerigoa€™s great a€?discoverya€™ of a a€?fourth part of the worlda€?.
WaldseemA?ller places a land to the west of Isabella Insula [Cuba], as do many of the other mapmakers of his time, La Cosa, Cantino, Ruysch and Caveri (#305, #308, #313, #307).
To the south, the long attenuated form given to both Terra Ulteria€? Incognita and to America, the west coasts of which are, as it were, rolled back to indicate WaldseemA?llera€™s lack of knowledge of these areas.
Leaving the New World discoveries, one cannot help but notice the striking resemblance between WaldseemA?llera€™s a€?Old Worlda€? outline and that presented by Henricus Martellus Germanus in his map of 1490 (#256).
Although many of the ancients were interested in marking out the circle of the land, things remained unknown to them in no slight degree; for instance, in the west, America, named after its discoverer, which is to be reckoned a fourth part of the world. In addition to Caveri, Martellus and Ptolemy, other sources synthesized by WaldseemA?ller include the narratives of Marco Polo, whose data concerning the geography of eastern China and the adjacent islands, though already known to the world in the map of Fra Mauro (#249), the Catalan Atlas (#235) and in globes such as those of Behaim (#258), are now for the first time embodied in a popular printed sheet map; and the Northmen, whose explorations in Mare Glaciale and in the neighborhood of Greenland were known from the maps of Claudius Clavus and those of Donnus Nickolaus Germanus. Thus, derived chiefly from Caveria€™s map (#307), itself based in many particulars upon the Cantino world map of 1502 (#308), the WaldseemA?ller production of 1507 transmitted the features of both to an impressive list of succeeding maps, globes and globe gores reaching to 1520 and well beyond. Of the same year as the map itself, and displaying its features, was the previously alluded to printed globe issued by WaldseemA?ller, known today only by two sets of globe gores on uncut sheets.
WaldseemA?ller, himself, continued his cartographic production beginning with a revised edition of Ptolemya€™s Geographia (eventually published by others), which included a Supplement composed of 20 maps claimed by some scholars to be a€?the first modern atlas of the worlda€™. The regression of WaldseemA?ller to the Columbian conception of Cuba as a part of the continent of Asia was without question confusing to those who saw the map of 1516 with its specific legend.
One can hardly overemphasize the significance in cartographic history, therefore, of the printed WaldseemA?ller productions of 1507 - world map, insets, and globe gores.
The name America (applied to present-day Brazil) appeared for what is believed the first time on Martin WaldseemA?ller's 1507 world map a€” the so-called Baptismal Certificate of the New World. AMERICA, we learn as schoolchildren, was named in honor of Amerigo Vespucci a€” for his discovery of the mainland of the New World. Traditional history lessons about the discovery of America also raise questions about the meaning of discovery itself. And yet, despite the issue of who discovered America, we are still confronted with the awesome fact that it was the voyages of Columbus, and not earlier ones, that changed the course of world history. Carew is resurrecting the ideas of Jules Marcou, a prominent French geologist who while studying North America argued, as did other 19th-century writers, that the name America was brought back to Europe from the New World; and that Vespucci had changed his name to reflect the name of his discovery.
Like Marcou, Carew wants us to believe that America was not named after Vespucci, but vice versa; that Vespucci had, so to speak, re-named himself after his discovery, gilding his given name by modifying it to reflect the significance of his discovery. Some scholars believe Vespucci was named after Saint Emeric, son of the first king of Hungary.
As was the custom of the Florentine nobility, Vespucci received an education that featured special instruction in the sciences connected with navigation a€” natural philosophy, astronomy, and cosmography a€” in which he excelled.
During the first half of the 20th century, scholars discovered further evidence that clears away the cloud of misunderstanding and ignorance by which Vespucci has long been obscured. The voyage completed by Vespucci between May 1499 and June 1500 as navigator of an expedition of four ships sent from Spain under the command of Alonso de Hojeda is certainly authentic. Under Portuguese auspices he completed a second expedition, which set sail from Lisbon on May 31, 1501. Vespucci not only explored unknown regions but also invented a system of computing exact longitude and arrived at a figure computing the earth's equational circumference only fifty miles short of the correct measurement.
The new geography included in its appendix WaldseemA?ller's large, stunning map of the world, on which the New World is boldly labeled AMERICA a€” in the middle of present-day Brazil. The baptismal passage in the Cosmographiae Introductio has commonly been read as argument, in which the authors said that they were naming the newly discovered continent in honor of Vespucci and saw no reason for objections.
Even though the Latinization of Americus fits a pattern, why did the cosmographers not employ Albericus (hence the assumption that "Alberigo" was Vespucci's authentic Christian name), the Latinization that had already been used for Amerigo's name as the author of the Mundus Novus? Did America get its name through oral tradition when those who had sailed with Columbus or Vespucci circulated stories that gold was to be found in the Amerrique Mountains of Nicaragua? The coast at the foot of the Amerrique Mountains that faces the Caribbean Sea is called the Mosquito Coast, named for the Mosquito Indians, who live there still.
The Caribs, traveling far from their Carib or Cariay coast, could see the Amerriques in the distance, and these mountains for them could have signified the mainland.
Rodney Broomea€™s recent book, Terra Incognita: The True Story of How America Got Its Name (2001), in which he argues for the Amerike theory, is a very good read, but ultimately lacks the hard evidence to support the authora€™s claim. An early version of this essay appeared in The American Voice (1988) and a section in Encounters (1991). In late May 2003, the Library of Congress completed the purchase of the only surviving copy of the first image of the outline of the continents of the world as we know them todaya€” Martin Waldseemullera€™s monumental 1507 world map. Martin Waldseemuller, the primary cartographer of the map, was a sixteenth-century scholar, humanist, cleric, and cartographer who had joined the small intellectual circle, the Gymnasium Vosagense, organized in Saint-DieI?, France. Thus, in northeast France was born the famous 1507 world map, entitled Universalis cosmographia secunda Ptholemei traditionem et Americi Vespucci aliorum que lustrationes (A drawing of the whole earth following the tradition of Ptolemy and the travels of Amerigo Vespucci and others). While it has been suggested that Waldseemuller incorrectly dismissed Christopher Columbusa€™s great achievement in history by the selection of the name America for the Western Hemisphere, it is evident that the information that Waldseemuller and his colleagues had at their disposal recognized Columbus's previous voyages of exploration and discovery. By 1513, when Waldseemuller and the Saint-DieI? scholars published the new edition of Ptolemy's Geographiae, and by 1516, when his famous Carta Marina was printed, Waldseemuller had removed the name America from his maps, perhaps suggesting that even he had second thoughts in honoring Vespucci exclusively for his understanding of the New World. A reported one thousand copies of the 1507 map were printed, which was a sizeable print run in those days. The Library of Congress's Geography and Map Division acquired in 1903 the facsimiles made of the 1507 and 1516 maps. Library of Congress and specialists in the Library were encouraged to investigate the opportunity. The 1507 world map is now the centerpiece of the outstanding cartographic collections of the Library of Congress, as it would be for any world class cartographic collection. The Librarya€™s acquisition of the Waldseemuller map represents an important moment to renew serious research into this exceptional map, to determine the sources which made possible its creation, and to investigate its contemporary impact and acceptance. Through agreement with Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg and the government of Germany, the 1507 world map by Martin Waldseemuller is to be placed on permanent display in the Library of Congressa€™s Great Hall area in the Thomas Jefferson Building. DESCRIPTION: The existence of sets of gores for making into a globe had been surmised for some time from the discussion in WaldseemA?llera€™s CosmographiA¦ Introductio.
That which adds special significance to this young Germana€™s representations of the new lands, so far as a study of globes is concerned, is the repeated recurrence of his particular outlines or contours in the globe maps of the first quarter of the century, produced by such cartographers as Johann SchA¶ner of NA?rnberg (#328), and by those of his school.
In a little tract, printed in Strassburg in the year 1509, there appears to be a reference to a globe which may be that constructed by WaldseemA?ller. The twelve such gores, measuring 18 x 34.5 cm, corresponding very closely to those described by WaldseemA?ller were for a long time in the Hauslab-Leichtenstein collection and are now in the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
The world outline is a simplified reduction of WaldseemA?llera€™s large map of 1507 (#310) with relatively few names but (when mounted) sufficient for illustrative purposes. Martin WaldseemA?ller, theologian and cosmographer, and Matthias Ringmann, a humanist poet, were brought to the monastery of St. Although it is likely that the simple globe gores, their model or a€?Marquettea€? of the New World view, would have been available with each issue of the Cosmographiae, the large 12 sheet wall-map, would have been too expensive to be sold as widely. Considerable speculation, misinformation and some misunderstanding has surrounded these globe gores and the large world map. We read about their sumptuous lifestyles, latest loves and multimillion-dollar contracts in the celebrity pages and on gossip websites.
But Jiang Yilei, 29, has become a star virtually overnight in China - not from being snared by a big film studio, but thanks to the internet and social networking sites.
Jiang, widely known as Papi Jiang, previously was an unknown graduate student at the Central Academy of Drama.
She has attracted some 13.1 million followers on the Chinese microblogging site Sina Weibo over the past few months. Trying to make a name for oneself on the internet, either in China or elsewhere, is not exactly new.
Online celebrities in China have far more opportunities than their overseas counterparts because of the sheer scale and diversity of Chinese sites in their many manifestations, whether it be e-commerce, social media or something else.
When Chinese people used to think about online celebrity, by and large they pictured porcelain-faced young women, but now the idea has been stretched to take in any number of people who have a huge following on the internet, according to Da Shan, founder of Today's Online Celebrity, a WeChat public account devoted to analyzing China's online celebrity economy. Today's Online Celebrity recently published a report about the potential commercial value of such celebrities, measured by number of followers, and the influence and business model of the platforms on which they are active. The most eye-catching group of online celebrities - who have a whole sales and production team for goods they hawk to online fans as part of their business model - are those closely connected with China's e-commerce companies, such as Alibaba's Taobao.
In this case, you can forget the idea that a Little Miss Nobody working alone, crouched over an old computer in a shed in a village, is behind all this. The woman that is the face of the operation usually also deals with an incubator or agencies that connect her with manufacturers, suppliers and advertising agencies and guide her in maintaining, or if need be changing, her image so as to keep followers loyal, says Yang Ping, general manager of an incubator of online celebrities in Hangzhou. Fang Qihe, a blogger and Taobao shop owner in Shenzhen, Guangdong province, is one of those who puts on stylish garb, takes photos of herself and posts them online. In the apparel industry in China, online celebrities are responsible for sales worth 100 billion yuan a year, according to Guotai Junan Securities. Another large group of online celebrities consists of those who perform on live streaming sites. The Ministry of Culture says about 200 million people in China use online live streaming, and that at the busiest times 3,000 to 4,000 rooms are streaming simultaneously, with a combined viewership of between 2 million and 3 million. Others who are cashing in on online fame include many who do not show their face, but provide entertainment or information in the form of novels and other written content, astrological advice, cartoons or stock market analyses. The many ways online stars can cash in show that the online celebrity economy has begun to run in a more cohesive, organized and professional way, the emerging online celebrity incubators and agencies say.
Moreover, as online celebrity becomes more mainstream, those who have gained fame in more conventional ways are increasingly turning to social media to keep in contact with their fans, and they, too, are beginning to develop online personalities. More than 10 million viewers watched a live-streamed online games contest featuring musician, record producer, director and actor Jay Chou, who is famous throughout Asia, and controversial figure Wang Sicong, known for buying his dog two gold Apple Watches. Given the size, reach and pace of change in the industry, authorities overseeing it are struggling to keep up. The Ministry of Culture has ordered more than 12 live streaming sites to make changes to comply with regulations. The desire by online celebrities to milk their fame to the fullest may be because a cyberstar's shelf life seems to be relatively short.
Yang Ping, general manager of a Hangzhou incubator, says that as competition between online celebrities heats up, the critical thing will continue to be the quality of content. Da says: "Online celebrities are usually highly attractive physically, but that's not enough.
Even for Papi Jiang - as commenters note that "aesthetic fatigue" for her videos is starting to creep in - finding a workable business model and sustainable popularity will still remain a question, he says. Sitting at a computer, turning on the camera and clicking on the microphone, 22-year-old Xia Keke smiles, chats, sings and sometimes stands up and dances inside a pink room filled with dolls.
Born into a conventional, white-collar family in Jinan, Shandong province - her mother is a judge and her father an engineer - Xia says she has been learning singing and dancing since childhood. After high school, she became a flight attendant, but her hobby of playing online games made her want to do live broadcasts of such games. Xia says that she likes to project her own personality on live broadcasts, and she also makes fun of herself and cracks jokes, to get closer to her audience.
She says although many people think the career of a live online broadcast host must be very short, she disagrees and has just signed a four-year contract.
Xia recently had to have surgery to treat a vocal cord tumor, and had to stop broadcasting for more than a month. A Tencent report of online celebrities says many incubators are now in operation, and the number is growing quickly. Although no specific figures are available yet about how many incubators there are in China, Yang Ping, general manager of Hangzhou Online Celebrities E-Commerce Co, says growth of online celebrity incubators in the past few months has been explosive, and she can feel the competition getting fiercer. Yang set up the incubator in June and has signed six online celebrities, most of whom are young, attractive women.
Ruhan E-commerce Ltd, one of the biggest incubators, in July 2014 signed its first online celebrity - the model Zhang Dayi - and helped Zhang manage her first Taobao online shop. A report by Guotai Junan Securities shows that, among Ruhan's online celebrities, about 50 have online shops, and by the end of 2016 the number of shops will reach more than 100.
Feng Min, founder of Ruhan, says three qualifications are needed for online celebrities: being a leader or specializing in one area, having the desire and passion to share with others, and knowing how to interact well with clients and followers.
He says there are three primary services that incubators provide to celebrities: first, discovering, researching and cultivating people who have expertise in a certain area, and to help them showcase the best of their expertise and talent to make them famous, and help them stay that way. Yang says before she started the incubator, she worked in the international clothing trade and in factories. She also is in contact with potential online celebrities overseas, and is trying to cultivate a crop from the US, Thailand, Japan and South Korea. The drought-tolerant crop could replace teff as an ingredient in injera, the traditional Ethiopian dish that is eaten daily in virtually every home. Test plantings of the millet in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's Region - one of the nine ethnic regions of Ethiopia - have so far proved to be successful, the academy says.
Peng Dajun, deputy general manager of CGCOC, which is a subsidiary of a large, state-owned Chinese enterprise, says foxtail millet has an annual output of more than 7 metric tons a hectare - about 5 tons more than teff. Several crops can be fermented to make injera, but he says dishes made using foxtail millet taste just like those including teff. Last year, Ethiopia was hit by its worst drought in decades, leaving 8.2 million people in need of emergency food aid, according to media reports.
Peng says if foxtail millet had been planted widely in Ethiopia, the famine may have been avoided due to its strong drought tolerance. Zhao Zhihai, chief agronomist at the academy, says cooperation with CGCOC can be complementary.
Peng adds that CGCOC can mobilize more funds than research institutes and have a better understanding of government policies in Africa. The two partners have established a millet research center in Addis Ababa, the Ethiopian capital, where Peng aims to make a breakthrough in solving Africa's food security issues.
Zhao adds that they are also working on new species and advising enterprises on how to build up a complete industry chain for the crops they develop.
David Gann says developing smart cities in China is of great significance as rural to urban migration continues in the country. The professor of innovation and technology management at Imperial College London says the growth of new cities in China, coupled with the increasing density of population, requires Chinese cities to be "smart", such as making data more available, as in the Smart London plan. David Gann says the growth of new cities in China, coupled with the increasing density of population, requires Chinese cities to be "smart". Given that urban dwellers can be more vulnerable to risks such as contagious diseases and severe pollution, Gann says the livability of densely packed cities requires good physical and data infrastructure. According to Gann, "the smart city is about using digital technology to harness data to improve the way in which the city is operating, but it could mean different things in different places". He says some of the things that London does can be a bit different from what cities in China do. Gann, the chairman of the Smart London board, says the concept of Smart London originally stemmed from the successful management of the London 2012 Summer Olympics, where a swath of data was used to support the delivery of the Games. London was able to provide support digitally for people's experience during the Games in 2012, and as a direct result the decision was taken to create a Smart London board and Gann was asked to be chairman by then-London mayor Boris Johnson. Gann thinks it was his expertise in digital technology, along with its application and use in business and government, plus Imperial College's top reputation in science and technology in Europe, that led to his selection for the job. To make the capital function better, Gann says London has put data utilization at its core to help the city manage its transport, social, economic and environmental systems. Thanks to contributions from a mix of academics, businesspeople and administrators, the Smart London plan was published in December 2013, to use the creative power of data and technology to improve the lives of Londoners, the experience of visitors, and the conditions for doing business. Since the birth of the plan, there have been huge improvements in some areas, says Gann, adding that one of the key contributors is the London Datastore, a data-sharing portal. A report published in March, entitled The Future of Smart, documented the board's progress in advising, developing and promoting the use of digital infrastructure and data in London.
Because the London Datastore has been such a powerful piece of infrastructure and is a web portal into information about how London operates, he believes it is liberating, and one of his strong recommendations for China is to make data open. Also, because the use of scientists and the links between academics, business and government have worked well in London, Gann says China could benefit by encouraging more collaborative efforts from various parties, including researchers, the government and industry. China could do more with startup entrepreneurs, says Gann, who has lots of experience mentoring startups, supporting rapidly growing tech businesses and developing long-term strategic partnerships with multinational technology corporations. Gann says companies like Huawei, which is also a member of the Smart London Board, can play an important role in helping develop smart cities in China.
He says he thinks there are plenty of avenues for Huawei to continue to develop in those areas but also probably in developing new services and understanding how infrastructure is used to optimize its use. One of the challenges for Huawei, Gann says, is determining what sort of platform would really deliver in the long term.
COVERED IN DULL OLIVE GREEN SYNTHETIC RAFFIA, BOUND BY GRAY STRINGS, the almost square book seems modestly unadorned. The book, made by the bookshop owner, Lyu Chonghua, designed by Li Jin and published by Guangxi Fine Arts Publishing House, won the Gold Medal in the Most Beautiful Book in the World competition in Leipzig, Germany, in February.
The 200-square-meter shop, beside the gate of the academy, is jam packed with 20,000 books and other items related to the arts, gorgeous calligraphy model books, plaster statues and row upon row of neatly stored brushes. Li, 44, looks smart and elegant, wearing a dark cotton gown, her long black hair in a bun held together by a hairpin.
She was a classmate of Lyu at the Xi'an Academy of Fine Arts, where the pair studied graphic design, more than 20 years ago. Publishers use it to protect books while they are being transported because such wrapping is cheap but durable.
Lyu dipped into his own savings to produce the book, spending more than 200,000 yuan ($30,600) on the first and second print runs of 7,500 copies, which quickly sold out after the book won the award in Leipzig, paving the way for a third printing, which is due out soon. His mother, Ma Xiulian, who founded the family book business, rejected his plans for what eventually became an award winner as a waste of money. In January 2010 at the Beijing Book Fair Lyu met Zhang Dong, then vice editor-in-chief of Guangxi Fine Arts Publishing House.
So he drew a caricature of himself as a signature in the bottom right corner of each order. On average, he drew three to four orders a day and over the next 10 years, before fax was largely supplanted by e-mail, he built up a stack of more than 10,000 orders.
After returning to Xi'an from the Beijing Book Fair in 2010, Lyu started preparing the book.
However, beyond that cheery optimism for the family business, Lyu is well acquainted with the tough times the book industry is going through and appreciates that in fact the family business may be much closer to its end than its beginning. The family started the book business in 1982 soon after Ma Xiulian arrived in Xi'an with her two sons, Lyu and his older brother Lyu Qinbing, to be with her husband, Lyu Anwei, who was a lowly paid teacher of scenography at the Xi'an Academy of Fine Arts. At first they sold books about the arts, with their wares spread out on the ground, around universities, and business was brisk.
In 1984 they sold 250 of the 5,000 sets of the first print of the Complete Collection of Shakespeare and 600 of the 4,900 copies of the first print of Sigmund Freud's A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis. The following year the family rented a shop of less than 20 square meters next to the Xi'an Conservatory of Music and later moved to its current location in Jixiangcun, where the poet Li Bai of the Tang Dynasty (AD 618-907) is said to have once lived, and it expanded to the current size. After leaving high school in 1991, Lyu joined in running the business and in 1996, after he graduated from the Xi'an Academy of Fine Arts, Li, by then 25, decided to take over the business from his father. With its intimate acquaintance with the arts the family has the kind of credentials that make it a natural for running the business they have, Lyu's father and his wife Liang Bing both having studied oil painting, and Lyu himself having studied graphic design. The annual rent is 450,000 yuan, which means the shop needs takings of more than 1,200 yuan a day just to pay the rent. As with many other bookshops in China, Fangyuan started to feel the pinch when e-commerce began to take off in the country, but the most immediate cause for the Xi'an store's woes comes down to bricks and mortar rather than the ether of cyberspace. There is no doubt, either, that e-books have eaten into the profits of those who sell printed books. You can look at pictures of any place on Earth on your computer, he says, but that is totally different to seeing the world for yourself. In late June 2010 Shaanxi Library hosted an exhibition called The Most Beautiful Books from Germany. Li, teaching book design at the university, took a ruler, a notebook and a pen to study the books.
Later in summer, after Ma left home to visit her mother, she needed to return home to look after her oldest son, who was ill.
The shop had had 10,000 orders, many of them similar, and including all would have made the book tedious, so they picked more than 2,000 and put the most representative ones in the main part of the book and the others were made into four flip books on the left side. In order to include more material, those Li believes are minor stories, they printed more private information on the left-hand pages that are closed at the front by the fold. They used relatively thin paper so that the content on the left-hand pages appears on the front, like hazy memories.
The Leipzig judges said the printed left-hand pages "serve up the additional content like an unopened fruit. The extraordinary exploits of adventurer William Mesny are recounted in a new biography that fizzes with lively characters and provides a valuable insight into life during the last decades of the Qing Dynasty. One morning in 1998, David Leffman awoke to find himself with a desert-dry throat, a thumping hangover and a notebook littered with jottings about an uprising in the 1860s that resulted in the deaths of 3 million people. Although the hangover eventually subsided, the scribbled notes Leffman had taken during a three-day "Sisters Meal", courtesy of the Miao ethnic group in the southwestern province of Guizhou, were so intriguing he couldn't get them out of his mind. That weekend signaled the start of a 15-year obsession with William Mesny, a British adventurer who arrived in China as a penniless sailor in 1860 and rose to the rank of general in the Imperial Army of the Qing Dynasty (1644 - 1911), before dying as he had arrived, almost broke, in Shanghai in 1919. The upshot of that decade and a half of travel and research is Leffman's recently published biography of Mesny, The Mercenary Mandarin: How a British Adventurer Became a General in Qing-Dynasty China, a story packed with stirring tales of derring-do and larger-than-life characters, deftly interwoven with the events that drove the times.
Mesny, a native of Jersey in the Channel Islands, led a full and dangerous life in China, plying many trades - gunrunner, jailer, newspaper columnist, government official, soldier, artillery expert, bridge designer, author and historian, to name just a few - before donning his general's uniform. He spoke fluent Chinese, advocated the modernization of all areas of society and, unusually for a Westerner at the time, had several close Chinese friends and seems to have been genuinely untainted by notions of superiority. Indeed, both Mesny and his brother John, an officer in the Chinese customs, married Chinese women - William twice, at different times, of course - and raised families with them.
His life and travels were so remarkable, and well-publicized at the time, that it's surprising to learn that The Mercenary Mandarin is the first full biography of Mesny, although Leffman expresses great admiration for Keith Stevens' 100-page A Jersey Adventurer in China, published by the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society in 1992. In Leffman's hands, Mesny emerges as a Zelig-like character; someone who was always - at least in his own accounts of events - in the thick of the action, whenever and wherever it occurred. On the positive side he was ingenious, industrious, generous, resourceful, courageous and honest. Sadly for Mesny, those attributes were often overshadowed by less admirable qualities, such as impulsiveness, a desire to stand on his dignity and an almost childlike naivety. The first official reference to Mesny comes in 1860 in an Australian newspaper report relating how the 18-year-old sailor was fined for an unprovoked attack that left the bosun of his ship nursing several bruised ribs. That first visit, made as the country moved forward with the reform and opening-up policy, was hard work because Leffman spoke no Chinese and only had a vague plan of action. Following his brother's arrival in Beijing, the two set out to visit the capital's major tourist sites. The brothers' constant presence obviously perplexed Michael, who paid Leffman "a huge compliment by complaining loudly to his entourage of photographers that I didn't look like a Wham fan". A few years later, as a fledgling author for the Rough Guides travel series, he used his photojournalism experience in China to successfully lobby the editors to send him to write about the southwest of the country.
In addition to China, Leffman, who lived in Queensland for 20 years and holds dual British-Australian nationality, has written guidebooks about many countries and regions, including Iceland, Australia, Indonesia, Hong Kong and Macao, and has even ghosted a cookbook for a Chinese author. He estimates that he has visited China more than 15 times since that first trip, often in the company of his wife, and spending about three years in total, traveling, observing, learning and writing about a country that has fascinated him during the 30 years since he and I first met.
Usually, each visit lasted six months, occasionally broken into two blocks, but the longest was nine months. To ensure that they would be able to communicate with their interviewees, Leffman and his wife signed up for intensive Chinese courses; first at London University's School of Oriental and African Studies and later at Sichuan University in Chengdu. Although it took many years to research and recount Mesny's life, including retracing his steps as far as possible to visit cities, battlefields and other places of interest, Leffman rarely felt overwhelmed or despaired that he might not finish writing The Mercenary Mandarin. That affection for Guizhou, and indeed most things Chinese, is highlighted in The Mercenary Mandarin by the use of Mesny's own words, culled from thousands of items, including newspaper reports and articles, published collectively as Mesny's Chinese Miscellany.
At four volumes and running to a mammoth 2,000 pages and about 1 million words, the Miscellany contains Mesny's thoughts on just about anything and everything connected with life in China: politics, food, social mores, ailments and treatments, the standing of the army, the price of rice and, increasingly, his own perilous financial situation.
Everything, it seems, was grist to his mill, and although Mesny rewrote previously published articles to bring his own role to the fore, the collection remains a valuable and fascinating window into life in China during the last decades of the Qing Dynasty. His own odyssey allowed Leffman to retrace Mesny's seemingly endless treks, visiting the places he fought or lived, and interviewing direct descendents of many of his friends and colleagues.


He also set great store in the Miscellany as a source of information about his subject's opinions of the people and events he encountered during nearly 60 years in the country. As Leffman points out in the introduction to The Mercenary Mandarin, the Miscellany, written in the flowery English of the time, is an extraordinary piece of work, given that Mesny left school at age 8 and his English was initially poor.
The "Slash Generation" are leading double lives as they experience the thrill of different identities. At their normal workplace they are, say, a teacher from 9 to 5, from 6 to 7 they may be an online flower arranger and from 8 to 10 they could be a film reviewer.
But it is important to note that money or monetary rewards, for the "Slash Generation" or the "Slashes", are not their driving force. Alboher pointed out that "slashing has also taken hold overseas" and some living on the other side of the planet are discovering how punctuated careers can integrate and satisfy multiple passions, talents and interests that a single career may be unable to match.
Six jobs don't bother him, Cheng told China Daily, as they are "interconnected" by facilitating people-to-people exchanges between Taiwan and the Chinese mainland.
In a maker-space in Beijing, Cheng worked as a project manager to help Taiwan entrepreneurs through consulting and financial investment. But there are only so many hours in a day and living a full professional life can have consequences in the private sphere. Upon graduating from the University of the Arts, London, in 2011, Kang became a user interface designer of a government website in 2013 and a tutor in an art education training center that year.
Adding a slash to his career by necessity, not by choice, Kang said doing only what he likes does not pay the bills in a major city like Beijing. Art and design may seem as if they are from the same stable but actually they are incompatible with each other, Kang said.
Kang is confident that he will make the breakthrough in the visual arts, but he is also aware that his company may demand that he becomes "slashless" to give them more of his energy. Liu Xuezhi, vice-president of the Chinese Academy of Personnel Science said that the Slash Generation could set a trend as the Internet had made it possible for people to satisfy their creative yearnings. From the employment perspective, Liu said of course there are companies looking for full-time specialists to focus on only one area, but there are also a number of bosses who want to hire members of the Slash Generation both for their creativity and because it can help "slash" costs.
Students at Shanghai's Jinshajiang Road Primary School hone their skills, especially dribbling, tackling and shooting, every day in intense workouts after school under the guidance of Spanish coach Jose Luis Iglesias.
A rapidly developing tactical awareness is evident, as players get into position and run off the ball. Ray Sports is rolling out a program in cooperation with Shanghai's municipal education authority to help improve the city's junior soccer training program with European expertise offered by 10 foreign coaches it hired, including the 24-year-old Iglesias. Having adapted to life in Shanghai, Iglesias now trains students from grade one to five for two and a half hours after school from Monday to Friday, while coaching the school team at regional tournaments on weekends. As China aims to develop into a soccer power, highlighted in a long-term plan announced earlier last month, an increasing number of youth promotion programs and junior camps, featuring foreign coaches, have been organized by governmental departments, social organizations and private companies. Inspired by President Xi Jinping, an avid soccer fan, the government approved a national plan in March aimed at transforming the country into a dominant soccer power in Asia by 2030 and a leading world competitor two decades later. One of the keystones of the plan is to encourage more children to participate in the game in a joint effort of cooperation between the Chinese Football Association and the Ministry of Education. Wang Dengfeng, director of the ministry's PE, health and art department, envisions a surge in student interest in the game as well as the training programs. In accordance with the national outline, the ministry, in cooperation with the CFA, has set a goal to increase the number of schools specializing in soccer from more than 8,000 to 20,000, encouraging more than 30 million primary and secondary school students to practice regularly and training 5,000 school soccer instructors by 2020. A four-tier school league system is currently operated by the Ministry of Education with more than 100,000 inter-school matches played last year, involving 2.7 million students.
Still, the lack of training expertise as well as facilities have been a pressing issue, and this needs more investment from both local governments and the private sector, said youth training expert Jin Zhiyang.
To raise soccer's profile in the country, 16 clubs from the Chinese Super League, the top-flight competition in the country, spent a staggering $373 million during the most recent transfer window to purchase high-profile overseas players for the 2016 season. In contrast, the average governmental funding for each school registered in the four-tier system is less than 10,000 yuan ($1,539) for all expenses, while more than 10,000 students currently have to share, on average, a playing area of half a soccer field, according to CFA.
The lack of public funding has opened business opportunities for companies such as Ray Sports and Sport 8 International to introduce foreign resources. Sport 8, a Beijing-based company offering online-to-offline soccer education and training programs for local coaches, has been cooperating with Pan-China Sports, a sports infrastructure developer, to build and manage 300 soccer pitches in Beijing, according to Sport 8 co-founder Bai Qiang.
Featuring the advanced Dutch youth training know-how that has produced an abundant supply of stars, including Sneijder and his fellow countryman Arjen Robben, Sport 8's training program, which is conducted by a foreign training crew from the Netherlands, has reached out to more than 70 Chinese cities, instructing about 15,000 local PE teachers.
The after-school training provided by private companies and NGOs will serve as a supplement to the governmental effort, said Bai.
Students undergo training at the No 2 Experimental Primary School in Wenxian county, Henan province, in April. The professor of marketing and innovation at Britain's Warwick Business School says brands of the power and reach of Apple give companies breathing space to do research and development.
Wang, who was speaking at the Kerry Hotel in Beijing on one of her many annual visits to her native China, says the lack of global brands, not just in technology but in almost every sphere, was a real problem for the world's second-largest economy.
She cites that there were no Chinese brands in the Interbrand top 100 best global brands survey in 2015.
She believes the lack of brands is undermining the country's technological efforts and achievements even though it overtook the United States and Japan as the world's largest filer of patents in 2012. The major question though is how far China - once light years behind at the time of reform and opening up in the late 1970s - has to go in catching up with the West in terms of technology. Her father was branded a "landlord" and lost his job at the height of the "cultural revolution (1966-76)", which meant the family was sent to the remote southwest Chinese province of Yunnan to a labor camp for intellectuals.
When the universities reopened in 1978 she was accepted by Xi'an University of Technology at just 16 to study engineering. She then went on to study management science at Tianjin University before being accepted on scholarship under a technology cooperation scheme between the British Council and the Chinese government to study in the UK. So in 1988, she arrived at Warwick University to study for a doctorate in marketing and has lived in the UK ever since. She went on to teach at John Moores University in Liverpool and after a spell at Sussex university in Brighton went back to Warwick University, where her specialization is a combination of marketing and innovation. Along with others such as Peter Williamson at Judge Business School at Cambridge University, she is pre-eminent in combining these two disciplines. Wang, who is engaging but with a steely determination, also specializes in Chinese marketing on the advice of Robin Wensley, the former dean of Warwick Business School. She says that it was a new subject in China because in the 1970s there wasn't even a word for it.
Wang has been quite evangelical in trying to get across the message in China itself that brands and marketing are important. She says when China first began to rapidly develop, many Chinese companies found their brands were killed almost at birth by Western companies. Wang, who has held a number of posts at Chinese universities, including Sun Yat-sen, Tongji and Tsinghua, says the problem many Chinese brands face today is the negative association attached with being from China. She, however, believes Chinese companies such as Alibaba, Tencent and Huawei have made huge strides. Chinese infrastructure companies are also moving from markets such as Africa, where they are now well established, to Europe to be involved in major projects such as HS2.
Every morning, Lu Shaojie parks her car beside a gravestone shaded by trees on the slope of Cuiwei Mountain in western Beijing, before going to work as a tour guide at Fahai Temple, just a few hundred meters to the northeast.
A copperplate printing of Da Bao En Temple in Nanjing, made by missionary artists in the 19th century. Apart from that, the only fact known for sure about Li is that he was a prominent eunuch of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).
Ever since Zheng's story was spread more widely in the early 20th century, the mystique of the seafarer has been perpetuated partly by his being a eunuch of the Ming court. According to Zheng Zihai, a descendent of Zheng He, his ancestor was Li's colleague for nearly 30 years. Whether the friendship was due to mutual fondness or political convenience remains unknown. In 1956, a gilt bronze miniature tower was unearthed in the underground chamber of the temple tower.
And for those who have read about the evils of the Ming eunuchs, spending a few minutes inside the dark main hall of Fahai Temple, where the frescoes are housed, may open another window. During the reign of Qianlong (1735-95), it became customary for European nations to send clocks to the palace, either as gifts or on request. Wang says he has passed on his skills, which are listed as national intangible cultural heritage, to his 24-year-old son.
Fisher found the only known remaining copy of this map securely bound up in an old book bearing the bookplate of the 16th century German mathematician and geographer Johannes SchA¶ner.
Die, located in the Vosges Mountains of France, had made a map of the world in the year 1507. Die in a an original issue of about 1,000 copies (a thousand copies represented a large edition for this time, immediately preceding post-Columbian world maps, such as Juan de la Cosaa€™s, Cantinoa€™s and Caveria€™s (#305 thru #309 - were all manuscript maps). All this we have carefully drawn on the map, to furnish true and precise geographical knowledge. A Florentine cosmographer, he sailed in 1497 with a commission appointed by Ferdinand and Isabella to investigate reports that Columbusa€™ administration of Hispaniola was inept. He also credited himself with three other voyages by 1503, when he made his last, an investigation of the coast of Brazil for Portugal. Taken together, these inset hemispheres form the most comprehensive and most nearly correct representation of the world displayed on any map known to have been constructed up to the year of 1507.
Besides this world map, WaldseemA?ller also introduced the name America in two other media, in the previously mentioned Cosmographia Introductio and on his globe (thought by some scholars to be the so-called Hausslab-Linchoten globe (#311), both also produced in the year 1507). It happened that in the Vosges Mountains in the little town of Saint-Die, there was a college under the patronage of the studious Duke Renaud (Rene) II of Vaudemon, of Lorraine, the titular a€?King of Jerusalem and Sicilya€?, who was there resident. On Plate V (the Caribbean area) of his map, WaldseemA?ller wrote: These islands were discovered by Columbus, an admiral of Genoa, at the command of the King of Spain. For there is a land, discovered by Columbus, a captain of the King of Castile, and by Americus Vespucius, both men of very great ability, which, though in great part lies beneath a€?the path of the year and of the suna€? and between the tropics, nevertheless extends about 19 degrees beyond the Tropic of Capricorn toward the Antarctic Pole, a€?beyond the path of the year and the suna€?.
Since Columbus never explored as far south as the equator, the words a€?it proves clearly to be truea€? are clothed with meaning only in the light of Amerigoa€™s voyages into the southern hemisphere, not at all in the light of the a€?firsta€? of the a€?four voyagesa€?, from which the dispute ultimately arose as to which could claim priority upon the shore of the new continent, Columbus or Amerigo Vespucci; for that a€?firsta€? voyage, like all the voyages of Columbus, was entirely north of the equator.
In addition to the previously mentioned accuracy and a€?noveltya€™ of the hemispheric insets, and the picturing of the new southern continent, with its surprisingly correct general contour, the inset map presents a portion of the northern continent as well, and the two are correctly joined together by a narrow isthmus.
One is tempted to loose sight of this revolutionary advance over the previously dominating world conception of Ptolemy in focusing all the attention to the single feature that has made WaldseemA?llera€™s map so famous, the first appearance thereon of the name America. This area may represent the coast of China copied from Marco Polo, and placed here in the belief that the new discoveries were in and near Asia.
In extending the South American coast to 50 degrees South (high-lighted by the implantation of a Portuguese flag), WaldseemA?ller avoids committing himself as to the possibility of a passage by sea around this new continent by continuing its land to the edge of, and actually into, the map frame (compare this abrupt treatment with his depiction of Africa, where he is willing to go outside of the preset form of his map frame in order to accommodate the full extension of the continent and thus substantiate the Portuguese proof of a passage to the Far East). As can be seen on the accompanying comparison illustration, except for the southern half of Africa, in both projection and general geographical contours the Old World of WaldseemA?llera€™s 1507 map seems to have been virtually copied from Martellus. Another is, to the south, a part of Africa, which begins about seven degrees this side of Capricornus and stretches in a broad expanse to the south, beyond the torrid zone and the Tropic of Egocerus (Capricornus). At least twice Henricus Glareanus copied WaldseemA?llera€™s world map and insets in manuscript.
Two maps in this Supplement show the New World discoveries, Tabula Terre Nove and Orbis Typus Universalis.
In his great and very important world map of 1516, WaldseemA?ller showed the landmass abutting upon the western border of the map, as in the two above mentioned maps, but here gives it the name Terra de Cuba Asie Partis. The representation in these of the American continents separated from Asia by a broad ocean in the midst of which lay the island of Japan was a splendid synthesis based upon such known particulars as the narrative of Marco Polo, the voyages of the Portuguese to North America by way of the Atlantic and to India by way of the Cape of Good Hope, the discoveries of South America by Vespucci and Cabral, the Spanish discoveries in the West Indies and the Caribbean, and above all, perhaps, the notable manuscript maps of La Cosa, Cantino, and Caveri. The only known surviving copy was purchased, in 2003, by the Library of Congress for $10 million. Further, other discoveries of America have been credited to the Irish who had sailed to a land they called Iargalon, the land beyond the sunset, and to the Phoenicians who purportedly came here before the Norse. Specifically, Marcou introduced the name of an Indian tribe and of a district in Nicaragua called Amerrique, and asserted that this district a€” rich in gold a€” had been visited by both Columbus and Vespucci, who then made this name known in Europe.
To define it Carew echoes Marcou, who quotes from his correspondence with Augustus Le Plongeon. He has been wrongfully portrayed as a crafty opportunist ever since the mid-16th century when Bartholomew de Las Casas accused him of being a liar and a thief who stole the glory that belonged to Columbus. Around 1490 he was sent to Spain by his employers, the famous Italian family of Medici, to join their business in fitting out ships. At the beginning of 1505 he was summoned to the court of Spain for a private consultation, and, as a man of experience, was engaged to work for the famous Casa de Contratacion de las Indias (Commercial House for the West Indies), which had been founded two years before in Seville.
The first or traditional series consists of the widely published letters, dated 1504, purportedly written by him. After a halt at the Cape Verde Islands, the expedition traveled southwestward, reached the coast of Brazil, and certainly sailed as far south as the RA­o de la Plata, which Vespucci was the first European to discover. It was, however, not his many solid accomplishments but an apparent error made by a group of scholars living in St. This map is the first known map, printed or manuscript, to use the name America, and also the first to depict clearly a separate western hemisphere, with the Pacific as a separate ocean.
But, as etymologist Joy Rea has suggested, it could also be read as explanation, in which they indicate that they have heard the New World was called America, and the only explanation lay in Vespucci's name. Their substitution of Americus for the well-known Latinization Albericus might mean that they wanted a Latinization that would fit and explain the name America which they had already heard applied to the New World. The Indians in the Caribbean did have a word for the mainland, given in the LexicografA­a Antillana (Antillean Dictionary, 1931) as babeque and defined as the name that Columbus understood the Indians to say when they were pointing to a land beyond Haiti and Cuba. It constitutes an incredible Anglicization of the New World a€” and would, for obvious reasons, infuriate Carew.
He purportedly gave one of the islands he explored to a friend, another to his barber, and also promised some Italian friars that they could be bishops. However, even if the name America were known in Bristol in 1497, Hudd has taken a majestic leap to suggest Ameryk's name as its origin.
That map has been referred to in various circles as America's birth certificate, and for good reasona€”it is the first document on which the name America appears.
He was born near Freiburg, Germany, sometime in the 1470s, and died in the canon house at Saint-DieI? in 1522. That map, printed on twelve separate sheets from wood block plates, when assembled would measure more than 4 1a?„2 feet by 8 feet in dimension.
However, the group also had acquired a recent French translation of the important work Insuper aquattor Amerigo Vespuccii navigationes, Amerigo Vespucci's letter detailing his purported four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean to America between 1497 and 1504.
Instead, in the 1513 atlas the name America does not appear anyplace in the volume, and the place of America is referred to as Terra Incognita (Unknown land). This single surviving copy of the map exists because it was kept in a portfolio by Johannes SchoI?ner (1477-1547), a German globe maker, who probably had acquired a copy of the map for his own cartographic work. Throughout the twentieth century the Library continued to express interest in and a desire to acquire the 1507 map, when, if ever, it was made available for sale.
Through the combined efforts of several Library of Congress specialists, and many other members of the Library's staff over an 11 year period, the map has made its way to the Library of Congress. The map serves as a departure point in the development of the American cartographic collection in addition to its revered position in early modern cartographic history.
The mapa€™s well announced acquisition provides us an extraordinary opportunity to appreciate the earliest of early depictions of our modern world. The Library of Congress is proud to have obtained this unique treasure and is anxious to have this great cartographic document receive the public acclaim and the critical scholarly inspection that it so rightly merits. This call for further scholarship on the map, its impact, and the sources used to produce it is not meant to suggest that previous scholarship is lacking.
Both the globe and the large world map were doubtless printed in large numbers and widely distributed. It is this reference that the Prince of Liechtenstein, as noted above, has taken as a reference to the gore map, a copy of which is in his collection. Although a text on WaldseemA?llera€™s later wallmap, the Carta Marina (1516), says that 1,000 copies of the 1507 wall-map were made, it is unlikely that this number were issued, given the survival rate of the one bound copy now in the Library of Congress.a€? The globe map and book had an enormous influence on other geographers, notably Appian, SchA¶ner and Fries, and advanced the science of globe-making and map making particularly in Germany and the Low Countries. The Kraus-Bavarian State Library copy -- in 1960 at Sothebya€™s in London, a set of the gores was offered bound into a Ptolemy atlas of 1486.
The Offenburg copy -- following the publicity regarding the acquisition of the copy above by the Bavarian State library in 1992, in 1993 two researchers, Dr. The present example was discovered in February 2003 when the owner, on reading an article in the Frankfurter Algemeinen Zeitung on the Munich copy, realized he owned a similar map amongst his large collection of books and ephemera. To present the various strands of information relating to the genesis, execution and influences of the WaldseemA?ller gores, the following timeline brings together the principal events in the lives of WaldseemA?ller, Ringmann, Vespucci and their circles. But behind many a film star there are long periods of joblessness and menial work before they make the big time. Eight months ago she began to produce, star in and distribute online dozens of short videos in which she plays a variety of characters and lampoons those in everyday situations such as dating.
The public spotlight fell on her when she attracted venture capital of 12 million yuan ($1.85 million) in March.
This year heralds the beginning of the online celebrity economy in China," says Zhang Xiaorong, a researcher with the Tencent Research Institute, in a recent report.
Many online celebrities are going to emerge this year," says Xue Yongfeng, a researcher with Beijing internet consultancy Analysys International.
But it is only in recent months in China - particularly through Papi Jiang - that the tremendous commercial value of these celebrities has begun to crystallize in the public mind, and more talent, investors and capital are beginning to pour into the market.
It has produced many more ways in which they can make a name for themselves and then turn that into cash. The online celebrity market, still in its infancy, could be worth hundreds of billions of yuan, Da says.
Pictures or videos of these celebrities - and they are almost without exception attractive young women who dress to the nines - appear on social media, accompanied by advice for their followers on subjects such as choosing the right clothes and the right cosmetics. Instead, most of these celebrities have a savvy back-up team that helps them in their business dealings and with the content they post. She now has 490,000 followers, and about 50 to 80 percent of what her Taobao shop sells is snapped up by that entourage. Taobao says more than 1,000 shops connected to online celebrities who hawk women's clothing each have a sales revenue of more than 1 million yuan a year. Against decorated backdrops in various styles, the central character may sing, dance, play games or tell jokes.
There are more than 200 live streaming platforms, and the ministry says the industry was worth about 7.77 billion yuan last year. They also give expert opinions or advice on talk shows or spread gossip about other celebrities.
He is the son of Wang Jianlin, one of China's richest men and chairman of mainland property and entertainment conglomerate Wanda Group. Some live streaming platforms cross into controversy as a result of host behavior considered inappropriate or illegal, such as wearing overly skimpy attire, using lots of vulgar words or, in some cases, simulated or actual sexual behavior.
Several weeks ago, the State Administration of Press, Publication, Radio, Film and Television gave Papi Jiang a dressing down for using "swear words and insulting language" and ordered her to clean up her act. The Tencent report says that the online celebrity of half of those now enjoying it is likely to dissipate after only six months to three years, even though those with more staying power may remain for five years or longer. The best are those with strong personalities who are innovative, hardworking and talented, and those who are excellent communicators. Her beautiful V-shaped face, sexy figure and funny, bold and straightforward personality helped attract followers, who now number more than 6 million, and helped her amass earnings last year of more than 5 million yuan ($767,000). Online streaming has a very low entry threshold - as long you have a computer, you can register with a website and start broadcasting - and the online streaming industry is growing fast. According to a report from Beijing-based iResearch Consulting Group, the public is likely to connect live broadcasting with eroticism, and online streaming scandals are frequent.
So in her spare time, she trains in singing and dancing, and prepares new styles of cosplay - wearing costumes to represent characters - or checks out online games to play with her followers. While unable to talk to fans much, she would still record short videos to say hello to her fans on her mobile phone. The competition will be fierce, and I will need to make more effort to improve myself," she says.
This year, the agency she signed with plans to produce an online television program, and she expects to have a role in it. Although the result of their work is not entirely clear yet, it does mean cyber celebrities can be made in batches, offering endless streams of content. The birth of incubators means that in the online celebrity area, star-making factories have appeared," says Zhang Xiaorong, a senior researcher at the Tencent Research Institute, in a recent report.
The company has 50 employees and she plans to sign two dozen celebrities by the end of this year. Second is to find good supply chain partners to best showcase the online celebrities' products and content. When she works with them, she tries to respect their unique style and find the way to help them showcase it. Compared with the funds needed for scientific research, he says the costs of popularizing the crop and promoting it in the market are far higher. There are no plug and play technologies that fit into the same types of infrastructure in different cities, he says. And the stories in it about a simple man and his family's bookshop in the city of Xi'an are unlikely to stir readers that much.
And in the most important location are a stack of solid olive green books, copies of Order: The Story of Fangyuan Bookshop, which are barely discernible because they almost melt into the background. He squints and bares the teeth under his handlebar moustache in a broad smile, looking for all the world like a caricature of those images in the book.
By then, the family had run the bookshop for 28 years, and the ambitious Lyu can see the family running it beyond when it is 100 years old. That expertise helped give the shop a great deal of credibility that contributed to its success, and when it was at its best it employed 11 people. Li Jin, Lyu Chonghua and another classmate of theirs at college, Wei Tao, went to take a look.
She was surprised that the books she saw there, as attractive as they were, were not that fancy, and they did not strike her as being particularly collectable.
In 2011 he started collecting materials for the book, trying to tell the stories of his family and the bookstore from many different angles. In three years, based on her understanding of beautiful books and the Lyu family, she tried more than 60 different formats.
Despite being well-grounded in Chinese history, the British author was astonished that he had never heard of the uprising, so he decided to learn more about it. Although technically a biography, the author's grasp of history and the pivotal events of the time provide an excellent guide to late 19th century China and the conditions under which people lived. Weighing heavier on the scales are his tendency to take the credit for other people's ideas, and at a time when traveling in the interior inevitably meant handing out bribes and "gifts", his refusal to give face or money to local officials often hindered his progress in terms of both geography and his career. In 1985, the then 20-year-old photography student at the London College of Printing - now the London College of Communication - was left a small inheritance, so he asked his tutors for permission to travel to China during term time to undertake a photojournalism project. One day, as they rested on the Great Wall, the brothers spotted a couple of Westerners being guided by a large group of Chinese officials and surrounded by a gaggle of photographers and journalists. Only later did the brothers realize that the men were George Michael and Andrew Ridgley, then better known as Wham, the first Western pop group to perform live in China. That trip sparked an ongoing love affair with the provinces of Guizhou, Sichuan and Yunnan.
And, having spent 25 years working to deadlines, it was an indulgence to set my own pace," he explained. As Channel Islanders, and therefore geographically closer to France than the British mainland, the Mesny family spoke French at home.
The "Slash" are not in it just for the cash, though financial rewards are always appreciated, as the age of the Internet and mass information provides them a chance to explore different roles in a way previous generations could only dream of. In an age of austerity it is not unusual for people to take on an extra job to pay the bills but for the Slash Generation their motivation is not primarily to improve their bank balance but to unleash their creativity. It made me feel really good when you made a difference in a new area which you used to know nothing about," he said.
Although Cheng loves his jobs, enjoys his life and has somehow managed to juggle various identities, he confessed that finding the time to have a girlfriend has been problematic. Unlike Cheng, who was focusing on many fronts, Zhu is really concentrating on making his rock festival famous in China. Art is about expressing your own ideas in your works while design is a business to meet the demands of your clients.
These include self-control, good communication skills and they are popular in their circle. Kind-hearted, enthusiastic, and it seems that no matter what situation there are in, they can adapt quickly. They have a variety of interests, are always willing to experience new things and have friends from wide-ranging backgrounds. The scene is reminiscent of youth practice sessions at La Liga (Spain's top professional league) giants such as Barcelona and Real Madrid, he said. The high levels of enthusiasm and the school's commitment to develop the soccer program has impressed Iglesias, who was hired by Beijing-based Ray Sports last October to train players at the school as a physical education teacher. China opened its first line in 2007 and now has 19,000 kilometers of track in service, more than the rest of the world's high-speed rail networks together.
Her father taught philosophy at a military college and her mother taught Chinese literature.
So researchers and scientists don't talk to marketers because they speak different languages. She addressed the Pujiang Innovation Forum, organized by the Ministry of Science & Technology, in Shanghai as far back as 2000. They had brands that could have been quite promising but they allowed themselves to be acquired by Western brands who basically discarded them," she says. However, if one listens to Lu, the story of Li is inextricably linked to that of another man, the much more famous Chinese mariner and explorer Zheng He (also known in English as Cheng Ho), whose expeditionary voyages between 1405 and 1433 took his fleet to parts of Asia and Africa.
However, few people know that Zheng, who lived between 1371 and 1433, was a devout Buddhist. But they did have a faith, Buddhism, in common, something they also shared with successive Ming rulers.
Some historians think his ashes were returned to his homeland when the fleet reached the Chinese coast in July of that year.
But no connection was made between the bronze tower and the Fahai frescoes until Zheng Zihai visited the temple years later.
Between 1412 and 1428, under the supervision of Zheng He, a grand Buddhist temple was built in Nanjing and known as Da Bao En Temple, or the Temple of Gratitude. Many even blame them for the fall of the Ming 276 years after its founding, in 1644," says Lu, the tour guide. The master clock restorer, 55, looks after hundreds of timepieces at the museum, also known as the Forbidden City.


Today, he shares a 60-square-meter studio with two other craftsmen in a closed section of the museum. This volume contained twelve sheets, each 21 x 30 inches, which when laid together disclosed a large map of the world 4 feet 6 inches by 8 feet, which was designated by one of its own inscriptions a carta marina, dated on its own face 1516, and bore the name of Martin WaldseemA?ller as author.
Henry Harrisse had made this conjecture in his Discovery of North America, which he published when the world was celebrating the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America. As farmers usually mark off and divide their farms by boundary lines, so it has been our endeavor to mark the chief countries of the world by the emblems of their rulers. While certainly not the only large world map produced during this dynamic era of exploration, the Universalis Cosmographia was one of the first large engraved and printed maps to depict the recent Spanish and Portuguese discoveries of the Mundus Novus. Much of what Vespucci claimed to have seen on this and other voyages was later called into question by both his contemporaries and, later, by historians. He wrote a letter describing his third voyage that was circulated throughout Europe as a tract called Mundus Novus [The New World], and later was included by WaldseemA?ller in his Cosmographia Introductio (the Solderini letter, see illustration below). To avoid confusion hereafter the main portion of the map will be referred to as the a€?world mapa€?, designating the two small representations of the eastern and western hemispheres, placed above the world map, as the a€?insetsa€?. The term used by some of the map-makers, Land of Brasil, was confusing, for Brasil was the name of an imaginary island located somewhere in the Atlantic, according to popular belief, when there had been no thought of a continent. Walter Lud, Secretary to the Duke, and a wealthy man, had established a printing press at St. And at the mouth of the Orinoco River is the following: All this is sweet water, a statement based upon the well-known story of Columbusa€™ discovery of the fresh water of the Orinoco River (there is the same reference found on the Bartholomew Columbus map (#304) which has Mar de aqua dolce along the northeastern shores of South America). In other words, on his 1507 map, WaldseemA?ller unmistakably showed that in his own mind he ascribed proof of the existence of the new continent to the Portuguese voyage of Amerigo (the a€?thirda€? of the a€?four voyagesa€?), and that Columbus never detoured from his conviction that he had actually reached the shores of Asia (accepting the longitudinally shortened world of Ptolemy, et al), and that it was the acceptance of Amerigoa€™s proof of its existence more so than Amerigoa€™s supposed priority which caused him to name the new continent America. However, as can be seen above on Plate I of the world map, the two continents are inexplicably separated by a hypothetical strait, connecting the two great oceans.
Contarini (#308) and Ruysch (#313) distinctly record their belief on their maps that the contemporary explorers had reached China, as does the Columbus map and the letter of Columbus explanatory of his fourth voyage record the same view (#303, #304).
Curiously enough, though, while accepting the Portuguese delineation of the New World and South Africa, WaldseemA?ller reverts to the Ptolemaic conception of North Africa and Asia as refined and expressed by Martellus, rejecting the more accurate rendering of contemporaries such as Caveri. A third instance, in the east, is the land of Cathay, and all of southern India beyond 180 degrees of longitude. The transmission of the Cantino-Caveri concept through the members of this notable group created one of the mainstreams of interest in the history of cartography.
Thus this ingenious geographer not only preserved the geographical concepts of WaldseemA?ller, but also carried the representation of hemispheres a step further by the experimental construction in 1510 of the first known maps of the northern and southern hemispheres on a circumpolar projection.
The world picture in the maps and globe of 1507 - the representation, that is, of an American landmass widely separated from the Asian coast with Japan lying between the two - had become the accepted canon in geographic theory and cartographic expression. The new picture compiled from these varied elements and presented to the literate world in printed form became a factor of the highest importance in developing a new concept of the earth and its divisions, rendering obsolete the Ptolemaic geography that had been accepted and revered since the second century of the Christian era. In 2005, this treasured map was inscribed in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register, and is the first document in the United States to be so honored.
By the time we are adults it lingers vaguely in most of us, along with images of wave-tossed caravels and forests peopled with naked cannibals. They were of course preceded by the pre-historic Asian forebears of Native Americans, who migrated across some ice-bridge in the Bering Straits or over the stepping stones of the Aleutian Islands.
The 1497 voyage by John Cabot to the Labrador coast of Newfoundland constitutes yet another discovery of the American mainland, which led to an early 20th-century account of the naming of America, recently revived, that claims the New World was named after an Englishman (Welshman, actually) called Richard Amerike. To rob people or countries of their names is to set in motion a psychic disturbance which can in turn create a permanent crisis of identity. Vespucci was probably in Seville in 1492 when Columbus was preparing for his first historic voyage, as well as in 1493 when Columbus returned. In 1508 the house appointed him piloto mayor (pilot major, or chief navigator), a post of great responsibility, which included the examination of the pilots' and ships' masters' licenses for voyages. Pohl's biography, Amerigo Vespucci, Pilot Major (1944), and GermA?n Arciniegas's Amerigo and the New World (1955; tr. Addressed to his patron, Lorenzo de' Medici, the Mundus Novus (New World) a€” the title alone revolutionizing the European conception of the cosmos a€” was translated from the Italian into Latin, and originally printed in Vienna; the other letter, addressed to the gonfaloniere (chief magistrate) of Florence, Piero Soderini, was a more elaborate work. Since Vespucci took part as navigator, he certainly cannot have been inexperienced; however, it seems unlikely that he had made a previous voyage, though this matter remains unresolved.
In all likelihood the ships took a quick run still farther south, along the coast of Patagonia to the Golfo de San JuliA n or beyond. The entire New World portion of the map roughly represents South America, and when later mapmakers added North America, they retained the original name; in 1538, the great geographer Gerard Mercator gave the name America to all of the western hemisphere on his mappamundi.
In ignoring the possible intention of these words as explanation, most scholars have ignored the simple fact that place names usually originate informally in the spoken word and first circulate that way, not in the printed word. Why did they ignore the common law in the naming of new lands: the use of the last names of explorers and the first names of royalty? It is almost certain that Columbus first heard the name of the mountains pronounced by a Carib. Las Casas believed for a while that this must be Jamaica, but later decided it was the name for the mainland. No proof exists to substantiate his claim that Cabot actually honored the Welshman by naming America after him. It is also the first map to depict a separate and full Western Hemisphere and the first map to represent the Pacific Ocean as a separate body of water. The large map is an early sixteenth-century masterpiece, containing a full map of the world, two inset maps showing separately the Western and Eastern Hemispheres, illustrations of Ptolemy and Vespucci, images of the various winds, and extensive explanatory notes about selected regions of the world.
In that work, Vespucci concluded that the lands reached by Columbus in 1492, and explored by Columbus and others over the ensuing two decades, was indeed a segment of the world, a new continent, unknown to Europe.
In the1516 Carta Marina, South America is called Terra Nova (New World), and North America is named Cuba, and is shown to be part of Asia. That portfolio contained not only the unique copy of the 1507 world map, but also a unique copy of WaldseemuI?ller's 1516 large wall map (the Carta Marina) and copies of SchoI?ner's terrestrial (1515) and celestial (1517) globe gores.
In 1999, Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg notified the Library that the German national government and the Baden-WuI?rttemberg state government had granted permission for a limited export license.
The map provides a meaningful link between our treasured late medieval-early Renaissance cartographic collection (which includes one of the richest holdings of Ptolemy atlases in the world) and the modem cartographic age unfolding as a result of the explorations of Columbus and other discoverers in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries.
Major segments of this world map have not received the concentrated scrutiny that the American segments have received. WaldseemA?ller states in a legend on his marine chart of 1516 (#328.1) that he had printed his map of 1507 in one thousand copies, but only one of which is now known to exist.
WaldseemA?ller and Ringmann started work on a new edition of Ptolemy's Geographia that was to combine Ptolemaic maps with a new set of modern maps. By 1890, it had been acquired by the Prince of Liechtenstein and studies by Gallois dated it to 1507 following the realization that it was the lost globe described in the St. References to accurate factual information are principally taken from 19th century sources, much of the 20th century work on the subject being a reiteration of earlier work by Humboldt, Da€™Avezac-Macaya, Fischer, Varnhagen and Harisse. On April 21, after fierce bidding among those vying to place advertisements alongside her videos, the hammer fell with a bid of 22 million yuan for the first ad to go with one of her online video clips. The potential worth of the most valuable online celebrity, the online writer called the Third Master of the Tang Family, is put at 1.47 billion yuan. The brands behind the pictures then parse and weigh fan feedback in the form of product orders as they start to roll in before deciding how much more to produce for their linked Taobao stores.
These online celebrities' income is derived mainly from gifts and money sent through the website by fans.
This group of online celebrities is the largest but also the most difficult to pin down since their business models usually are not well developed yet and they are widely dispersed in cyberspace.
They're the sort of people who will pose numerous times just for one shot that is going to be placed online. The report says that about 77 percent of China's netizens think online live streaming platforms have vulgar content.
But she thinks it important to have a support team to help keep her career going for the long term.
Third is to sell their products and content through e-commerce sites like Taobao and other channels to fully realize their commercial value. So she has been able to help online celebrities navigate the clothing supply chain, she says. But this does not mean cities cannot learn from each other or seek ideas, inspiration and lessons from one another.
I think more of that can happen," he says, adding that it is a different sort of model for delivery than the government paying for something and doing the installation itself.
However, anyone carefully leafing through the pages of Order: The Story of Fangyuan Bookshop, is likely to be touched and amused by the ordinariness that is presented ingeniously through the airy and light interaction of text and image. It was a brave move, given that China was in turmoil - the Taiping Rebellion (1850-64) was in full swing - and with the Second Opium War (1856-60) about to reach its bloody conclusion, British adventurers were far from welcome in the country.
Whenever they spotted us, one of them would mutter, 'It's those guys again!'" recalled the 52-year-old author, with a laugh.
He then set up a youth association to promote communication between young people from Taiwan and the Chinese mainland. The progress over the past several months has been incredible," said the Spaniard, who used to be a youth trainer with La Liga club Celta Vigo.
But they need to improve the organization of the school league system to provide more competitions for the children," he said. China will be a likely bidder for construction contracts on the UK's HS2 high-speed rail link. His religious pursuits eventually led him to share his Buddhist mentor with his contemporary, Li Tong, who was 18 years his junior. For childless eunuchs, these edifices could also function as ancestral halls, where they were venerated by pilgrims who had come to worship Buddha. Emperor Xuande, the Ming emperor of the day, ordered Zheng He's grand burial on a mountain slope in Nanjing. Emperor Yongle (1360-1424) ordered its construction to honor the late emperor and empress, who were founders of the dynasty. The studio recently featured in a three-part TV documentary, Masters in the Forbidden City, about the work behind the scenes at the museum. There were twelve other sheets of the same size in the book, making another world map but containing no authora€™s name or date. And (to begin with our own continent) in the middle of Europe we have placed the eagles of the Roman Empire (which rule the Kings of Europe) and with the key (which is the symbol of the Holy Father), we have enclosed almost the whole of Europe, which acknowledges the Roman Church. In that letter, Vespucci proposed that the new lands ought to be called a a€?New World, because none of those countries were known to our ancestors .
In the western hemisphere inset the two Americas are shown as a continuous landmass firmly joined together by an isthmus, unlike the representation in the world map where the two continents are inexplicably separated by a strait. Die that he prepared the treatise Cosmographia Introductio, which presented this description of itself: An Introduction to Cosmography, together with some principles of Geometry necessary to the purpose.
Both the inset and the world map illustrate another important feature, the representation of a great ocean even broader than the Atlantic, between the New World and Asia. However, this view is not supported on the WaldseemA?ller map either by the place-names found in the area of the new discoveries, or by the overall visual image presented by the placement of the new discoveries as totally separated by some distance from Asia.
One difference being that the WaldseemA?ller map is basically a a€?land mapa€™ and the interiors are somewhat filled-in, whereas the Caveri chart is basically a portolano, or nautical chart, with little or no interior detail. This Ptolemaic basis results in giving the map an extremely exaggerated representation of the eastern extension of Asia; in fact, the landmass of the Old World, alone, extends through some 230 degrees of longitude.
All these we have added to the earlier known places, so that those who are fond of things of this sort may gaze upon all that is known to us of the present day, and may approve of out painstaking labors.
In 1512 appeared, far away in Cracow, Poland, in the Introductio in Ptholomei Cosmographia of Johannes de Stobnicza, the inset hemispheres of the 1507 map, copied and reprinted by the Polish scholar without reference to their source (#319).
From it evolved, indeed, today's concept of the geographical divisions of the continents and islands, and of the great waters that form our earth. A black African discovery of America, it has been argued, took place around 3,000 years ago, and influenced the development of Mayan, Aztec, and Inca civilizations.
The naming of America, then, becomes essential to a full understanding of our history and cultural values a€” ourselves a€” especially when considered in terms of the range of theories about the origin of the name.
Subsequently, according to Marcou's account, Vespucci changed his Christian name from Alberico to Amerigo.
Amalrich, which literally meant work ruler, or designator of tasks, might be freely translated as master workman. Moreover, as a reflection of national pride, a theory native to Hungary argues that the European explorers of the New World (or their priests) named it after this popular saint, in the old tradition of bestowing place names in honor of saints. He also had to prepare the official map of newly discovered lands and of the routes to them (for the royal survey), interpreting and coordinating all data that the captains were obliged to furnish. Harriet de OnA­s) are among the best efforts that dispel the shadows to which he was relegated by those who maligned his fame. In the voyage of 1499a€“1500, Vespucci would seem to have left Hojeda after reaching the coast of what is now Guyana (Carew's homeland). His published letters had fallen into the hands of these German scholars, among whom was the young cartographer Martin WaldseemA?ller. WaldseemA?ller's 1507 map, lost to scholars until 1901 when it was found in a German castle, is now reckoned to be the first to show the name, and the earliest record of its use. Moreover, to read the passage in the Cosmographiae Introductio as explanation lends credence to the theory, argued by Carew, Marcou, and others, that the early European explorers called the new continent Amerrique or, perhaps, another name with a similar pronunciation. Their ignoring it, Rea claims, further supports the idea that they were trying to force an explanation and that the only one they could think of was a Latinization of Vespucci's first name. Columbus, who met the Indians of this coast, presumably heard the name Amerrique from them: he was looking for gold and the Indians gave him some, telling him he could get more to the west in the mountains there. Amerrique, therefore, must derive from a Carib word, possibly one of the Carib culture words a€” not a word in the Mayan language, which was not spoken in Nicaragua, though it almost resembles in sound the Quiche Mayan iq' amaq'el meaning perpetual wind.
The purchase of the map concluded a nearly century long effort to secure for the Library of Congress that very special cartographic document revealing new European thinking about the world nearly 500 years ago. Waldseemullera€™s 1507 map was a bold statement that rationalized the modern world in light of the exciting news arriving in Europe as a result of explorations sponsored by Spain, Portugal, and othersa€”not only across the Atlantic Ocean, but around the African coast and into the Indian Ocean.
Because of Vespucci's recognition of that startling revelation, he was thus honored by the use of his name for the newly discovered continent. Sometime later in history, the family of Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg acquired and retained Schoner's portfolio in their castle in Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany, where it remained unknown to scholars until the beginning of the twentieth century when its extraordinary contents were revealed. Having obtained this license, which allowed this German national treasure to come to the Library of Congress, the Prince pursued an agreement to sell the 1507 map to the Library. Although it is likely that the simple globe gores, their model or a€?marquettea€™ of the New World view, would have been available with each issue of the Cosmographiae, the large 12 sheet wall-map, would have been too expensive to be sold as widely.
They were provided with at least six printed editions and certainly several manuscript versions of the Geographia.
The notoriety and mystery that has surrounded both the globe, map and large wall-map has often concentrated on the naming of America, but in truth, given that they named South America after Vespucci, who had sailed furthest around it, it is not unreasonable.
Vera Sack found a third example of the gores inserted into a copy of Aristotle published in Freiburg in 1541.
The deft creativity of the designer of the flip-book presentation of the caricature faces of the man to the left of the strings that bind the book are something to marvel at. Zheng Zihai, who has done extensive research into his ancestor's burial, says Li was responsible for construction of a temple tower in Zheng He's memory. The greater part of Africa and a part of Asia we have distinguished by crescents, which are the emblems of the Sultan of Babylonia, the Lord of all Egypt, and of a part of Asia. To the east of the continent in the inset is the Atlantic, to the west is another great sea with the island Zipangri [Japan, Marco Poloa€™s Zipangu] nearly in the middle of it but closer to the American continent than to the Asian. Mundus Novus [New World] and Terra Incognita [Unknown Land] were less real names than descriptions, though for many years these last two terms were quite prevalent on maps showing new discoveries. The duke and several professors in the college used this press in their geographical project. The decision to display a large expanse of ocean west of the New World discoveries was, of course, pure conjecture on the part of WaldseemA?ller since, in 1507, the discoveries of Balboa and Magellan were still a few years off in the future.
On the other hand, navigators unknown to modern historians, may have sailed along the coast of Florida at this time. This lack of any substantive modification, of the Far East especially, is understandable in light of the scarcity of verifiable reports from this region and the focus of popular attention on both Africa and the New World.
This one request we have to make, that those who are inexperienced and unacquainted with cosmography shall not condemn all this before they have learned that it will surely be clearer to them later on, when they have come to understand it. To question the origin of America's name is to question the nature of not only our history lessons but our very identity as Americans. The records of Scandinavian expeditions to America are found in sagas a€” their historic cores encrusted with additions made by every storyteller who had ever repeated them. The two men eventually became friends; Columbus later wrote that he trusted Vespucci and held him in high esteem.
Vespucci, who obtained Spanish citizenship, held this position until his death in Seville in 1512. Nonetheless, both biographers disagree about the authenticity of his two published letters, key documents in a dramatic controversy: Arciniegas accepts them as genuine, whereas Pohl rejects them as forgeries.
In the first series of documents, four voyages by Vespucci are described; in the second, only two.
Turning south, he is believed to have discovered the mouth of the Amazon River and explored the coast of present-day Brazil. This voyage is of fundamental importance in the history of geography in that Vespucci himself became convinced that the lands he had explored were not part of Asia but a New World.
Inspired to publish a new geography that would embrace the New World, the group collectively authored a revision of Ptolemy, which included a Latin translation of Vespucci's purported letter to Soderini, as well as a new map of the world drawn by WaldseemA?ller.
Hudd opens with a reference to Bristol's 1897 celebration of the 400th anniversary of the discovery of North America by John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto), the Italian navigator and explorer who had sailed for England, laying the groundwork for the later British claim to Canada. The map must have created quite a stir in Europe, since its findings departed considerably from the accepted knowledge of the world at that time, which was based on the second century A.D. It is remarkable that our entire Western Hemisphere was thus named for a living person; Vespucci died in 1512.
Yet, cartographic contributions by Johannes Schoner in 1515 and by Peter Apian in 1520 adopted the name America for the Western Hemisphere, and that name became part of accepted usage.
The uncovering of the 1507 map in the Wolfegg Castle early last century is thought by many to have been one of the most extraordinary episodes in the history of cartographic scholarship. In late June 2001, Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg and the Library of Congress reached a final agreement on the sale of the map at the price of $10,000,000. Waldseemuller recognized the transition taking place, as the title of his map notes and his placement prominently of images of Ptolemy and Vespucci, next to their worlds, at the top portion of the 1507 world map denotes. In 1949, the Liechtenstein map collection was bought en bloc by the famous New York dealer H.P. The Aristotle formed part of the Grimmelshausen-Gymnasium library given to the Stadtbucherei Offenburg.
The part of Asia called Asia Minor we have surrounded with a saffron-colored cross joined to a branding iron, which is the symbol of the Sultans of the Turks, who rules Scythia this side of the Imaus, the highest mountains of Asia and Sarmatian Scythia. Westward from that island is to be recognized the eastern coast of Asia, showing Catay, or Cathay, and other identifiable names.
But now the fact that there was a new continent beyond the western ocean had become nearly common knowledge throughout Europe, and there was everywhere a subconscious demand for an adequate name, a universally acceptable name. In all its forms the underlying meaning was that of work; as for example, the word for work in Hebrew is amal, and in old Norse aml, the consonant sounds of which were retained in the verb moil. In this respect, WaldseemA?ller may have been led by the maps of La Cosa, Caveri, and Cantino to believe that this was at least a possibility, for he depicts a small portion of the northern mainland extending from the narrow strait in Central America to just north of Terra Ulteria€? Incognita [Florida]. Not many interior details are shown to speak of, but a large group of natives is shown at the Cape, and above them, a large vignette of an elephant.
As can be seen, Terra Incognita replaces America and it is placed up against a frame that avoids any speculation as to the size or shape of the new continent(s). It appeared in feminine forms in Amelia and Emily; its masculine forms were Amery, Emeric, and Emery. In the face of the spurious charges that he was an ignorant usurper of the merits of others, the fact that Spain entrusted him, a foreigner, with the office of pilot major certainly bolsters his defense.
Until the 1930s the documents of the first series were considered from the point of view of the order of the four voyages. On the way back, he reached Trinidad, sighting en route the mouth of the Orinoco River, and then made for Haiti.
Unlike Columbus, who, to his death, clung to the idea that he had found the shores of Asia, Vespucci defined what had indeed been found a€” and for this he has been rightfully honored. He clearly never tried to have the New World named after him or to belittle his friend Columbus. Very different spellings for the same Carib word reflect variants that sound little like each other; thus, the variants of the name Carib are Canibe, Galibi, Caniba, Canibal and Caliban. For his achievement Cabot received a handsome pension conferred upon him by the King, from the hands of the Collectors of Customs of the Port of Bristol.
In 1479, four Bristol merchants received a royal charter to find another source of fish and trade. The map sheets have been maintained separated (not joined, with each of the large maps comprised of twelve separate sheets) and that is the probable reason why they survived. In late May 2003, the Library completed a successful campaign to purchase Waldseemullera€™s 1507 world map, after receiving substantial Congressional and private support to achieve the terms of the contract.
37 (1985), 30-53, is an extensive airing of the date of the printing of the 1507 world map and other Waldseemuller contributions. But how you shall understand the globe and the description of the whole world you will hereafter find out and read.a€? Harrisse thinks it probable that a real globe accompanied and was sold with this little volume. Ringmann, a supporter of Vespucci, had already published in 1505 an edition of Vespuccia€™s Mundus Novus, a vivid description of the New World which became a bestseller around Europe.
The mystery of the globe map, its definition of Florida (before it was discovered by the Spanish), the Pacific (before any man had officially seen it), the coast of South America (before anyone had officially sailed along it) and the use of the name The Western Ocean in the Pacific, all suggest that the Portuguese may have been more active west of the Tordesillas Treaty Line before 1505. Kraus, however the globe map was retained and offered by the Prince at a special auction at Parke-Bernet in New York on 24 May 1950. There was no question whatever in the mapmaker's mind, therefore, as to the separate identities of the American and Asian continents. Here the northern coast terminates abruptly with open sea beyond approximately 50 degrees, with Newfoundland being shown as an island far to the east. While the shape his Africa resembles reality more so than Martellusa€™, WaldseemA?ller extends the continent to beyond its actual 34 degrees South in a similarly misguided manner as Martellus with WaldseemA?llera€™s Africa reaching an inexplicable 50 degrees plus. Gone, however, is that mysterious strait that had separated North and South America on the 1507 map. But the question concerning the authenticity of these historic letters remains fundamental to the evaluation of Vespucci's achievement. According to the conflicting theory to which Pohl and other modern scholars subscribe, these documents should be regarded as the result of skillful, unauthorized manipulations by entrepreneurs, and the sole authentic papers would be the private letters, so that the verified voyages would be reduced to two. Vespucci thought he had sailed along the coast of the extreme easterly peninsula of Asia, where Ptolemy, the 2nd-century Greek geographer, believed the market of Cattigara to be; so he looked for the tip of this peninsula, calling it Cape Cattigara.
Nonetheless, the name America spread throughout Europe and quickly established itself through sheer force of usage. One of these officials, the senior of the two, who was probably the person who handed over the money to the explorer, was named Richard Ameryk (also written Ap Meryke [Welsh] on one deed, and elsewhere written Amerycke) who seems to have been a leading citizen of Bristol at the time. Not until 1960 did someone find bills of trading records indicating that Richard Amerike was involved in this business. To us, the 1507 map appears remarkably accurate; but to the world of the early sixteenth century it represented a considerable departure from accepted views regarding the composition of the world. The portfolio with its great treasure was uncovered and revealed to the world in 1901 by the Jesuit priest Josef Fischer, who was conducting research in the Waldburg collection.
And from that fragile first glimpse of the world, so adequately described by WaldseemuI?ller in 1507, the Library of Congressa€™ cartographic resources provide the historical breadth and cartographic depth to fill in the geographic blanks left by those early cosmographers. Works that have increased our knowledge about WaldseemuI?ller and the group in Saint-DieI? include: Joseph Fischer and Franz R. They exhibit the Old World, in the main, in accord with the Ptolemaic idea, and the New World with a close resemblance to the Caveri map record (#307), and that of WaldseemA?llera€™s world map of 1507. By April 1507, WaldseemA?ller and Ringmann had completed the booklet, Cosmographiae Introductio, to accompany the globe and wall-map. Such information would have been kept secret by the Portuguese, and it is perhaps here in this globe that the secrets were first drawn up for a wider audience, particularly since Vespuccia€™s allegiance to Portugal changed when he became a Spanish citizen.
The catalogue published a reserve of $50,000, but it failed to sell and was sold privately in 1954 to James Ford Bell for approximately $45,000.
They were offered for sale in 1991, and purchased by the Bavarian State library in Munich for approximately 2 million DM (in excess of $1million). A red cross symbolizes Prester John (who rules both eastern and southern India and who resides in Biberith); and finally on the fourth division of the earth, discovered by the kings of Castile and Portugal, we have placed the emblems of those sovereigns. This interpretation is similar to both Cantino and Caveri and helped keep alive the possibility of a northern access to the as yet unnamed Pacific and, of course, the riches of far Cathay.
Over to the left, on Tabula Terra Nove, apparently referring to the Pearl Coast and perhaps to Honduras, we read the surprising inscription: Hec terra cum adiacentib insulis inuenta est per Columbu ianuensem ex mandato Regis Castellae [This land with the adjacent islands was discovered by Columbus of Genoa by order of the King of Castile]. Its appearance undoubtedly ignited a debate in Europe regarding its portrayal of an unknown continent (unknown to Europe and others in the Eastern Hemisphere) between two huge bodies of water, the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and separated from the classical world of Ptolemy, which had been confined to the continents of Europe, Africa, and Asia. Shortly after the appearance of the 1507 world map by Waldseemuller, Vespucci was appointed the first Pilot Major in the Spanish House of Trade (the Casa de la ContratacioI?n) in Seville, and in that capacity was responsible for navigational issues and concerns of Spanish shipping to the new western possessions, across the Atlantic. In 1903 an elaborate set of facsimiles of the 1507 and the 1516 maps accompanied by a scholarly study by Josef Fischer and Franz von Wieser appeared. The North American region is nameless, but the South American region bears conspicuously the name America.
And what is to be borne in mind, we have marked with crosses shallow places in the sea where shipwreck may be feared. Gemma Frisius and Sebastian Munster edited versions of the latter, so that the WaldseemA?ller type, or Lusitano-Germanic Group, held the field until the advent of Mercator, Ortelius, and the Dutch school of the mid-16th century.
A statement that is in obvious conflict with the thrust of both the graphic productions of 1507 (map and globe) and the text of Introductio CosmographiA¦ referred to earlier - both prepared more or less as a testimony to Amerigo Vespucci. As soon as he was back in Spain, he equipped a fresh expedition with the aim of reaching Asia. But the Spanish government did not welcome his proposals, and at the end of 1500 Vespucci went into the service of Portugal.
The Cosmographiae provided an introduction to the new geography of the world as laid out in the globe and wall-map, and included a Latin translation of Vespuccia€™s four voyages.



Ringing in right ear for 3 days ultrasound
3m motorcycle ear plugs
Ring bell freedom 251 3g
Does stress worsen tinnitus enfermedad


Comments to «Meaning of giving pearl earrings uk»

  1. VIP writes:
    Presence of a foreign physique drugs that trigger tinnitus, let's i am surprised by how.
  2. ftgbfrt writes:
    Running, swimming incorporated new materials, such as steel, plastic choice.
  3. 3apa writes:
    Each stop it and also, quit it from.