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Author: admin, 24.04.2015. Category: Is There A Cure For Tinnitus

This is the full text of the Sound Advice Working Group introduction to its recommendations for controlling noise in the music and entertainment industry. 1.1 Music is perceived as pleasant but can sometimes be loud to produce its effect, while the sound of a jet engine, for example, is regarded as unpleasant. 1.2 The music and entertainment industries are unique in that high noise levels and extremely loud special effects are often regarded as essential elements of an event. 1.3 Reducing noise risks in music and entertainment is not about destroying art, but about protecting people - artists, performers and ancillary workers equally. 1.4 The purpose of this guidance is to provide practical advice on developing noise-control strategies in the music and entertainment industries to prevent or minimise the risk of hearing damage from the performance of both live and recorded music.
1.6 Risk assessments of the work should identify those people who are likely to be at risk. 1.7 Everyone in the production chain has a role to play in managing the noise risks - whether it is the promoter selecting a balanced line-up, a performer working with reduced monitor levels or stagehands using their earplugs.
1.8 The Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 (the Noise Regulations) require employers to prevent or reduce risks to health and safety from exposure to noise at work, so far as is reasonably practicable. 1.9 The duties in the Noise Regulations are in addition to the general duties set out in the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 (the HSW Act). 1.10 This guidance applies to premises where employees or the self-employed are present, where live (whether amplified or not) or recorded music is being played for entertainment purposes at noise levels which will result in performers' or other workers' daily personal noise exposure being likely to exceed the exposure levels in the Noise Regulations. The Noise Regulations mean operators of entertainment premises must protect their employees' hearing to a higher standard than the 1989 Noise at Work Regulations, which they replace. Employers are required to reduce exposure to noise and provide hearing protection and health surveillance including hearing tests (where appropriate) to employees directly involved with loud noise, such as musicians, DJs and bar staff. One Council has worked hard over the last two years to raise awareness of this change in the law and encourage bars, clubs and theatres to carry out workplace assessments and plan any changes needed to comply with the new Regulations.
The Council recognises existing licensed premises may find it difficult to carry out major building modifications immediately, but officers do expect employers to assess how best to protect employees from loud noise and come up with short-, medium- and longer-term solutions. New businesses will be expected to incorporate noise-control measures during the design stage.
The Council wishes to take a staged and proportionate approach to enforcement although it will use statutory powers if employers fail to meet their obligations.
1.14 The Noise Regulations require employers to take specific action at certain action values. 1.17 Look at Useful information and glossary for a table of the actions required based on a comparison of exposure action values and exposure limit values. 1.18 The noise exposure level (often referred to as the 'noise dose') takes account of both the sound pressure level and how long it lasts. 1.19 Each 3 dB added doubles the sound energy (but this is only just noticeable to a listener). A noise level reduction of 3 dB halves the sound pressure level (and its propensity to damage).
1.20 Halving the noise dose can be achieved either by halving the exposure time, or by halving the noise level, which corresponds to a reduction of 3 dB. 1.22 It is important that people consider noise exposure when not at work because cumulative exposure leads to hearing damage, whether or not it is work-related. Martin first noticed he had a problem when the ringing in his ears after a show never really disappeared, but became a permanent and very annoying feature of life. For the most part Martin has had to give up live engineering and has had to make a living as a 'system tech' and administrator for a PA rental company. This list is not definitive but indicates the jobs of people working in the music and entertainment sectors that might be affected by loud noise from live or amplified music or special effects.
Frequency analysis: The breakdown of sound into discrete component frequencies, measured in Hertz and usually grouped in bands or octaves.
Noise exposure: 'The noise dose', which can be calculated, takes account of the actual volume of sound and how long it continues. The event safety guide - A guide to health, safety and welfare at music and similar events. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. One in 10 Americans has a hearing loss that affects his or her ability to understand normal speech. NOTE: This information is not intended to substitute for a consultation with your physician. Safety & Health Expo 2016Showcasing more health and safety exhibitors than any other UK event, in 2015, Safety & Health Expo 2016 will be even bigger. Cost effectiveness of interventions having long term impacts rather than immediate effects don’t always appear to be the best economic choice for companies.
High levels of noise are perhaps the most pervasive and widespread occupational hazard in industrialised nations around the world. Exposure to noise not only causes noise induced hearing loss (NIHL); it is a contributing factor to numerous non-auditory health outcomes and workplace accidents, all of which come with a hefty price tag attached.
Everyone wins when a company has an effective occupational hearing loss prevention programme, including employers, the employees, and the safety and health professionals tasked with implementing the programme. Responsible, conscientious employers want to protect their employees from a totally preventable and unnecessary loss of hearing - as well as protect themselves from legal and economic repercussions. A good occupational hearing loss prevention programme can identify minor changes in hearing before permanent damage is incurred. Hearing loss due to noise is likely to appear during the first five to ten years of exposure.
An occupational hearing loss prevention programme may detect hearing loss due to causes other than workplace noise exposure. Integrating a Hearing Conservation Plan (HCP) into your company’s overall health and safety programme reinforces the concept that prevention of hearing loss has the same importance as the prevention of other work-related illnesses and injuries, thus indicating to workers and management that occupational hearing loss is a serious concern, irreversible and must be prevented. Both OSHA and NIOSH recommend that HCPs be implemented for all workers whose unprotected eight hour Time Weighted Average (TWA) exposures are ≥85dB(A). An initial audit should be conducted before your HCP is implemented or any changes are made to an existing programme. Accurate characterisation of the noise hazard present in the workplace and the subsequent identification of affected workers will form the basis for all subsequent actions within your HCP. Exposure assessment should be conducted by an industrial hygienist, audiologist, or other professional with appropriate training during a typical work shift. Monitoring should be repeated sooner if a change in production, process, equipment, or personnel could potentially affect exposure levels. Warning signs, including a requirement that hearing protectors be worn in the area, should be posted on the periphery of areas where noise exposures may occur. Incorporating engineering controls during the design phase is more cost effective than retrofitting them.
Any reduction in noise level, even if only a few decibels, makes the noise hazard more manageable, reduces the risk of hearing loss, improves communication, and lowers non-auditory health effects. Reducing noise levels to an acceptable level via the use of engineering controls minimises expenses related to providing hearing protectors, education and motivation programmes, and programme evaluation. Administrative controls are changes in the work schedule or operations that reduce a worker’s noise exposures when engineering controls inadequately reduce noise levels.
Hearing protectors provide greatest protection from high frequency noise and significantly less protection from low frequency noise. Selection of hearing protectors must take into consideration compatibility with other PPE and workplace conditions such as temperature, pressure and humidity. Many methods exist for estimating the amount of sound attenuation provided by hearing protectors.
Annual comparison of audiometric tests allows for prompt hearing loss programme interventions. Audiometry must be conducted by a certified audiologist, a physician, or by an occupational hearing conservationist. The success of any HCP depends on support from management, enforcement of safety policies, ongoing worker education and motivation tailored to specific exposure and prevention needs, and hearing protectors that are both comfortable and effective.
Workers must be informed about the reasons for and the requirements of the HCP at the time that they are enrolled. Training must be provided (according to applicable regulations) to employees exposed to noise.
Overall effectiveness of an HCP should be evaluated in terms of the hearing losses prevented for each worker and the overall rate of hearing loss in the population of workers.
Integrity of the audiometric data should be evaluated and the rate of threshold shift among noise-exposed workers compared to that of persons with no exposure to occupational noise.
Individual effectiveness of an HCP is best evaluated through audiometric monitoring of each worker with the potential for noise exposure. Comparison of a current audiogram with the baseline audiogram will allow assessment of the programme for that worker. A Zero Tolerance approach for occupational hearing loss along with a commitment to investigate the cause of every single change in hearing, for each person affected by HCP, should ensure effectiveness of the programme. Occupational noise exposure and NIHL negatively impact everyday safety and health in the workplace, resulting in loss of productivity and capital.


A clear, mechanistic pathway between noise and damage to the auditory system is biologically obvious and generally accepted. Intensity, frequency, complexity and duration of unwanted sound determine how it affects human wellbeing. Significant economic and productivity losses for industry can be attributed to work-related accidents.
Accident investigations indicate a lack of awareness of these effects and the associated risks. When exposed to noise in the workplace at levels ≥80 dB(A), especially where either temporary or permanent hearing loss has been induced, workers are likely to experience an increased risk of accidents. Noise, or unwanted sound negatively affects job performance, although performance levels are sometimes upheld at the price of increased stress.
In one European Union survey, 28% of workers reported working conditions exposing them to noise loud enough that they had to raise their voices to communicate with co-workers at least 25% of the time (EASHW, 2000). Inability to easily communicate with co-workers interferes in complex task performance and lowers productivity.
The auditory system is our main sensory warning system, actively and continuously analysing, filtering, and interpreting acoustic information. Quiet periods away from the workplace are thought to facilitate physical recovery from daytime noise levels endured in the workplace.
The importance of recognising noise induced health effects, NIHL, or the combination of the two as risk factors for increased workplace accident rates is tremendous. Decreased accidents are a very compelling argument for reducing noise in the workplace - and remember, work related accidents result in significant capital and productivity losses for industry.
Companies that have implemented hearing loss prevention programmes show significant reductions in accident rates, illnesses and lost time. Teresa A Long, Combustible Dust Policy Institute, Santa Fe, Texas, is dedicated to raising awareness of occupational health and safety hazards.
Teresa earned an AAS in Chemical Technology from Texas State Technical College in 2002 and a certificate in Environmental Health and Safety Technology (Applied Health Physics) in 2003. Q: How do you know if your current choice of Hearing Protectionis working for your employees? Unfortunately too many companies and their employees find out their hearingprotection doesn't work when they have a hearing test. What is missing is the ability to measure the protection level for each person andto calibrate the Hearing Protector for that person's noise exposure level. This missing part of the equation in a Hearing Conservation Program can lead to Noise Induced Hearing Loss for the employee and litigation for the employer.
A computer generated sound is measured on theinside of your Sonomax and produces a written report on your own protection level.
Once the testing is complete we match your protection level with the noise level you are exposed to. It may help you to understand why noise control is so important in this industry, and includes information about permanent hearing loss, temporary deafness and tinnitus.
High levels of sound are common, for example in bars, nightclubs, orchestras, theatres and recording studios. It will also help performers and other workers and employers meet their legal obligations under the Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005 (the Noise Regulations). These will include musicians and performers, technical staff and others working directly on the entertainment, but also may include staff involved in work activities connected to the entertainment, for example ushers, security, front of house, bar and catering staff etc, depending on their location and length of time spent in the noisy environment. The main responsibility rests with the employer, but everyone should help reduce noise exposure and take a range of simple steps to protect themselves and others from the hazards of loud noise or lengthy exposure to noise at work. These general duties extend to the safeguarding of the health and safety, including the risk of hearing damage, of people who are not your employees, such as contractors and members of the public.
Anyone whose work may create a noise hazard has a responsibility to themselves and to anyone else who may be affected. Unless stated otherwise, readers should assume that values representing average, typical or representative noise levels have been measured using an A-weighting and values representing peak noise with a C-weighting.
However, when considering ways to control noise, low-frequency noise needs to be treated differently to high-frequency noise. Generally the potential for hearing to be damaged by noise is related to the noise 'dose' a person receives. When 10 dB is added, the energy is increased ten-fold, while adding 20dB is a hundred-fold increase. People often experience temporary deafness after leaving a noisy place such as a night club or a rock concert. It may only be when damage caused by noise over years combines with hearing loss due to ageing that people realise how deaf they have become. He often operated stage monitors with a wide range of performers and show formats, including at festivals where he would act as the 'house' engineer - mixing a number of the bands himself and acting as a 'babysitter' to visiting monitor engineers. Appropriate for selecting suitable hearing protection and designing acoustic control measures. Noise exposure is not the same as sound level, which is the level of noise measured at a particular moment. Age-related hearing loss is the most common cause of this condition and ismore prevalent than hearing loss caused by excessive noise exposure.
It is offered to educate the patient and his or her family on the basis of otolaryngology conditions in order to get the most out of their office visits and consultations.
In the interest of sustainability, can a company afford not to invest in a sound hearing conservation programme? Noise induced health effects are considered an emerging environmental burden of disease by the World Health Organization (WHO). Occupational hearing loss creeps up slowly, and many workers are unaware of their impairment until permanent, irreversible damage has already occurred.
Hearing loss due to impacted earwax, an ear infection, or possibly a more serious disease may be identified and medically treated before permanent damage occurs.
NIOSH and OSHA recommend that exposure monitoring be repeated periodically at least every two years for noise levels ≥85 dB(A), to help identify situations where noise levels may have changed due to aging equipment, equipment with maintenance problems, and undocumented process changes. Workers should be notified of the noise exposure level determined for their job classification and the relative risk to their hearing. Substituting sound absorbent materials, modifying equipment structure or mechanical processes, and isolating sources within equipment can substantially reduce noise levels. Workers can be scheduled so that their time in a noisy environment is minimised, if possible. Management should provide a quiet, clean lunch and break area to give workers periodic respite from workplace noise. If their use is carefully planned, evaluated, and supervised, hearing protectors can work as a short term solution to prevent NIHL. The best hearing protector is one employees actually use, and employees involved in selecting hearing protectors use them more often. Audiometric testing should consist of pure-tone air-conduction threshold testing of each ear at 500, 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000 and 6,000 Hz. Education and training is ineffective unless it can be related to each worker’s day-to-day functions (Berger 1981).
Workers must be informed of the possible consequences of noise exposure and various control measures to protect their hearing. This evaluation should occur on a continual basis and trends should be closely monitored to identify problems before many individual threshold shifts occur.
A baseline audiogram should be established for all new employees or all affected employees in the case of a new programme. Any apparent changes in hearing, even if slight, could indicate a failure in the programme.
Some occupations, including manufacturing, transportation, mining, construction, and the military are linked to higher risks of developing NIHL and other adverse health outcomes. Scientific evidence showing a strong association between NIHL and effects of occupational noise that increase with magnitude and duration of noise exposure supports this link. Prolonged exposure is suspected of leading to cumulative effects for at-risk segments of the population, increasing associated costs. The combination of noise plus another factor like vibration, ototoxic chemicals or drugs, is additive and produces responses that are not possible by the individual factors. Although it may be difficult to separate the contributions of noise from other environmental conditions, it is undeniably a contributing factor in increased accident rates.
NIHL is thought to have an adverse effect on perception and localisation of environmental sounds, speech recognition, effective communication and warning signals. Employees exposed to lower levels of noise exhibit more loyalty and have a stronger sense of company attachment. Implement a holistic environmental noise management programme aimed at reducing noise levels into your company’s overall health and safety programme. While there are costs associated with implementing the programme, it is a necessary investment and will produce a beneficial return.
Traditional plug and muff Hearing Protection can not be measured and therefore does not adequately fulfill the requirements of a Total Hearing Conservation Program.


There are cases of performers being unable to carry on their profession because of hearing damage as a consequence of their work. It has been produced by a working group of industry stakeholders with the support of the Health and Safety Executive.
The Regulations specify the minimum requirements for the protection of workers from the risks to their health and safety arising, or likely to arise, from exposure to noise at work.
Employees also have duties under the HSW Act to take care of their own health and safety and that of others whom their work may affect and to co-operate with employers so that they may comply with health and safety legislation. For example, people cannot usually hear bats communicating at very high frequencies or when whales use very low frequencies.
The terms dB(A) and dB(C) are not used but where noise has been measured using the C-weighting these are referred to as 'peak'. So the division of the A-weighted measurement into its constituent frequencies (frequency analysis) becomes necessary. Common off-hours exposure to high noise levels may include audio and video equipment (personal car stereos, computer speakers, televisions), concerts, clubs and cinemas, sporting events, power tools and noisy hobbies. This may mean their family complains about the television being too loud, they cannot keep up with conversations in a group, or they have trouble using a telephone. Other rarer conditions include hyperacusis (a general intolerance or oversensitivity to everyday sounds) and diplacusis (a difference in the perception of sound by the ears, either in frequency or time).
At the end of each simulation the hearing level undamaged by noise for the age of the person is demonstrated. He eventually plucked up courage to go to his GP, and was diagnosed with noise-induced hearing loss, tinnitus and a condition called diplacusis where the two ears hear a given pitch as two distinct tones - definitely not a good attribute for musical work. Developing and implementing an effective occupational hearing loss prevention programme requires commitment by both management and workers.
Notification should include a description of specific hazardous noise sources in the worker’s area, the purpose and proper use of any noise control devices, and requirements for hearing protectors, if appropriate. Signage should communicate the risk of exposure and the need for hearing protectors graphically and in the language(s) spoken by the workers. If extremely noisy operations are unavoidable, the number of workers permitted to work in that environment should be minimised. Noise reduction actually experienced in the workplace can be significantly lower than ratings derived from laboratory data suggest. Occupational hearing loss occurs gradually - affected employees often do not notice changes in hearing ability until a large change has occurred. Information must be updated to be consistent with any changes in protective equipment and work processes. A 4,000-Hz dip is often observed on an audiogram of a worker in the initial stage of noise-induced hearing loss, but other ranges, even if damage is acquired outside the workplace, can affect a worker’s job performance and contribute to rising healthcare costs. Rising insurance premiums and compensation doled out for industrial injuries and sick leave can be quite costly. Accidents are estimated to be as much as three to four times more prevalent in noisy environments.
A recent five year study comprising 43,250 accidents representing 240,000 person-years of observation, indicated up to 12.2% (n=5287) of the accidents were attributable to the combined effect of noise exposure above 90 dB(A) and NIHL (Picard, et al 2008). Most choose to remain with the company longer than those working in a noisy, distracting environment. Trouble falling asleep and sleep fragmentation could enable development of cardiovascular disorders.
This guidance aims to help prevent damage to the hearing of people working in music and entertainment from loud noise, including music. Hearing damage is permanent, irreversible and causes deafness - hearing aids cannot reverse it.
With properly implemented measures, the risk from noise in the workplace and the risk of damage to workers' hearing will be reduced. It supplements the general HSE guidance on the Noise Regulations (L108) Controlling noise at work: The Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005. To account for the way that the human ear responds to sound of various frequencies a frequency weighting, known as the A-weighting, is commonly applied when measuring noise. It is also very important, particularly in music and entertainment, when selecting personal hearing protection, to ensure the correct type for protection from the most damaging frequencies identified during a noise risk assessment. In general, an employer needs only to consider the work-related noise exposure when deciding what action to take to control risks. It is a sign that if you continue to be exposed to high levels of noise your hearing could be permanently damaged. Eventually everything becomes muffled and people find it difficult to catch sounds like 't', 'd', and 's', so they confuse similar words. Danish research among symphony orchestras suggests more than 27% of musicians suffer hearing loss, with 24% suffering from tinnitus, 25% from hyperacusis, 12% from distortion and 5% from diplacusis. Hearing protector ratings should be de-rated by a factor that correlates to real world data. Performers and other workers in music and entertainment are just as likely to have their hearing permanently damaged as workers in other industries. The exception is when measuring peak noises, where a C-weighting is applied to ensure that proper account is taken of the sound energy in the peak sound. However the employer needs to consider whether risk-control measures need to be adapted in certain situations, for example if it is known that an employee is exposed to noise during other employment. Permanent hearing damage can be caused immediately by sudden, extremely loud, explosive noises such as caused by pyrotechnics. However, there are other studies which give a range of figures from 10-60% for hearing damage among musicians.
Auditory stressors increase norepinephrine and cortisol activities, negatively affecting cognitive performance. Here, the vibrations become nerve impulses, which the brain interprets as music, a slamming door, a voice, and so on.When noise is too loud, it begins to kill the nerve endings in the inner ear. Also, the closer you are to the source of intense noise, the more damaging it is.How Can I Tell If a Noise Is Dangerous?People differ in their sensitivity to noise. As a general rule, noise may damage your hearing if you are at arm's length and have to shout to make yourself heard. If noise is hurting your ears, your ears may ring, or you may have difficulty hearing for several hours after exposure to the noise.
Some people react to loud noise with anxiety and irritability, an increase in pulse rate and blood pressure, or an increase in stomach acid. Very loud noise can reduce efficiency in performing difficult tasks by diverting attention from the job.How Can I Protect Myself Against Noise?Wear hearing protectors, especially if you must work in an excessively noisy environment. You should also wear them when using power tools, noisy yard equipment, or firearms, or riding a motorcycle or snowmobile.
An improperly fitted, dirty, or worn-out plug may not seal properly and can result in irritation of the ear canal. Plugs are available in a variety of shapes and sizes to fit individual ear canals and can be custom-made.
For people who have trouble keeping them in their ears, the plugs can be fitted to a headband.Earmuffs fit over the entire outer ear to form an air seal so the entire circumference of the ear canal is blocked, and they are held in place by an adjustable band. Even in a quiet setting, a normal-hearing person wearing hearing protectors should be able to understand a regular conversation.Hearing protectors do slightly reduce the ability of those with damaged hearing or poor comprehension of language to understand normal conversation. However, it is essential that persons with impaired hearing wear earplugs or muffs to prevent further inner ear damage in very noisy places.It has been argued that hearing protectors might reduce a worker's ability to hear the noises that signify an improperly functioning machine.
However, most workers readily adjust to the quieter sounds and can still detect such problems. If a worker is already hearing impaired, he or she needs expert advice about how to protect against further damage. In some cases hearing aids can and should be used under earmuffs.How Can I Tell If My Hearing Is Damaged?Hearing loss usually develops over a period of several years.
What you might notice is a ringing or other sound in your ear (tinnitus), which could be the result of long-term exposure to noise that has damaged hearing nerves.
Or you may have trouble understanding what people say; they may seem to be mumbling, especially when you are in a noisy place such as a crowd or a party. If you suspect hearing loss, consult a physician with special training in ear care and hearing disorders (called an otolaryngologist or otologist). The scale runs from the faintest sound the human ear can detect, which is labeled 0 dB, to more than 180 dB, the noise at a rocket pad during launch. A low pitch, such as a deep voice or a tuba, makes fewer vibrations per second than a high voice or violin - the higher the pitch, the higher the frequency. Any information provided in this website should not be considered medical advice or a substitute for a consultation with an Otolaryngologist - Head and Neck surgeon or other physician.



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