Occupational hearing loss workers compensation 8810,ear nose throat doctor raleigh nc,dog whistle sound in ears,pressure and white noise in ear dizziness - Good Point

Author: admin, 03.08.2014. Category: Ring In The Ears

Correspondence Address:Emmanuel D KitcherDepartment of Surgery, University of Ghana Medical School, P.
Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is an irreversible sensorineural hearing loss associated with excessive noise exposure. Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) in saw mill and printing press workers in Akluj Town of Solapur district.
Exposure to hazardous workplace noise and use of hearing protection devices among US workers - NHANES, 1999-2004.
Early occupational hearing loss of workers in a stone crushing industry: Our experience in a developing country. Industrial noise pollution and its effects on the hearing capabilities of workers: A study from saw mills, printing presses and corn mills.
Occupational noise exposure and sensorineural hearing loss among workers of a steel rolling mill. Hearing impairment among workers exposed to excessive levels of noise in ginning industries. Permanent hearing loss among professional spice grinders in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Noise in excess of 85 dBA in a work environment of an 8-h daily work regime predisposes workers to NIHL. Boateng and Amedofu [9] also reported NIHL among local saw mill, printing press and corn mill workers. Other local studies by the same authors and others [10] have documented the problem of occupational hearing loss among surface-level gold mining workers.
In their study McCullagh et al., [12] observed a poor relationship between self-reported hearing ability and results of audiometry and advocated the need for hearing conservation programs even in a regulated work environment. However, local literature is sparse on occupational hazards in the informal, small-scale enterprise within local markets. The informal sector, small-scale enterprise is an enterprise which is privately-owned but unregulated by government.
The food processing unit typically grinds grains such as maize, beans and rice and also vegetables such as tomatoes, onions and pepper.
The operation of a market mill is associated with high noise levels within the work place during working hours. Most of the workers may not be aware of the hazards of excessive noise levels on their hearing due to lack of knowledge and low levels of literacy.Lack of regulation of permissible levels of noise exposure in this sector means that hearing protection will not be enforced and repeated exposure to high levels of noise from these machines is likely to lead to reduced hearing ability. The damage to the human ear by high levels of noise in the work place environment is dependent on the intensity of noise, duration of exposure [13] and spectrum. In the absence of local production of market mill machines with attenuated noise levels, the use of ear plugs and ear muffs during operations of these small-scale mills remains the only viable preventive measure for this occupational health hazard.Available data from the sub-Saharan region of West Africa indicates that operation of market mills is associated with high noise levels within the workplace during working hours.
Evaluation of noise levels within market mill workplaces, together with the hearing assessment of small-scale mill workers, will help to shed light on the health risk of these environments. Information gained from such an evaluation will highlight the need for preventive measures. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hearing loss among market mill workers and compare these findings with a control group.


Aims and objectives This study was aimed to determine the pure tone hearing thresholds of market mill workers in comparison to those of a control group of petty traders; secondary aim is to assess the prevalence of hearing loss among market mill workers and to determine awareness of the effects of noise on health. The control group consisted of small-scale traders who sold vegetables, grains, meat and fish and other food stuffs in market stalls. The study group consisted of 101 market mill workers, (one female and 100 males) while the control group of small-scale traders was comprised of 68 females and 38 males.
This study was carried out across the following markets within the suburbs of the Accra metropolitan area: "Tuesday market" Mamprobi, "London market" James Town, "Sraha market" Accra central, "Makola market" Accra central and "Kaneshie market" Kaneshie.
The selected markets each have capacity ranging between 500 and 1500 stalls where large quantities of food stuffs including grains, vegetables, tubers and meat products were sold. The market mills were generally clustered together within an allocated zone in each of the markets. The working environment of the market mill workers during operation of the mills was characterized by excessive unregulated noise generated by the mills. There were two types of market mills, namely grain processing mills, also called "dry mills" and vegetable processing mills, also called "wet mills." The work environments of the small-scale traders were located remotely from the market mills and were characterized by acceptable environmental noise from human traffic.
In selecting these market sites the investigators took into consideration their proximity to the hearing test site to enable easy access for all volunteers to return quickly to the market after the test.A total of 101 market mill workers were recruited and gave informed consent.
Similar numbers of small-scale traders were recruited from each market, with a total of 103 small-scale traders as controls.
Exclusion criteria included a history of chronic ear disease and history of non-occupational noise exposure. The questionnaire probed for self-reported hearing loss in normal listening situations and in the presence of background noise, tinnitus, knowledge on the health hazards associated with work in a noisy environment, the use of hearing protective device and the duration of service at the market mill enterprise [Figure 1].
The response of the SLM was set for "slow" response and the microphone was placed in the free field.
The measurement of both maximum and minimum noise levels for each market mill work station was conducted by an experienced audiologist. Measurement of noise levels in each market mill premises was conducted both with the mill in full operation and when mill was turned off. Measurement of noise levels was also similarly conducted on the premises of small-scale traders. The permissible level of noise exposure for these workers should be an 8-h time-weighted average of 85 dBA or less.The pure tone audiometric assessment of the mill workers was carried out in groups of 10 workers per day and at least 14 h after their last exposure to noise. The audiometric evaluation of these workers was carried out at the Hearing Assessment Centre, Korle Bu Teaching Hospital in the city of Accra. The center is equipped with a noise-treated audiology booth with an ambient noise level of 34-40 dBA. Before the audiometric test, each worker's outer ear was inspected by the principal author to rule out any outer or middle ear diseases. A qualified audiologist (second author) conducted a conventional eight-frequency pure tone audiometric behavioral threshold test in 5 dB HL steps at frequencies of 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz in both ears using a GSI 16 Clinical Audiometer (manufactured by Grason-Stadler in Littleton, Massachusetts). Pure tone audiometry was also conducted on the control group.Hearing impairment was calculated using the pure tone average frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz. Data analysis The main outcome of hearing evaluation was the mean threshold hearing level using the World Health Organization classification, the mean threshold hearing levels for the frequencies of 2000 Hz, 3000 Hz and 4000 Hz and the presence of significant audiometric notch at 4 kHz.


An Independent sample t-test was used to compare the mean HLs of subjects and controls for 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz and 4000 Hz frequencies and also for 2000 Hz, 3000 Hz and 4000 Hz frequencies.
The authors also compared the presence or absence of a 4 kHz notch in the audiometric configuration of the audiograms for mill workers and controls. Each participant signed an informed consent form after investigators explained the purpose of the study and procedure of the study. The mean monthly income of mill workers and petty traders was equivalent to 200 and 250 US dollars respectively.
Most of the controls and mill workers had some degree of knowledge on the effect of noise on health obtained from radio and television. The noise levels of the market mill work premises when the machines were in full operation is outlined in [Table 2]. The audiometric configuration with respect to an audiometric notch for the mill workers and controls is provided in [Table 4]. The distribution of 4 kHz audiometric notches among the study population, which is characteristic for early NIHL, is also outlined in [Table 5]. Furthermore this study also revealed that mill workers were exposed to excessive work placenoise and have suffered NIHL. Even though roughly 50% of market mill workers had some knowledge of the effects excessive noise on health, only 5% used hearing protective devices for prevention of NIHL.
This pattern of sensorineural hearing loss, coupled with the significant presence of 4 kHz audiometric notch among the mill workers strengthened our assertion that the hearing loss of the mill workers was likely to be attributable to NIHL. The level of noise in this unregulated industry is likely to have contributed to significant sensorineural hearing impairment of mill workers (P = 0.001). Our findings suggest a prevalence of possible NIHL of 25% in the better hearing ear for the mill workers, which is lower than the prevalence of 83% reported by Osibogun et al. Such differences may reflect variation in factors including the sources and levels of noise exposure, duration of work in the industry and other exposure and socio-demographic factors.Importantly, self-reported hearing loss under-represented rates of actual hearing loss on audiometric testing, indicating that individuals may not accurately recognize hearing loss. Further examination of this issue, particularly on levels at which self-reported hearing loss appeared to become more consistent, would be a useful adjunct to this research.These findings are consistent with the observation of other researchers. Collective efforts at prevention should include advocacy for regulation of work practices within small scale enterprises such as market mills. Regulation, coupled with comprehensive health education and hearing conservation programs should contribute to necessary impacts in reducing the prevalence of NIHL in this sector.Our study population was predominantly male, attributable to the local socio-culture practice of having men operate high powered machines, with more females traditionally engaged in small scale trading in the markets. The socio-cultural difference in the study populations may account for the difference in gender ratio.One noted weakness of this study was our inability to control for gender between subjects and controls due to socio-cultural factors. A large majority of mill workers did not use any hearing protective device even though 54.5% of them exhibited solid knowledge on the effects of noise on health. Self-reporting of hearing loss was unreliable.Further research in this field should focus on impact of preventive measures on prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss among small scale traders working in other self-employed industry with unregulated work place noise.



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