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Author: admin, 08.01.2014. Category: Tinnitus Causes And Cures

Seven major coalitions of European nations formed between 1798 and 1815 to oppose Napoleona€™s invasion of Europe. After the War of the Second Coalition Great Britain stood alone against France and lived under the constant threat of invasion by a rapidly developing French navy. In 1803-1806 the French armies fought against the Third Coalition known as the Triple Alliance , comprised of Britain, Russia, and Austria. In 1806 Napoleon replaced the Holy Roman Empire with a new entity, the Confederation of the Rhine. England was an important financial and military opponent of Napoleon and was his major obstacle to total European domination.
The application of the Code was simple: it was a written set of laws--you either obeyed them or you did not. Civil Law has remained in force in many parts of Europe, except for those areas which formerly were part of the British Empire. English Common Law, on the other hand, is based upon case law i??or decisions made by courts in prior times who dealt with similar situations. In Common Law courts determine what part of a body of law or a constitution applies to a particular situation, event, behavior, crime. In Common Law, a prosecuting attorney and a defense attorney makes their cases to the jury. In English Common Law there is provision for a defense attorney, a jury of peers, the concept of innocent until proven guilty, and the right of appeal to a higher court. Napoleona€™s preoccupation with solidifying his power in France, pushing forward his agenda for expanding the empire, exhausting his energies required in warfare with the rest of Europe, and problems with the uprising of African slaves in Haiti, caused Napoleon to agree to sell the Louisiana Territory (see Map C below) to the newly formed United States of America for the ridiculous price of $15 million.
Napoleon believed the sugar industry in Haiti was at the time and would be in the future far more important to France economically than the wild, uncharted wilderness of America. Russia in particular suffered great economic loss and reopened trade with Great Britain in 1812. The Russians knew they were no match for the French in head to head combat and continued to retreat into the interior of Russia, stretching the French supply lines thinner and thinner. Yet Napoleon continued his advance all the way to Moscow (see Map A above), arriving at the city in September 1812. In October 1812 Napoleon gave the order to return home, not having accomplished his goal of forcing Czar Alexander to rejoin the Continental System. During his adventures in Russia a Sixth Coalition, known as the Quadruple Alliance, was formed in1813 by Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria. After returning home following the failure in Russia, Napoleon raised a new French army with European allies and attacked Germany in 1813. At Leipzig Napoleon was faced by approximately 360,000 coalition troops, including the Austrian-Hungarian, Prussian, Russian, and Swedish armies, in what has come to be called the Battle of the Nations, October 16-19, 1813. Napoleona€™s army was made up of French, Italian, Polish, and Germans from the Rhine Confederation and numbered about 200,000 troops and 700 guns.
The French were defeated by the superior Coalition armies and during their retreat a major bridge was mistakenly blown up by a French solider, greatly impeding the retreat. After the exile of Napoleon, the monarchies of Europe, namely Prussia, Austria, and Russia, used their right as conquerors to re establish the French monarchy, and Louis XVIII, cousin of Louis XVI, took the French throne. In 1815 Napoleon escaped from Elba, returned to Paris, like a magnet attracted his old comrades in arms, and the French army and public were again ready to follow. This time the Coalition stationed troops in Paris as occupiers, exiled Napoleon under the watch of 10,000 soldiers on the remote island of St.
His conquests spread nationalism as European countries, formerly divided, united to resist His advances.
He gave to France a sense of glory and created through his European empire Francea€™s highest level of conquest.
He combined important innovative elements that other authoritarian regimes could and did imitate: secret police, propaganda, orchestrating elections to gain achieve his own goals, empower the state use the educational system and religion to indoctrinate the public, and conduct external wars to get the minds of the people off of their problems at home. The Treaty called for a conference between the European nations to be held to discuss the future of Europe. Major land grants were given to Prussia, Austria, and Russia, but the Congress was very soft in its handling of France. Metternich, Prime Minister of the Austrian Empire, emerged as the leading figure at the Congress. It provided the model for the Russian Revolution fueled by the economic and political philosophy of Karl Marx. It emphasized personal freedom and liberty -- freedom from feudalism, serfdom and the absolute rule of monarchs. A new idea was born: A nation is not a country filled with loyal subjects, but a population of free men living as equal citizens together and freely. The Napoleonic Code developed a civil code of law that was practiced without deviation in every province of France and in all European states. Advanced was the idea, although not successfully in France during the revolution itself, of a statewide school system.
The French economy and French industry were set back a whole generation and lagged behind Germany and Britain. Human reason was elevated to a level of worship -- the Religion of Reason -- from which France has never recovered.
Attacks on the Bible and on the Christian Church (both Protestant and Catholic) plunged France into a state of skepticism and humanism which remain more entrenched in France than other European countries. It replaced the Christian calendar, eliminated all Christian holidays, and created a ten day week to prevent people from attempting to observe Sunday as a holy day.
French citizens were forced, either by mob action or social pressure, to leave the Roman Church, forced priests to marry, and forbade all Christian teachings. A glimpse of the dignity of mankind was gained but failed to understand the origin of that dignity, substituting the words of the philosophes for the word of God.
It gave to Europe the Napoleonic Code which does not offer the personal guarantees to accused persons as are found in the English Code of Law as practiced in England and the United States. 21.7 What followed in France after the Revolution of 1789 and Napoleona€™s defeat in 1815? After the French Revolution came to an end in 1815 with the defeat of the French army at the Battle of Waterloo, the victors installed Louis XVIII on the restored throne, vacated when Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were executed. The quest for a true republican constitutional government was not realized in France until 1870 when Napoleon III was defeated by Prussia and the other German states in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871. A Russian fear that Napoleon would next invade Central Europe led to the War of the Fourth Coalition. English Common Law, on the other hand, is based upon case law or decisions made by courts in prior times who dealt with similar situations.
Napoleona€™s army was made up of French, Italian, Polish, and Germans from the Rhine Confederation and numbered about 200,000 troops and 700 guns.A  Altogether over 600,000 troops were engaged in the battle, making it the largest single battle in European history until World War II.
Napoleon again ruled as emperor of France, but this time for only 100 days.A  He marched north and was met by a Seventh Coalition formed by Britain, the Netherlands, Austria, Russia, and the German states of Prussia, and Hanover. 21.7A  What followed in France after the Revolution of 1789 and Napoleona€™s defeat in 1815? For four years prior to this I had experienced bouts of sudden hearing loss in my left ear with periods of remission, which at the time my ENT diagnosed as Cochlea Hydrops.
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Objective: The purpose of this study was to observe the effectiveness of immune modulator –Inosine Pranobex (Isoprinosine) in the treatment of sudden sensorineural hearing loss of suspected viral origin. Setting: This study was performed in the Clinic of Otorhinolaryngology in the Medical Institute of Ministry of Interior, Sofia. Patients: The study included 28 patients with sudden hearing loss of suspected viral origin, divided randomly into two groups. Intervention: The first group of 14 patients was treated with corticosteroids and vasodilators. Main Outcome Measures: The patients passed precise otorhinolaryngological examination, pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry, stapedial reflex testing, ABR, CT scan, hematological testing –complete blood count (CBC) and sedimentation rate, biochemistry and serologic testing for syphilis. Results: We compared the two groups before and after the treatment regarding mean hearing level at each frequency, speech reception threshold improvement, and tinnitus and balance complaints. Conclusions: Administration of a combination of corticosteroids, vasodilators and immune-modulator should be recommended for treatment of patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is defined as 30 dB or more sensorineural hearing loss over at least three contiguous audiometric frequencies occurring within 3 days or less.


The vascular courses include vasospasm, thrombosis, embolism, hemorrhage, hypercoaguability and rheologic abnormalities. The viral-vascular combination theory suggests that a viral infection initiates a hypercoagulable state secondary to the effect of viruses on the vascular system.
The therapy that has been proven to be effective in the treatment of sudden sensorineural hearing loss is the etiologic based one.
28 patients of either gender (24 male and 4 female), aged between 12 and 47 years with sudden hearing loss were enrolled in the study. Pure tone audiometry was performed weekly during the first 14 days of the treatment, 4 weeks after the onset of the disease and 2 months later. After 14 days of the treatment in the Clinic of Otorhinolaryngology and 2 weeks more at home, the results were as following in Table 2. We compared the two groups before and after treatment regarding mean hearing level at each frequency, speech reception threshold improvement, and tinnitus and balance complaints. It is not surprising that the cochleovestibular blood supply may be affected by circulatory disorders such as embolic phenomenon, thrombosis, vasospasm and hypercoagulable or high viscosity states resulting in sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Administration of a combination therapy of corticosteroids, vasodilators and immune-modulator should be recommended for treatment of patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss of suspected viral origin. Napoleona€™s armies invaded and conquered most of Germany, Austria, Italy, Spain, and Bohemia.
Almost all of the German states joined the Confederation except for Prussia and Austria, although Austria was now under French governance. In 1806 Russia, Prussia, Great Britain, Sweden, and Saxony joined in war A Russian fear that Napoleon would next invade Central Europe led to the War of the Fourth Coalition. The Prussian army was destroyed in a sudden invasion and Russia was forced to ask for peace and was compelled to join the Continental System, an umbrella of economic, trade, and judicial control that France imposed on Europe.
In a legal system based upon civil law, the laws of the land are written for everyone to see. In those areas English Common Law is still the basis for the legal system (Ireland, England, India, Canada, the United States, Australia, New Zealand).
Whatever decisions they made at that time bear heavily upon what is decided in a present case. If a case in the present falls within those guidelines, the courts determine whether the person is guilty or not guilty, using juries of peers to make that determination. He invaded Russia with nearly half a million infantry, 28,000 cavalry and 590 artillery guns.
By September 1812, having not yet fought one battle with the Russians, Napoleon lost through sickness, lack of food, or desertion nearly two-thirds of his army.
But when he reached his prize, he arrived at a burning city that was totally depopulated and all agricultural crops either destroyed or already harvested by the retreating population.
An early winter had already set in, the Cossack cavalry attacked the troops on their way back to Europe, and by the time Napoleon reached the German border, only 10,000 soldiers remained.
They were not prepared nor capable of meeting the next Coalition that quickly formed upon hearing of the French demise. He was dealt his first major defeat in battle by the Prussians and was unable to enter and seize Berlin. Another 15,000 able bodied men were captured along with 21,000 sick or wounded and 350 guns. Alexander, Caesar, Charlemagne and I myself have founded great empires; but upon what did these creations of our genius depend?
Through his leadership absolutism was restored in much of Europe and maintained the balance of power between the dominant states.
The goal of the victors-- Great Britain, Prussia, Austria, Russia, the Netherlands, Italy--was to establish a constitutional monarchy in France. France, however, continued to struggle for social and political stability until 1962 when the Fifth Republic was established. When he agreed, the American ambassador had him sign immediately before he changed his mind! They were not prepared nor capable of meeting the next Coalition that quickly formed upon hearing ofA  the French demise. Another 15,000 able bodied men were captured along with 21,000 sick or wounded and 350 guns.A  The Coalition suffered 64,000 killed or wounded.
The coalition was led by the British Duke of Wellington, and on June 18, 1815 at the Battle of Waterloo near present day Brussels, Belgium, Napoleon and his army was again and for the last time defeated by allied forces under the leadership of two outstanding generals,A  General Blucher of Prussia, and the Duke of Wellington from Britain.
Within three years, however, Napoleon III plunged the nation again into absolutism by declaring himself the Emperor of a new Second French Empire.
In the past four years I have acquired moderate hearing loss & 45% vestibular weakness in my left ear.
I think one of the best hopes for treating Meniere's disease will be found in stem cell research.
We know that family and friends will be your first concern but if you are able to think about a gift in your will to Hearing Link, this would be hugely welcomed and appreciated.
If you are thinking about leaving a gift in your will, we hope you find the information below useful in making the best choice for you. No one can tell what the future holds and leaving gifts to family, friends and charity as percentages is a great way to ensure the gifts that you leave remain fair to your wishes and everyone named in your will – especially if you don’t get round to updating your will for a while! But, if you wish to get in touch to let us know, we’d love the opportunity to say thank you. The second group of 14 patients was treated with corticosteroids, vasodilators and immune modulator - Isoprinosine. The patients with vertigo passed observation for nystagmus, static and kinetic tests, posturography and electronystagmography (ENG). 4 patients recovered totally, 19 patients improved their hearing with 20 dB and 5 patients showed no improvement. The phylogenetically newer portion of the inner ear, which includes the cochlea and saccule, is relatively more susceptible to various agents than the pars superior. Experimental studies have shown that the ganglion cells are the most sensitive to ischemia, while the pathologic data indicates that the organ of Corti, stria vascularis and tectorial membrane are the predominant structures affected in cases of sudden sensineural hearing loss (7). One of the mechanism by which hearing loss develops is through changes in cellular immunity. We used a combination of medicines, according to the viral-vascular etiologic theory (8-10). 8 patients noted their hearing loss upon first awakening in the morning, 2 patients – after stress situation, 18 patients had in their history a viral upper respiratory infection as 2 patients were in contact with varicella – infected persons, 1 woman was with rubeolla and 15 patients had in their history symptoms of influenza.
Ophthalmologic, neurological and rheumatologic consultations were carried out to rule out systemic vasculitic diseases.
The vascular etiologic theory is favored because of the sudden nature of the onset of hearing loss. This type of treatment result in earlier hearing recovery and less extensive cochlear destruction compared to steroids and vasodilators. Therapy of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss: antiviral treatment of experimental herpes simplex virus infection of the inner ear. Oral steroid treatment of sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a ten-year retrospective analysis. Treatment of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss with antiviral therapy: a prospective, randomized, double blind clinical trial. Recovery of hearing: results of delayed medical treatment in patients with idiopathic sudden hearing loss.
Napoleon sent his new ships in pursuit of the British, with the plan to annihilate the British navy and thereby to make it easier for his troops to invade England. An entire Austrian army was first destroyed at Ulm, and the combined Austrian-Russian army was defeated in December 1805 at the famed Battle of Austerlitz, considered to be one of the most brilliantly led battles in history. The Continental System was essentially a naval blockade against Great Britain that sought to block all European trade with England and thus to bring England to its knees. Judges make decisions based upon a persona€™s compliance with that law and imposes a sentence determined by that law. If the jury determines that the person is guilty, the judge then gives the jury the guidelines for sentencing within which they must decide. Russia defended with 72,000 regular infantry, 10,000 militia, 17,000 cavalry, 7,000 Cossack cavalry, and 640 artillery. There was not even shelter left for his troops to sleep in or to gain warmth in the middle of increasingly cold weather. The Coalition forced Napoleon from the French throne and exiled him to the island of Elba near his home island of Corsica. The desire was to not burden France with large indemnities in order to make the transition back to a constitutional monarchy under Louis XVIII as smooth as possible.
But the Congress also did much to restore Europe to peace and tranquility, which lasted for almost fifty years until the Year of Revolutions broke out in 1848. The Goddess of Reason was enthroned in the Paris Cathedral after all Christian symbols were removed. He remained emperor until removed from his throne in 1871 after suffering defeat in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871).


I was diagnosed with Meniere's disease in November 2007 shortly before my first vertigo attack.
Stem cell therapy could help my inner ear repair itself and give me back my independence & joy of life.
The findings in animal models of hearing loss of vascular origin are of extensive cochlear fibrosis and ossification. The otorhinolaryngologic examination included otoscopy, anterior rhinoscopy and pharyngoscopy.
The treatment of sensorineural hearing loss often proves to be frustrating to the clinician as, in the majority of cases, the etiology is unknown and the underlying disease process is irreversible. The underlying pathophysiology can be explained by the occurrence of sudden anoxic injury to the cochlea. The recovery is significantly related, as well, to onset of hearing loss and audiogram type. However, at the Battle of Trafalgar, the British defeated a combined fleet of French and Spanish ships in October 1805, and destroyed most of the French fleet. England, meanwhile, used her superior navy to blockade the French coasts from all shipping.
Traditional forms of law practiced in the various European regions were discarded and the Napoleonic Code enforced. The judges are not free to rewrite the law, interpret the law, or change the consequences of breaking that law. If the the jury finds the defendant guilty, the judge gives them the guidelines within which they can choose a penalty. Metternich was the glue that held Europe together, but he held to a hard, unbending absolutism as the only viable form of government. I can somewhat circumvent the hearing loss with the hearing aid I was fitted with last month but there is no such device for vestibular damage. Sudden hearing loss may be idiopathic but also significant differential diagnoses must be considered. Additional evidence of that type of etiology is indicated by the fact that patients had substantial hearing improvement with mono steroid treatment.
Otorhinolaryngologists make efforts to treat the sudden sensorineural hearing loss according to the established etiologic courses as viral, vascular or viral-vascular combination (11-15).
Effects of anoxia result in changes in the cochlea microphonics with loss of the action potential. So the combination of immune-mediator (Isoprinosine), corticosteroid (Methylprednisolon) and vasodilator (Cavinton) proved to be effective in treatment of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Treatment aimed at the possible etiologic agent might be beneficial only in the very early phase of the hearing loss. Britain was to give up most of the areas won in the wars and France was to leave Naples and restore Egypt to the Ottoman Empire. The treaty gave to France all of Austriaa€™s lands in Bavaria and Italy and brought the end to the 1,000 year old Holy Roman Empire. The jury chooses the penalty they believe to be appropriate for that particular case and involving only the evidence brought before them during the trial. The jury chooses theA  penalty they believe to be appropriate for that particular case and involving only the evidence brought before them during the trial. The audiometric patterns from the pure tone audiometry were variable with mild to profound hearing losses.
Support for a viral theory is the antecedent history of a viral upper respiratory infection and epidemic of viral diseases, such as parainfluenza, mumps, varicella, rubeola, and adenovirus infections.
Despite restoration of the cochlea blood flow, loss of endocochlear potentials may be irreversible after 30 minutes (4). The French ship building industry and rope manufacturing were severely harmed by the British blockade. It does not, however, make room for interpreting the law and what the consequences should be based upon (1) circumstances, (2) what prior courts decided in similar cases, or (3) what a jury decides.
Common Law makes room for interpreting the law and what the consequences should be, based upon (1) the circumstances, (2) what prior courts decided in similar cases, but (3) only within the boundaries given to them by the judge. The patients, included in our study, did not have in their history any of these well-established courses or mentioned upper diseases. The entire examined group had tinnitus, which preceded the hearing loss by several hours with usually a roaring quality. Patients treated by the same course of corticosteroids and vasodilators and in addition immune-modulator – Isoprinosine – 3g per day (3x2 tabl.) for a period of 5 days.
Histological analyses of temporal bones from patients who suffered from sudden sensorineural hearing loss displayed atrophy of the organ of Corti, stria vascularis and tectorial membrane. Hearing recovery in profound losses tends to occur in the low tones, which correlates with involvement at the apex of the cochlea rather than the basal end.
Etiology of the sudden sensorineural hearing loss includes as well viral, vascular and viral-vascular combination. The arterial supply to the cochlea is such that the basal turn is fed first by the main cochlear artery with the cochlear apex fed last.
Patients in our study reported antecedent history of upper respiratory infection within a month or less of onset of the hearing loss. Haemaglutination and slaging of blood may occur when virus particles attach to erythrocytes. The findings in animal models of hearing loss of vascular origin prove extensive cochlear fibrosis and ossification.
The viruses of mumps, measles, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, adenoviruses and influenza deserve particular attention in view of their clearly demonstrated etiologic role in sudden sensineural hearing loss.
In the histological findings the organ of Corti was absent throughout the cochlea; the stria vascularis was atrophic throughout. The spiral ganglion cells were considerably decreased in the basal turn and somewhat decreased in the apical turn. Patients with measurable speech discrimination scores on presentation uniformly improved with treatment, even if their pure tone-average was profound. I have inspired multitudes with such an enthusiastic devotion that they would have died for me . The cutaneus lesions associated with herpes zoster infections make this form of viral neurinitis and ganglionitis relatively easy to diagnose clinically and to relate etiologically the sudden sensorineural loss to the virus (6).
Presence of vertigo is associated with more severe losses and represents a greater insult to the labyrinth and those patients recover worse. The patients with vertigo passed observation for nystagmus, static and kinetic tests, posturography and ENG. The vascular endothelium is invaded and inclusion bodies may be seen in the endothelial cells in viral diseases. Application of combination of steroid, vasodilator and immunostimulater significantly improves the recovery outcomes in cases of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. When I saw men and spoke to them, I lightened up the flame of self-devotion in their hearts. There is, however, overall hyperemia at the site of inflammation and total effective blood flow may not be altered.
Infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes occurs.
Necrosis of neuroepithelium may occur and is indicated by hyperchromatism, fragmentation and lysis of nuclei (5).
Christ alone has succeeded in so raising the mind of man toward the unseen, that it becomes insensible to the barriers of time and space.
The most common route of access of viral particles to the inner ear is a viremia in the early phase of viral illness in which virions are deposited within the membranous cochlea. Across a chasm of eighteen hundred years, Jesus Christ makes a demand which is beyond all others difficult to satisfy; He asks for that which a philosopher may often seek in vain at the hands of his friends, or a father of his children, or a bride of her spouse, or a man of his brother. Isoprinosine was used to support the mechanism of immune answer to the foreign agent – the virions and to reduce the damage of the cochlea structures.
Medications like Acyclovir may be unhelpful when the cause is a virus that is not in the herpes family, that’s why Isoprinosine is favored.
In defiance of time and space, the soul of man, with all its powers and faculties, becomes an annexation to the empire of Christ. The corticosteroids, as well, have an anti-inflammatory effect on the organ of Corti and the microvasculature. All who sincerely believe in Him, experience that remarkable, supernatural love toward Him. This phenomenon is unaccountable; it is altogether beyond the scope of man's creative powers. Time, the great destroyer, is powerless to extinguish this sacred flame; time can neither exhaust its strength nor put a limit to its range.



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