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Terminology of vascular conditions can be confusing, with several lesions being incorrectly named or classified.
A paediatric dermatologist, paediatrician, vascular specialist or surgeon should assess significant infantile capillary malformations or proliferative haemangiomas, especially when large, symptomatic (eg ulcerated), located on the head and neck or close to eye, nose or mouth. Venous maliformations – glomovenous malformation, arteriovenous malformations, blue rubber bleb syndrome (associated gastrointestinal lesions).
Naevus anaemicus – in this naevus, blood flow is interrupted resulting in pale areas.
Angiomas are benign tumours formed by dilation of blood vessels or formation of new ones by proliferation of endothelial cells. Infantile proliferative haemangioma (capillary, cavernous or mixed): proliferates in the first few weeks of life, followed by involution later in childhood. Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma is a rare aggressive haemangioma that results in platelet trapping — the Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon. Venous lake: blue or purple compressible papule due to venous dilation, often on lower lip or ear. Pyogenic granuloma occurs in children and young adults on skin and mucosa, most often lower lips, fingers and toes in response to a minor, often unnoticed, injury.
Bacillary angiomatosis is a rare opportunistic bacterial infection due to Rochalimaea henselae.
Prominent cutaneous blood vessels can be physiological or pathological (eg feeding a tumour such as basal cell carcinoma, a common sign of rosacea, and required to make the diagnosis of the CRST variant of systemic sclerosis and the telangiectasia eruptiva macularis perstans form of mastocytosis).
Spider angioma or spider telangiectasis consists of central arteriole and radiating capillaries.
Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia: telangiectasia on skin and mucous membranes associated with bleeding from nose and gut causing anaemia. Kaposi sarcoma: due to Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) and immunosuppression, eg infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Below is a list of the most common vascular disorders seen in children waiting for forever families. Strawberry hemangiomas are bright red, raised areas that develop soon after birth and enlarge slowly during the first several months of life. Causes:Doctors still do not know what causes the blood vessels to group together, although there may be a hereditary component involved. With port wine stain, clusters of blood vessels in the skin cause light pink to dark red spots on the skin.
Possible complications:Neurologic problems can be present when port-wine stain is associated with a disorder such as Sturge-Weber syndrome. Vascular dementia is a decline in thinking skills caused by conditions that block or reduce blood flow to the brain, depriving brain cells of vital oxygen and nutrients. Vascular changes that start in brain areas that play a key role in storing and retrieving information may cause memory loss that looks very much like Alzheimer's disease. In vascular dementia, changes in thinking skills sometimes occur suddenly following strokes that block major brain blood vessels. Vascular brain changes often coexist with changes linked to other types of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Vascular dementia is widely considered the second most common cause of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, accounting for 20 to 30 percent of cases.
Symptoms can vary widely, depending on the severity of the blood vessel damage and the part of the brain affected. These changes may happen at the same time as more familiar physical stroke symptoms, such as a sudden headache, difficulty walking, or numbness or paralysis on one side of the face or the body.
Multiple small strokes or other conditions that affect blood vessels and nerve fibers deep inside the brain may cause more gradual thinking changes as damage accumulates.
Because vascular cognitive impairment may often go unrecognized, many experts recommend professional screening with brief tests to assess memory, thinking and reasoning for everyone considered to be at high risk for this disorder. If brief screening tests suggest changes in thinking or reasoning, a more detailed assessment is needed. There is no evidence that factors other than vascular changes are contributing to cognitive decline.
The guidelines also discuss cases where the diagnosis may be less clear-cut, such as the common situation where vascular changes coexist with brain changes associated with other types of dementia. As with Alzheimer's disease, advancing age is a major risk factor for vascular cognitive impairment or dementia. Additional risk factors are the same ones that raise risk for heart problems, stroke and other diseases that affect blood vessels. Controlling risk factors that may increase the likelihood of further damage to the brain's blood vessels is an important treatment strategy. Individuals should work with their physicians to develop the best treatment plan for their symptoms and circumstances.


Formed in 1980, the Alzheimer's Association is the world's leading voluntary health organization in Alzheimer's care, support and research. Try our free question-and-answer service about basic health issues affecting children, from babies to teens. Congenital heart abnormalities are irregularities in the heart's structure that are present at birth as a result of faulty development of the heart. When the heart is functioning normally, a large artery called the aorta carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle of the heart to the body. The aortic arch has three major vessels that supply the upper body and head with oxygenated blood. The aorta may be repaired surgically in an operating room or by a cardiac catheterization procedure. An aberrant subclavian artery, also called arteria lusoria, is a common form of aortic arch anomaly in the normal population (0.5 percent). In comparison, the left subclavian artery usually arises from the arch of the aorta at a very specific point.
Figure 8: The diagram on the left is the normal branching configuration for the right subclavian artery.
Blood returns from the body to the right atrium, the chamber on the upper right side of the heart.
A ventricular septal defect is another congenital heart abnormality seen in PHACE syndrome.
Numerous other heart abnormalities are seen in PHACE syndrome but there is no clear pattern or consistent increase in infants with PHACE syndrome.
Most ventricular septal defects can be diagnosed on physical exam, due to their characteristic murmur. Most ventricular septal defects are surgically repaired by patching the opening between the ventricles. SEO Friendly Articles: How Does Internal Carotid Artery Supply Blood to Heart and All Adjacent Parts? It grows rapidly and may become pedunculated or polypoid and surrounded by collarette of normal skin.
There are some named conditions in which telangiectasia is (or telangiectases are) characteristic. Very common in healthy individuals, but more arise in response to oestrogen, eg pregnancy, liver disease. There are 4 types lead to multiple purple macules, papules and plaque on skin and mucous membranes.
Often an aggressive cancer, it mostly presents in elderly people with spreading purple patches and plaques that may bleed and ulcerate. Symptoms include swelling of the arms or legs, restricted motion, pain, or hardening of the skin on the arms and legs. Treatment focuses on reducing the swelling and controlling the pain and may include exercise, compression garments or massage. The color and roughness of the mark can be lightened by laser treatments from a dermatologist in some cases. The brain has one of the body's richest networks of blood vessels and is especially vulnerable. Thinking problems also may begin as mild changes that worsen gradually as a result of multiple minor strokes or other conditions that affect smaller blood vessels, leading to cumulative damage.
Several studies have found that vascular changes and other brain abnormalities may interact in ways that increase the likelihood of dementia diagnosis. Memory loss may or may not be a significant symptom depending on the specific brain areas where blood flow is reduced. Individuals at highest risk include those who have had a stroke or a transient ischemic attack (TIA, also known as a "ministroke"). Depression commonly coexists with brain vascular disease and can contribute to cognitive symptoms. The Alzheimer's Association is one of the most trusted resources for information, education, referral and support for Alzheimer's and other types of dementia.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved any drugs specifically to treat symptoms of vascular dementia, but there is some clinical trial evidence that certain drugs approved to treat Alzheimer's may also offer a modest benefit in people diagnosed with vascular dementia. There's substantial evidence that treatment of risk factors may improve outcomes and help postpone or prevent further decline. Some data suggest that those who develop dementia following a stroke survive three years, on average. It is shaped like a candy cane, with the first section moving up from the heart toward the head, called the ascending aorta. The three arteries that branch off are the innominate artery (also called brachiocephalic artery), the left common carotid artery and the left subclavian artery.


A heart murmur is a noise caused by the turbulence of blood flowing through a narrow or malformed region. It is much more common in children diagnosed with PHACE syndrome, occurring in as many as 15 percent. Normally, the right subclavian artery arises from another artery, named the innominate artery; however, the right subclavian artery can sometimes branch off of the left aortic arch and run behind the esophagus. When the left subclavian artery branches off from an atypical location on the aorta, an aortic diverticulum (pouch-like enlargement) at the site of attachment can occur (diverticulum of Kommerell). The right diagram shows an aberrant branching for the right subclavian artery coming off of the aortic arch and causing pressure as it passes behind the trachea.
In the fetal heart, most of the blood flows from the right atrium to the left atrium through an opening called the foramen ovale. The heart can sometimes be seen or felt to be beating hard because of the extra work it is performing. Lymphedema occurs when the lymph vessels are unable to adequately drain lymph fluid, usually from an arm or leg. Children with birthmarks including the eyelid should be seen by a doctor as this may indicate other problems or obstruct the sight from that eye. A growing number of experts prefer the term "vascular cognitive impairment (VCI)" to "vascular dementia" because they feel it better expresses the concept that vascular thinking changes can range from mild to severe.
Sign up for our enews to receive updates about Alzheimera€™s and dementia care and research. Additional high-risk groups include those with high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or other risk factors for heart or blood vessel disease. As with other stroke symptoms, cognitive changes may sometimes improve during recovery and rehabilitation from the acute phase of a stroke as the brain generates new blood vessels and brain cells outside the damaged region take on new roles. The narrowed area is either surgically removed or made larger with the help of surrounding structures or a patch. Aberrant means that it is "out of place," so in this case, the subclavian artery is branching off the aorta out of place. Babies may continuously breathe fast or hard and have a fast heart rate if they have this condition.
These defects can involve the walls of the heart, the valves of the heart and the large arteries and veins near the heart. Sometimes, coarctation can cause differences in blood pressure where the blood pressure is higher in the upper body due to increased blood flow and lower in the lower body due to decreased blood flow. Like the aberrant right subclavian artery, the aberrant left subclavian artery also runs behind the esophagus and pushes it towards the sternum (towards the front).
It is responsible for separating the two chambers of the heart and conducting the electrical impulses of the heart.
This may not always be the case, especially in infants with PHACE syndrome, because of the high risk of artery malformations. During this procedure, the child is sedated and a small, thin, flexible tube (catheter) is inserted into a blood vessel in the groin and guided to the inside of the heart. The vast majority of people with aberrant subclavian arteries do not have symptoms and do not require any treatment. PFOs occur in about 25 percent of all births and are even more common in newborns with PHACE syndrome.
The most common defect in PHACE syndrome is coarctation of the aorta (narrowing of the aorta) which impairs the ability of oxygenated blood to reach the body. If a coarctation of the aorta is suspected, the physician will order an echocardiogram or MRA of the heart and aortic arch which will show the anatomy of the aorta and evaluate for other cardiac anomalies.
Once the catheter is in the heart, the cardiologist will pass an inflated balloon through the narrowed section of the aorta to stretch the area open. If the artery is pushing on or compressing the trachea (wind pipe) it may cause persistent coughing or stridor (see Airway Compression section). Mild symptoms of esophageal compression may respond to diet modifications, such as eating soft foods in small amounts. These holes in the ventricular septum result in abnormal movement of blood from the left to the right ventricle, called shunting. A small device, called a stent, may also be placed in the narrowed area after the balloon dilation to keep the aorta open. Usually the narrowed region is in the aortic arch and often occurs with aneurysms or ballooning of nearby sections. Imaging of the aortic arch may appear as beads on a string, with alternating narrowed segments and ballooned segments.



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