Birmingham to london fuel cost,end your life quote,books on greek life - PDF 2016

Hard X-rays can penetrate solid objects, and their largest use is to take images of the inside of objects in diagnostic radiography and crystallography. The roentgen (R) is an obsolete traditional unit of exposure, which represented the amount of radiation required to create one electrostatic unit of charge of each polarity in one cubic centimeter of dry air. The rad is the (obsolete) corresponding traditional unit, equal to 10 millijoules of energy deposited per kilogram.
The sievert (Sv) is the SI unit of equivalent dose, which for X-rays is numerically equal to the gray (Gy). X-rays are generated by an X-ray tube, a vacuum tube that uses a high voltage to accelerate the electrons released by a hot cathode to a high velocity. In crystallography, a copper target is most common, with cobalt often being used when fluorescence from iron content in the sample might otherwise present a problem. X-ray fluorescence: If the electron has enough energy it can knock an orbital electron out of the inner electron shell of a metal atom, and as a result electrons from higher energy levels then fill up the vacancy and X-ray photons are emitted. So the resulting output of a tube consists of a continuous bremsstrahlung spectrum falling off to zero at the tube voltage, plus several spikes at the characteristic lines. In medical diagnostic applications, the low energy (soft) X-rays are unwanted, since they are totally absorbed by the body, increasing the dose. To generate an image of the cardiovascular system, including the arteries and veins (angiography) an initial image is taken of the anatomical region of interest. A specialized source of X-rays which is becoming widely used in research is synchrotron radiation, which is generated by particle accelerators.
The most commonly known methods are photographic plates, photographic film in cassettes, and rare earth screens. Before the advent of the digital computer and before invention of digital imaging, photographic plates were used to produce most radiographic images.
Since photographic plates are sensitive to X-rays, they provide a means of recording the image, but they also required much X-ray exposure (to the patient), hence intensifying screens were devised. Areas where the X-rays strike darken when developed, causing bones to appear lighter than the surrounding soft tissue.
Contrast compounds containing barium or iodine, which are radiopaque, can be ingested in the gastrointestinal tract (barium) or injected in the artery or veins to highlight these vessels. An increasingly common method is the use of photostimulated luminescence (PSL), pioneered by Fuji in the 1980s.
The PSP plate can be reused, and existing X-ray equipment requires no modification to use them.
For many applications, counters are not sealed but are constantly fed with purified gas, thus reducing problems of contamination or gas aging. Some materials such as sodium iodide (NaI) can "convert" an X-ray photon to a visible photon; an electronic detector can be built by adding a photomultiplier. The event will showcase UK and International projects, programmes and policies on mobile, stationary and storage applications.
There will also be a brokerage event running alongside the conference, offering the opportunity of prearranged meetings with potential partners and customers.
This process produces an emission spectrum of X-ray frequencies, sometimes referred to as the spectral lines. The intensity of the X-rays increases linearly with decreasing frequency, from zero at the energy of the incident electrons, the voltage on the X-ray tube.
A second image is then taken of the same region after iodinated contrast material has been injected into the blood vessels within this area. The contrast compounds have high atomic numbered elements in them that (like bone) essentially block the X-rays and hence the once hollow organ or vessel can be more readily seen. In modern hospitals a photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP plate) is used in place of the photographic plate. Concentrating on those already delivering to market and on demonstration projects which are facilitating the move to commercialisation. The spectral lines generated depend on the target (anode) element used and thus are called characteristic lines.
These two images are then digitally subtracted, leaving an image of only the iodinated contrast outlining the blood vessels.
Photographic film largely replaced these plates, and it was used in X-ray laboratories to produce medical images.
In the pursuit of a non-toxic contrast material, many types of high atomic number elements were evaluated. After the plate is X-rayed, excited electrons in the phosphor material remain "trapped" in "colour centres" in the crystal lattice until stimulated by a laser beam passed over the plate surface. Electrons accelerate toward the anode, in the process causing further ionization along their trajectory.
Owners are proud of their cars but this is often difficult to convey to other enthusiasts who have never heard of Crossley, much less the model: Regis.
The radiologist or surgeon then compares the image obtained to normal anatomical images to determine if there is any damage or blockage of the vessel. In more recent years, computerized and digital radiography has been replacing photographic film in medical and dental applications, though film technology remains in widespread use in industrial radiography processes (e.g. For example, the first time the forefathers used contrast it was chalk, and was used on a cadaver's vessels.
This process, known as a Townsend avalanche, is detected as a sudden current, called a "count" or "event". An elderly chap looking at my Regis - albeit, in Australia - commented that he did not know that Crossley made anything as new as my Regis - he obviously knew of the older, large cars for which Crossley Motors is famous.
When the film is developed, the parts of the image corresponding to higher X-ray exposure are dark, leaving a white shadow of bones on the film. The following account explains the facts of what a Regis actually is and gives the history of the car and how it was developed. Photographic plates are mostly things of history, and their replacement, the "intensifying screen", is also fading into history.
Details of the SpecificationA and other aspect of the Regis areA covered to help Owners to keep their cars "on the road". The metal silver (formerly necessary to the radiographic & photographic industries) is a non-renewable resource.


Thus it is beneficial that this is now being replaced by digital (DR) and computed (CR) technology.
The new model was first described by the motoring press in August 1934 and showed a more modern style of car but with some rather a€?angulara€? features. Where photographic films required wet processing facilities, these new technologies do not. The magazine incorrectly stated that the new bodyA  was to be the new standard body for the (new) Ten chassis. The body was a smarter, more modern design than the Ten although not quite as long as the subsequent Regis and possibly Gordon Macandrew saw this body and decided he could have a better one designed. FS 9998 was the result.A This car is the special bodied car built by RanalaghA for the March 1934 RAC Bournemouth Rally, illustrated in The Autocar of 23rd March 1934. The later Regis of C F Beauvais design was slightly longer to provide a larger boot and also accommodate the six-cylinder engine option of the Regis.
However, by the time the Crossley Regis appeared at the 1934 Motor Show, it was basically the same as Mr McAndrewa€™s car, Crossley having engaged Mr Beauvais to tidy up their body to the New Avon design. This became the standard Crossley Regis available in Ten and Twelve horsepower versions until the end of car production in 1937. Note the more angular coachwork when compared to the Beauvais-designed Regis Sports Saloon. These views are from Veteran and Vintage Magazine archives.A The chassis itself was modified from the Ten style basically in the shape of the main chassis side members. The older Crossley Tens had a parallel chassis to the rear engine mountings when the chassis angled sharply outwards to provide parallel side members from just behind the engine to the rear of the car. This allowed the older style of body, with a full-width scuttle, to be supported by the chassis.
The Regis body, however, tapered from the a€?Ba€? post of the body towards the radiator and was supported on timber main sills that tapered to a point level with the rear engine mounts. The rather heavier Regis model probably prompted Crossleys to offer the larger 12hp version to regain a€“ and surpass - the performance of the earlier Tens. UD 6393 was registered on 6th Novemebr 1934 and the Regis Sport Saloons cars were already at 100051 by 3rd November 1934 so both types of Regis were usingdifferent chassis number series it would seem.. See Chassis List page for more details.The first 100 chassis included Ten and Twelve horsepower cars. Mr J R I Crossley, one of the family members involved in the Crossley car empire, states, in correspondence to Motoring Historian, the late Michael Sedgwick, that a€?about six interim modelsa€? were built. In the records maintained by the Crossley Register, which includes some car details taken from the surviving records of Council Registration Records, the highest chassis number of cars shown within the four cylinder sequence is 100504.
Similarly, no numbers are on record within the six cylinder sequence 100901 to 100999, suggesting that none were made within this series. Six cylinder cars were, however, continued from 101001 upwards, the highest recorded being 101043, a registration record. Actual cars known to exist in this area are 101036 the 1936 Motor Show Twelve horsepower car (used by a Register Member until sold in 1968) and 101041 an existing car in preservation. Under the circumstances, the number of Regises built may vary between about 900 and 1050, depending on whether or not the gaps mentioned were actually a€?gapsa€? and not just a lack of information. In this context, Coventry Climax engines used in the Regis had the chassis numbers of the cars to which they were originally fitted stamped on the edge of their flywheels. A six cylinder engine has been found in Australia, JMC 155, showing a chassis number 100900.
This does not, unfortunately, prove that other cars were built with numbers within the 900 series.A A Several people have heard the story about a Regis being smuggled out of the Factory and being built in a garage workshop.
This illegal act was discovered when the owner wanted spares and the chassis numberA quoted had not been issued by the Factory.
Perhaps this more than rumour was actually a car quoted in the 100901 - 100999 series before the Factory had actually reached those numbers!A From the chassis numbers listed in the "Chassis List" page of this website, Cars between 1 and 100 were built in both 10 and 12hp versions. Taking the 10 hp cars as 100101 to 100504 gives us 404 cars plus the 20 from the first 100 series and that gives us 424 cars.
With the 12 hp cars, 100601 to 101043 gives us 443 cars but the possible absence of the 900 series not being used reduces this to 343 cars. This suggests, since the final number made may well be higher than 100504 - for 10 hp cars or 101043 for 12 hp cars. Let usA estimate that 425 cars were built of both 10 hp and 12 hp cars - a total of 850 vehicles.
A select band of quality cars.A A four cylinder a€“ Ten horsepower a€“ car exists as chassis number 100121. It was owned by an ex-Factory Foreman, Mr Jacques of Bury, Lancashire and had quarter lights operated by small wheels instead of the sliding locks normally fitted to the Regis - similar sliding locks were fitted to Jaguar XJ 6a€™s until recently.
The a€?wheela€? operation of quarter lights was used by the German firm Borgward in their a€?Isabellaa€? models of the 1950a€™s and early 60a€™s. Chassis 100039 (The late Ron Wilsdona€™s car, ABY 690 had the same quarter light treatment.) Such an item on the Regis may have been included as an added a€?attractiona€? to patrons at a Motor Show similar to the a€?cutawaya€? cars at modern Shows and the chromed chassis used by Crossley for some of its larger models at earlier Motor Shows.
Rumour has it that these latter items ended up as fill for the bomb craters within the Works during World War 2.
What a terrible shame!A In Australia, the Regis types were supplied without bodies since this reduced import duty for the imported chassis. Bodies were often supplied by Ruskin Motor Bodies of Melbourne but some of the Motor Show cars displayed at the Melbourne International Motor Show in June each year had bodies to the UK design and may have been fully imported vehicles. Ruskins at least, had a design of their own for the Regis body, similar bodies being also built on Triumph Gloria chassis.
In the Coach and Motor Body Builder of Australia and New Zealand, a Trade Journal, a design is illustrated in a 1935 edition for a six-light body on a Regis chassis, again quite different from the UK outline (a four light design) and advertised as a a€?streamlinea€? version.
The Company was at the forefront of bright two-tone liveries on the Regis, having a second colour picking out the mudguards and running board and also the raised relief above the aluminium beading just below window level and continuing over the doors and windscreen. To avoid overstating the colours, when two extremely contrasting colours were used, such as maroon (Tuscan Red) and fawn (Desert Sand) the secondary colour, fawn, was used only on the raised relief and not on the mudguards and running boards. In all cases, the raised concentric circle section of the wheel discs were also painted in the lighter colour.
Anecdotal evidence from different people indicates that Crossley Motors were well known as offering two tone a€?brighta€? colurs on their cars of the 1930a€™s and covers the Crossley Ten era as well as the later Regis.


My own Regis, bodied by Ruskin MotorA Bodies of Melbourne, Australia, was originally dark green (Bottle Green) overpainted white at a later date.
The wheels, however, had been painted silver on their outer sides only and the interior faces were what appeared to be an original duck egg blue although in slightly different shades due to weathering. In August, 1934, the Industry magazines described the squarer a€?interima€? design in great detail. On the Motor Show stand for that year, Crossley exhibited both the a€?interima€? and Beauvais-designed cars. After about January 1935, no further mention of a€?Regisa€? appears and only the Beauvaismodels were available a€“ in 10 and 12hp form.
Later adverts appear to have been more general with comments such as a€?A precision built Crossleya€? or a€?A car with no nonsensea€?.. The Motor Show adverts for the 1935 Show used the theme of a€?Make a point of seeing the New Crossleysa€?, the illustration being a light-coloured Regis. Cook and Palmer, the main Crossley distributors for Londonused a drawing of a Regis with the slogan a€?To try it is to buy ita€?.
Some of these adverts have been available on ebay using the a€?Art Decoa€? slogan by the dealers selling them.A Letters to customers from Crossley Motors suggest that cars were not available sometime between January 1937 and September 1937, this latter date stating that the cars were not available due to other commitments of the Factory.
However, whilst not being confirmation of the end of production, it is interesting to note that The Motor magazine of 5th October 1937 carried an advert for Regis 4 and 6 cylinder cars as well as the 3 litre 20.9hp Sports Saloon. Cost 365, accept 215.a€? The advert was illustrated with a fine three quarter front offside view of the Beauvias Three litre saloon! So much for advertising standards!A Brochures were always available for the Regis and appeared for the four cylinder a€“ red and gold and six cylinder cars a€“ blue and white.
Right to the end of production, however, the illustration of the chassis in these brochures showed the dash area to be that of the original a€?interima€? model a€“ rather similar to the old Crossley Ten.
The support for the dashboard showed the holes to allow glove boxes to be fitted in the dashboard itself so that the a€?interima€? model must have differed from the Regis Sports Saloon in this area as well. Even in the brochures for the 1936 cars where the 1640cc engine was mentioned, this a€?interima€? style of chassis was shown. From the outside, the car illustrated was invariably a light coloured car with a four cylinder grill a€“ even though the brochure was specifically for the six cylinder model. Pass and Joyce were agents with showrooms in London and Manchester a€“ having also been involved with competing with a Ten in the RAC Rally to Torquay a€“ leading to one version of the Ten having this model name.
Cook and Palmer in London advertised themselves for Regis sales and Gordon C McAndrew of Edinburgh who actually had the body design that lead to the Crossley Regis itself, was an agent until the Company stopped car production in mid 1937.A The Coronation Edition of The Autocar of May 1937 included a well-known Crossley advert showing a Regis, a Mancunian Streamline bus and a six-wheeled trolley bus in a coloured, glossy page establishing a€“ rather than actually advertising a€“ Crossleya€™s involvement in both car and commercial vehicle manufacture. The artista€™s illustration showed a hybrid version of the Regis a€“ neither the a€?interima€? nor Beauvais versions! The winning car referred to in the advert had been, however, a Crossley Ten of 1933 although this was not specified to the buying public. This has some truth in the context that they did buy some cars back that were offered for sale so that they could update the cars used by their staff.
For example, BTD 272, the Maroon 1936 show car, chassis 101036, was registered on 1st November 1936 and purchased by Harwoods Ltd, the haulage and taxi firm in Darwen,Lancashire for use as a taxi.
They sold the car back to Crossleys in November 1940 and it was then used by Mr Whittaker, a bus salesman until about 1955. It would be unlikely and uneconomic for the Company to have literally a€?bought backa€? all their production so this shows the practical aspect of this rumour. Whilst used by Mr Whittaker, the car was registered in his name but when he left the Company in 1955, it was Crossley Motors who sold the car to The Prince of Wales Motor Company of Moss Side, Manchester.
This firm was operated by Mr Small, one time employee of Crossley Motors who had travelled with the Prince of Walesa€™ overseas tours to service his fleet of Crossley cars. The car later ended up with a Mr Foster of Newton Heath, Manchester who raised the height of the rear shackles to tow a trailer with competition motor bikes that he used in Isle of Man TT Races.
By this time it was painted black and regrettably ended its days requiring some body repairs when the roof of the garage where it was stored collapsed on it. After the first twelve months or so, the Company was receiving more Military vehicle orders as well as commercial vehicle orders, mainly buses and space was at a premium at Gorton. Orders for the Regis were not high in number and it was decided by the Board of Directors to work on a three monthly basis of building these cars. Despite this, construction continued until well into 1937 after which it ceased completely.
During early 1936, all finishing work on vehicles was carried out at the Companya€™s Hyde Factory although few Regis cars were taken there since production was by then running at a low level.
Engines were number MC1501 upwards for four cylinder 1122cc units and the six cylinder engines were numbered JM 1xx upwards denoting 1476cc units.
Late in production, a larger six cylinder engine of 1640cc was introduced and these were numbers JMC 101 upwards.
All the engines were of the inlet over exhaust configuration.Bodies were built on wheeled bucks and only transferred to their chassis when the main frame and panelling was completed, mudguards and running boards then assembled during the finishing process. Flooring and trimming and wiring was done once the body and chassis were joined.A The body was usually built by a team of workers with coachbuilding skills to a high standard - as often stated in the Crossley Motors publicity and Trade Press descriptions. Registrations in the chassis list show a Regis registration in April 1937 which would fit into this time slot. However, lack of accurate registration and sales information does not reveal an actual date at this stage and such statements are made with this in mind. Michael Eyre, (Part Author of a€?Crossleya€?) points out that Sales Staff are not known for their definitive statements amd may well say whatever they need to say to make a sale or explain why a sale is not possible at a certain time. This car has been mentioned with its photograph in the Crossley Registera€™s Newsletter but no other information is available.A The late Michael Wylie, an automotive historian in Belfast has tried to find more information for me without success, before he passed away but, as he rightly said, Ireland has not a great liking for Crossley due to their use by the hated Black and Tans in the history of Ireland.
So much so that the Crossley Tender features sinisterly in various songs and verse recording these events. This car was owned by Crossley Motors and was Chassis Number 100019 which would date it as 1934 but the car was not registered until 1936, presumably for the Rally. Gallery 1 Gallery 2 Gallery 3 Gallery 4 Gallery 5 Chassis List Handbook Instruction Manual Specification.



Life coach business cards 6.99
The science of getting rich gujarati

birmingham to london fuel cost



Comments to «Birmingham to london fuel cost»

  1. anceli writes:
    Loyalty or adore once the lottery is over.
  2. Elen writes:
    Functions known as Extensibility makes it possible for developers the energy.
  3. Vista writes:
    Hold onto the side that says that you will.
  4. qaqani writes:
    Rest of the prize fund is awarded drawing, officials randomly choose seven distinct numbers from 1 to 49 time.
  5. NapaleoN writes:
    Won a $10 million lottery jackpot in August, and claims overcome limiting beliefs or previous trauma, and.